Skip to main content Accessibility help
Weather Cycles
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 27
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This completely updated new edition of Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary? explores in detail the unresolved debate on the existence of weather cycles. The book examines the competing arguments for observed effects being due to natural variability, solar activity and the Earth's orbital parameters. It provides a different perspective on one of the most difficult questions in the current global warming debate: namely, just how much of the recent temperature rise can be attributed to natural causes? Only by understanding how the climate can change of its own accord, and whether observed shifts are part of a set of predictable patterns, will it be possible to reach a reliable judgement on how much impact human activities are having. This book examines the complex analysis required to assess the evidence for cycles with a minimum of mathematics. This comprehensive and balanced account will appeal to the student and expert alike.


‘… a book whose clarity and breadth of vision set it apart.’

Source: Scientific American

‘… will be invaluable not just to anyone interested in weather cycles but to students involved in analysis of any varying phenomena - which means everyone from population biologists to astrophysicists.’

John Gribbin Source: New Scientist

‘… will serve the general reader interested in the weather and its changes as well as the working atmospheric scientist. Burroughs uses a minimum of mathematics, rendering the book accessible to the layperson.’

Richard A. Anthes Source: Science

‘The book is clear and logically presented … an enjoyable and informative read … deserves a wide readership.’

David Pike Source: The Observatory

‘I enjoyed reading it, I learnt a lot, and will refer back to it as further developments in the study of the earth’s climate unfold.’

Dave Wheeler Source: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

‘ … neatly written and excellently presented piece of popular science.’

Source: The Times Higher Education Supplement

‘If there ever were such a thing as a meteorological thriller, Burroughs came close to writing one....Every meteorologist and climatologist caught in the predictability dilemma should have this affordable book on his/her nightstand or, better yet, in the suitcase marked for summer vacation.’Elmar R. Reiter, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

‘ … a scholarly, college-level compilation of the latest scientific facts, combined with history documenting the failure to locate reliable weather cycles. In so doing, Burroughs succeeds in separating unreliable statistics and technical information from more consistent studies reflecting weather patterns.’

Source: Bookwatch

‘The information is presented with a minimum of mathematics and can be enjoyed by general readers.’

Source: A.E. Staver, Choice

‘ … does give a good overview of the analysis of climatic data, the attempted reconstruction of past climates, and some of the theories of climatic change.’Edward A. Brotak, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

'I would encourage readers interested in weather cycles to use this book as a good source of primary material …'.

Source: Weather

'The book deserves to be widely read, and will be of value to students and researchers in meteorology and climatology. it should also appeal to environmental scientists in general.'

Source: Geography

'It is a comprehensive and balanced account that will appeal to students and experts alike.'

Source: Environmental Geology

'Burroughs has written an interesting book. The book is written in a language that is readable for every scientist and a vast majority of lay people.'

Source: Meteorologische Zeitschrift

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Annotated bibliography
Climatology and Climatic Change
Barry, R. G. & Chorley, R. I. (1998). Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. London: Routledge
Bradley, R. S. & Jones, P. D. (eds.) (1995). Climate since AD 1500. London: Routledge
Burroughs, W. J. (1997). Does the Weather Really Matter? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Burroughs, W. J. (2001). Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Diaz, H. F. & Markgraf, V. (eds.) (2000). El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Fritts, H. C. (1976). Tree Rings and Climate. London: Academic Press
Gregory, S. (ed.) (1988). Recent Climatic Change. London: Belhaven Press
Grove, J. M. (1988). The Little Ice Age. Methuen, London
Herman, J. R. & Goldberg, R. A. (1978). Sun, Weather and Climate. Detroit: Grand River Books
Imbrie, J. & Imbrie, K. P. (1979). Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. London: Macmillan
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001). Climatic Change: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (For details of the earlier assessment reports, see the references.)
Labitzke, K. G. & van Loon, H. (1999). The Stratosphere: Phenomena, History and Relevance. New York: Springer-Verlag
Lamb, H. H. (1972, 1977). Climate – Present, Past and Future, Vols 1 and 2. London: Methuen
Philander, S. J. (1990). El Niño, La Niña and the Southern Oscillation. London: Academic Press
Trenberth, K. E. (ed.) (1992). Climate System Modelling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tyson, P. D. (1986). Climatic Change and Variability in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press
Evidence of periodicities
Alley, R. B. (2000). The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change and Our Future. Princeton University Press
Baillie, M. G. L. (1995). A Slice Through Time: Dendrochronology and Precision Dating. London: Batsford
Pecker, J. C. & Runcorn, S. K. (1990). The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun over Recent Millennia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Rampino, M. R., Sanders, J. E., Newman, W. S. & Konigsson, L. K. (1987). Climate History, Periodicity and Predictability. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
Chaos theory
Gleick, J. (1988). Chaos: Making a New Science. London: Heinemann
Lorenz, E. N. (1993). The Essence of Chaos. London: UCL Press
Stewart, I. (1989). Does God Play Dice? The Mathematics of Chaos. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Bloomfield, P. (2000). Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction, 2nd Edn. New York: John Wiley
Craddock, J. M. (1968). Statistics in the Computer Age. London: English University Press
Kendall, M. (1976). Time Series. London: Charles Griffin
Panofsky, H. A. & Brier, G. W. (1958). Some Applications of Statistics to Meteorology. Pennsylvania State University Press
Abbas, M. A. &Latham, J. (1969). The electrofreezing of supercooled water drops. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 47, 65–74
Allan, R. J. (2000). ENSO and climatic variability in the past 150 years. In El Niño and the Southern Oscillation, ed. H. F. Diaz & V. Markgraf, pp. 3–55. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Alley, R. B., et al. (1993). Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature, 362, 527–9
Ambaum, M. P. H., Hoskins, B. J. &Stephenson, D. B. (2001). Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation?J. Climate, 14, 3495–507
Ammann, C. M. &Naveau, P. (2003). Statistical analysis of tropical explosive volcanism occurrences over the last 6 centuries. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, No. 5, 1210, doi: 10.1028/2002GLO16388
Appenzeller, C., Stocker, T. F. &Anklin, M. (1998). North Atlantic Oscillation dynamics recorded in Greenland ice cores. Science, 282, 446–9
Baillie, M. G. L. (1995). A Slice Through Time: Dendrochronology and Precision Dating. London: Batsford
Baldwin, M. P., et al. (2001). The quasi-biennial oscillation. Rev. Geophys., 32, 179–229
Baldwin, M. P., et al. (2003). Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science, 301, 636–40
Baliunas, S., Frick, P., Sokoloff, D. &Soon, W. (1997). Time scales and trends in the Central England Temperature data (1659–1990): a wavelet analysis. Geophys. Res., Lett., 24, 1351–4
Barnola, J. M., et al. (1987). Vostok ice core provides 160 000 year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature, 329, 410–16
Barnston, A. G. &Livezey, R. E. (1989). A closer look at the effect of the 11-year solar cycle and the quasi-biennial oscillation on Northern Hemisphere 700 mb height and extratropical North American surface temperature. J. Climate, 2, 1295–313
Bath, M. (1974). Spectral Analysis in Geophysics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co
Battisti, D. S., &Hirst, A. C. (1989). Interannual variability in the tropical atmosphere–ocean system: influence of the basic state and ocean geometry. J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 1687–712
Behera, S. K. &Yamagata, T. (2001). Subtropical SST dipole events in the southern Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 327–30
Benzi, R., Parisi, G., Sutera, A. &Vulpiani, A. (1982). Stochastic resonance in climatic change. Tellus, 34, 10–16
Berger, A. (1990). Relevance of medieval Egyptian and American dates to the study of climatic and radiocarbon variability. In The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun over Recent Millennia, ed. J. C. Pecker and S. K. Runcorn, pp. 119–29. London: Royal Society
Berger, A. Melice, J. L. & van der Mersch, I. (1990). Evolutive spectral analysis of sunspot data over the past 300 years. In The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun over Recent Millennia, eds. J. C. Pecker and S. K. Runcorn, pp. 131–42. Royal Society, London
Beveridge, W. H. (1921). Weather and harvest cycles. Econ. J., 31, 429–47
Biondi, F., Gershunov, A. &Cayan, D. R. (2001). North Pacific decadal climate variability since AD 1661. J. Climate, 14, 5–10
Bjerknes, J. (1969). Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 163–72
Black, D. E., et al. (1999). Eight centuries of North Atlantic Ocean atmosphere variability. Science, 286, 1709–13
Blunier, T. &Brook, E. J. (2001). Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period. Science, 291, 109–12
Bond, G. C. &Lotti, R. (1995). Iceberg discharges into the North Atlantic on millennial time scales during the last deglaciation. Science, 267, 1005–10
Bond, G., et al. (1992). Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period. Nature, 360, 245–9
Bond, G., et al. (1997). A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial climates. Science, 278, 1257–65
Bond, G., et al. (2001). Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Science, 294, 2130–6
Briffa, K. R., et al. (1990). A 1400-year tree-ring record of summer temperatures in Fennoscandia. Nature, 346, 434–9
Briffa, K. R., et al. (1995). Unusual twentieth-century summer warmth in a 1000-year temperature record from Siberia. Nature, 376, 156–9
Broecker, W. S. (1975). Climate change: are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?Science, 189, 460–3
Broecker, W. S. (1994). Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature, 372, 421–5
Broecker, W. S. (1995). Chaotic climate. Sci. Am., 267, No. 11, 44–50
Broecker, W. S. (1997). Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles Heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance?Science, 278, 1582–8
Broecker, W. S. (1998). Paleocean circulation during the last deglaciation: a bipolar seesaw?Paleoceanography, 13, 119–21
Burroughs, W. J. (1978). On running means and meteorological cycles. Weather, 33, 101–9
Burroughs, W. J. (1982). Why do cold Decembers in England come at the end of each century?Weather, 37, 205–6
Burroughs, W. J. (1997). Does the Weather Really Matter? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Campbell, I. D., et al. (2000). Millennial-scale rhythms in peatlands in the western interior of Canada and in the global carbon cycle. Quatern. Res., 54, 321–7
Cavalieri, D., Gloersen, P., Parkinson, D. L., Cosimo, J. C. &Zwally, H. J. (1997). Observed hemispheric symmetry in global sea ice changes. Science, 278, 1104–6
Chapman, M. J. &Shackleton, N. J. (2000). Evidence of 550-year and 1000-year cyclicities in North Atlantic circulation patterns during the Holocene. The Holocene, 10, 287–91
Clegg, S. L. &Wigley, T. M. L. (1984). Periodicities in precipitation in Northeast China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 1219
CLIMAP Project Members (1976). The surface of the ice-age Earth. Science 191, 1131–7
Cobb, K. M., Charles, C. D. &Hunter, D. E. (2001). A central tropical Pacific coral demonstrates Pacific, Indian and Atlantic decadal climate connections. Geophys. Res., Lett., 28, 2209–12
Cobb, K. M., Charles, C. D., Cheng, H. &Edwards, R. L. (2003). El Niño/Southern Oscillation and tropical climate during the last millennium. Nature, 424, 271–6
Cohen, T. J. &Lintz, P. R. (1974). Long term periodicities in the sunspot cycle. Nature, 250, 398–400
Cohen, T. J. &Sweetser, E. I. (1975). The ‘spectra’ of the solar cycle data for Atlantic tropical cyclones. Nature, 256, 295–6
Cole, J. E., Dunbar, R. B., McClanahan, T. R. &Muthiga, N. A. (2000). Tropical Pacific forcing of decadal SST variability in the western Indian Ocean over the past two centuries. Science, 287, 617–19
Cook, E. R., Briffa, K. R., Meko, D. M., Graybill, D. A. &Funkhouser, G. (1995). The ‘segment length curse’ in long tree-ring chronology development for palaeoclimatic studies. The Holocene, 5, 229–37
Cook, E. R., Meko, D. M. &Stockton, C. W. (1997) A new assessment of possible solar and lunar forcing of the bidecadal drought rhythm in the western United States. J. Climate, 10, 1343–56
Craddock, J. M. (1968). Statistics in the Computer Age. London: English University Press
Crowley, K. D., Duchan, C. E. &Rhi, J. (1986). Climate record in varved sediments in Eocene Green River formation. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 8637–48
Currie, R. G. (1981). Evidence of 18.6 year MN signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 11055–64
Currie, R. G. (1987). In Climate History, Periodicity and Predictability, ed. M. R. Rampino, J. E. Sanders, W. S. Newman, & L. K. Konigsson, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
Currie, R. G. (1993). Luni-solar 18.6- and solar cycle 10- to 11-year signals in USA air temperature records. Int. J. Climatol., 13, 31–50
Currie, R. G. &Brien, D. P. (1988). Periodic 18.6 year and cyclic 10- to 11-year signals in the Northest United States precipitation data. Int. J. Climatol., 8, 255–81
Czaja, A. &Frankignoul, C. (2002). Observed impact of Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 31–50
Dansgaard, W. & Oeschger, H. (1989). In The Environmental Record in Glaciers and Ice Sheets, ed. H. Oeschger, H. & Langway, C. C., pp. 287–318. Chichester, UK: Wiley
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S. J., Clausen, H. B. & Langway, C. C. (1973). Climatic record revealed by Camp Century ice core. In The Late Cenozoic Ice Ages, ed. K. K. Turekian, pp. 37–56. Yale: Yale University Press
Dansgaard, W., et al. (1993). Evidence of general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature, 364, 218–20
Geer, G. (1929). Solar registration by pre-Quaternary varve-shales. Geogr. Ann. 11, 242–6
Mare, W. K. (1997). Abrupt mid-twentieth-century decline in Antarctic sea-ice extent from whaling records. Nature, 389, 57–60
Delworth, T. L. (1996). North Atlantic interannual variability in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate, 9, 2356–75
Delworth, T. L. &Mann, M. E. (2000). Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Clim. Dynam., 16, 661–76
Delworth, T. L., Manabe, S. &Stouffer, R. J. (1997). Multidecadal climate variability in the Greenland Sea and surrounding regions: a coupled model simulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 257–60
Denton, G. H. &Karlén, W. (1973). Holocene climate variations – their pattern and possible cause. Quatern. Res., 3, 155–205
Diaz, H. F. & Markgraf, V. (eds.) (2000). El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Diaz, H. F., Hoerling, M. P. &Eischeid, J. K. (2001). ENSO variability: teleconnections and climate change. Int. J. Climatol., 21, 1845–62
Dombros, M. & Gongbing, P. (1988). The Climate of China. New York, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag
Dommenget, D. &Latif, M. (1999). Interannual to decadal variability in the tropical Atlantic. J. Climate, 13, 777–92
Douglass, A. E. (1919). Climate Cycles and Tree Growth. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington
Dunbar, R. B., Wellington, G. M., Colgan, M. W. &Glynn, P. W. (1994). Eastern Pacific sea-surface temperature since 1600 AD from the delta 18O record of climate variability in Galapagos corals. Paleoceanography, 9, 291–315
Dyer, T. G. J. (1978). Persistence and monthly mean temperatures over Central England. Weather, 33, 141–8
Eddy, J. A. (1976). The Maunder minimum. Science, 192, 1189–202
Eddy, J. A., Gilliland, R. L. &Hoyt, D. V. (1982). Changes in the solar constant and climatic effects. Nature, 300, 689–93
Eden, C. &Willebrand, J. (2001). Mechanism of interannual to decadal variability of the North Atlantic Circulation. J. Climate, 14, 2266–2280
Egbert, G. D. &Ray, R. D. (2000). Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data. Nature, 405, 775–8
Eichkorn, S.Wilhelm, S.Aufmhoff, H.Wohlfrom, K. H. &Arnold, F. (2002). Cosmic ray-induced aerosol-formation: First observational evidence from aircraft-based ion mass spectrometer measurements in the upper troposphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2002GLO15044
Elsner, J. B. &Tsonis, A. A. (1991). Do bidecadal oscillations exist in the global temperature record?Nature, 353, 551–3
Eltahir, E. A. B. &Wang, G. (1999). Nilometers, El Niño, and climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 489–92
Elton, C. S. (1924). Periodic fluctuations in the number of animals: their causes and effects. Br. J. Exp. Biol. 2, 119–63
Emiliani, C. (1955). Pleistocene temperatures.J. Geology, 63, 538–78
Enfield, D. B., Mestas-Nuñez, A. M. &Trimble, P. J. (2001). The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S.Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2077–80
Esper, J.Cook, E. R. &Schweingruber, F. H. (2002). Low frequency signals in long tree ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science, 295, 2250–3
Evans, M. N., et al. (2001). Support for tropically-driven Pacific decadal variability based on paleoproxy evidence. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3689–92
Federov, A. al. (2003). How predictable is El Niño?. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 911–19
Folland, C. K. &Salinger, M. J. (1997). Surface temperature trends and variations in New Zealand and the surrounding ocean. Int. J. Climatol., 15, 1195–218
Foukal, P. &Lean, J. (1990). An empirical model of total solar irradiance variation between 1874 and 1986. Science, 247, 556–8
Gagan, M. K., et al. (1998). Temperature and surface-ocean water balance of the mid-Holocene tropical western Pacific. Science, 279, 1014–18
Gallego, G. &Cressi, P. (2001). Decadal variability of two oceans and an atmosphere. J. Climate, 14, 2815–32
Ganopolski, A. &Rahmstorf, S. (2002). Abrupt glacial climate changes due to stochastic resonance. Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 038501-1–4
Giovanelli, R. (1984). Secrets of the Sun. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Gleissberg, W. (1958). The eighty-year sunspot cycle. J. Br. Astron. Assoc, 68, 148–52
Gong, D. &Wang, S. (1999). Definition of Antarctic Oscillation Index. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 459–62
Gordon, A. H. (1976). The frequency distribution of changes in mean temperature from one month to the next. Weather, 31, 197–200
Graham, N. E. &White, W. B. (1988). The El Niño cycle: a natural oscillator of the Pacific Ocean–atmosphere system. Science, 240, 1293–302
Gray, W. M. (1990). Strong association between West African rainfall and US landfall of intense hurricanes. Science, 249, 1251–6
Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) Members (1993). Climate instability during the last interglacial period recorded in the GRIP ice core. Nature, 364, 203–7
Gribbin, J. (1982). Stand by for bad winters. New Sci., 28 October, 220–3
Grootes, P. M. &Stuiver, M. (1997). Oxygen 18/16 variability in Greenland snow and ice with 10-3 to 105 year time resolution. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26 455–67
Grootes, P. M., Stuiver, M., White, J. W. C., Johnsen, S. &Jouzel, J. (1993). Comparison of oxygen isotope records from the GISP 2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores. Nature, 366, 552–4
Grove, J. M. (1988). The Little Ice Age. Methuen
Haigh, J. D. (1999). A GCM study of climate change in response to the 11-year solar cycle. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 871–92
Haigh, J. D. (2000). Solar variability and climate. Weather, 55, 399–405
Hameed, S., et al. (1983). An analysis of periodicities in the 1470 to 1979 Beijing precipitation record. Geophys. R. Lett., 10, 436–9
Harrison, G. (2002). Twentieth century secular decrease in the atmospheric potential gradient. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2002GL014878
Hastenrath, S. (2002). Dipoles, temperature gradients, and tropical climate anomalies. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 735–8
Hastenrath, S. &Heller, L. (1977). Dynamics of climatic hazards in Northeast Brazil. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 103, 77–92
Hays, J. D., Imbrie, J. &Shackleton, N. J. (1976). Variations in the Earth's orbit: pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Science, 194, 1121–32
Heinrich, H. (1988). Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years. Quatern. Res., 29, 142–52
Henderson-Sellers, A. (1992). Continental cloudiness changes this century. GeoJournal, 27, 255–62
Hendon, H. H., Liebmann, B. &Glick, J. D. (1998). Oceanic Kelvin waves and the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 88–100
Herbert, T. D., et al. (2001). Collapse of the California current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land. Science, 293, 71–6
Hibler, W. D. III &Johnson, S. J. (1972). The 20-year cycle in Greenland ice core records. Nature, 280, 429–34
Holton, J. R. &Lindzen, R. S. (1972). An up-dated theory of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation in the tropical stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1076–1080
Hurrell, J. W. (1995). Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676–8
Hurrell, J. W. (1996). Influences of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 665–8
Ichi-Kuma, K. (1990). A QBO in the intensity of the intraseasonal oscillation. Int. J. Climatol., 10, 263–78
Imbrie, J. &Imbrie, J. Z. (1980). Modelling the climatic response of orbital variations. Science, 207, 943–53
Imbrie, J., et al. (1992). On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles. 1. Linear responses to Milankovitch forcing. Paleoceanography, 7, 701–38
Imbrie, J., et al. (1993a). On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles. 2. The 100,000 year cycle. Paleoceanography, 8, 699–735
Imbrie, J., Mix, A. C. &Martinson, D. G. (1993b). Milankovitch theory viewed from Devil's Hole. Nature, 363, 531–3
IPCC (1990). Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, ed. J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins & G. G. Ephraums. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
IPCC (1992). Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to IPCC Scientific Assessment, ed., J. T. Houghton, B. A. Callander & S. K. Varney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
IPCC (1994). Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, ed. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, Hoesung Lee, B. A. Callendar, E. Haites, N. Harris, & K. Maskell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
IPCC (1995). Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, ed. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callendar, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg & K. Maskell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
IPCC (2001). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, ed. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell & C. A Johnson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Isdale, P. J., Stewart, B. J., Tickle, K. S. &Lough, J. M. (1998). Palaeohydrological variation in a tropical river catchment: a reconstruction using fluorescent bands in corals of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The Holocene, 8, 1–8
James, I. N. &James, P. N. (1989). Ultra-low frequency variability in a simple atmospheric circulation model. Nature, 342, 53–5
Jiang, N.Neelin, J. D. &Ghil, M. (1995). Quasi-quadrennial and quasi-biennial variability in the equatorial Pacific. Climate Dynam., 12, 101–12
Kalnay, E., et al. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437–71
Kerr, R. A. (1988). Sunspot-weather link holding up. Science, 242, 1124
Kiehl, J. T. &Trenberth, K. E. (1997). Earth's annual global mean energy budget. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 197–208
Kniveton, D. R. &Todd, M. C. (2001). On the relationship of cosmic ray flux and precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1527–30
Kwok, R. &Comiso, J. (2002). Southern ocean climate and sea ice anomalies associated with the southern oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 487–501
Labitzke, K. (2001). The global signal of the 11-year sunspot cycle in the stratosphere: differences between solar maxima and solar minima. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 10, 901–8
Labitzke, K. & van Loon, H. (1990). Association between the 11-year solar cycle, the quasi-biennial oscillation and the atmosphere: a summary of recent work. In The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun over Recent Millennia, ed. J. C. Pecker and S. K. Runcorn, pp. 179–82. London: Royal Society
Labitzke, K. & van Loon, H. (1999). The Stratosphere: Phenomena, History and Relevance. New York: Springer-Verlag
Lamb, H. H. (1972). Climate: Present, Past and Future. Volume 1. London: Methuen
Lamb, P. J. (1978). Large-scale tropical Atlantic circulation patterns associated with Subsaharan weather anomalies. Tellus, 30, 240–1
Lambert, D. (1988). The Cambridge Guide to the Earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Landsberg, H. E., et al. (1963). Surface signs of the biennial atmospheric pulse. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91, 549–56
Landsea, C. W., Gray, W. M., Mielke, P. W. Jr &Berry, J. K. (1994). Seasonal forecasting of Atlantic hurricane activity. Weather, 49, 273–84
Latif, M. (2001). Tropical Pacific/Atlantic Ocean interactions at multi-decadal time scales. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 539–42
Lau, K.-M., Kim, K- M. &Shen, S. S. P. (2002). Potential predictability of seasonal precipitation over the United States from canonical ensemble correlation predictions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1–4
Lean, J. L. (2000). Evolution of the sun's spectral irradiance since the Maunder minimum. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2425–28
Lean, J. L. &Rind, D. (2001). Earth's response to a variable sun. Science, 292, 234–6
Lean, J. L., White, O. R., Livingston, W. C. &Picone, J. M. (2001). Variability of a composite chromospheric irradiance index during the 11-year activity cycle and over longer time periods. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 10645–58
Lejenas, H. (1995). Long term variations of atmospheric blocking in the northern hemisphere. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 73, 79–89
Lejenas, H., &Okland, H. (1983) Characteristics of Northern Hemisphere blocking as determined from a long time series of observational data. Tellus, 35A, 350–62
Roy Ladurie, E. &Baulant, M. (1980). Grape harvests from the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries. J. Interdisciplin. Hist., 10, 839–49
Lindstrom, J. (1997). Solar activity and hare dynamics: a cross-continental comparison. Am. Natural., 149, 765–75
Lindzen, R. S. (1987). On the development of the theory of the QBO. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc, 68, 329–37
Linsley, B. K., Wellington, G. M. &Schrag, D. P. (2000). Decadal sea surface temperature variability in the subtropical South Pacific from 1726 to 1997 AD. Science, 290, 1145–8
Liu, H. S. &Chao, B. F. (1998). Wavelet spectral analysis of the Earth's orbital variations and palaeoclimatic cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 227–36
Lockwood, M. &Stamper, R. (1999). Long term drift in the coronal source magnetic flux and total solar irradiance. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2461–5
Lockwood, M., Stamper, R. &Wild, M. N. (1999). A doubling of the Sun's coronal magnetic field during the last 100 years.Nature, 399, 437–9
Lorenz, E. N. (1963). Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 20, 130–41
Lu, al. (2000) Variability of East Asian winter monsoon in Quaternary climatic extremes in North China. Quatern. Res., 54, 321–7
Lundin, R., Eliasson, L. & Murphree, J. S. (1991). The quiet time aurora. In Auroral Physics, ed. C.-I. Meng, M. J. Rycroft & L. A. Frank. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Luterbacher, al. (2002). Extending the North Atlantic Oscillation reconstructions back to 1500. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 2, 114–24
Madden, R. A. &Julian, P. R. (1971). Detection of a 40–50 day oscillation in the zonal wind in the tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 702–8
Madden, R. A. (1972). Description of global-scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40–50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1109–23
Madden, R. A. (1994). Observations of the 40–50 day tropical oscillation: a review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 814–37
Manabe, S. &Stouffer, R. J. (1988). Two stable equilibria of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Climate, 1, 841–66
Manley, G. (1974). Central England temperatures: monthly means 1659 to 1973. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 100, 389–405
Mantua, N. J., Hare, S. R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., &Francis, R. C. (1997). A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 1069–79
Marcus, P. S., Sommeria, J., Meyers, S. D. &Swinney, H. L. (1990). Models of the Great Red Spot, Nature, 343, 517–18
Markson, R. (1978). Solar modification of atmospheric electrification and possible implications for the Sun–weather relationship. Nature, 244, 197–200
Marshall, J., et al. (2001). North Atlantic climate variability: phenomena, impacts and mechanisms, Int. J. Climatol., 21, 1863–98
Martinson, D. G., et al. (1987). Age dating and the orbital theory of ice ages: development of a high-resolution 0 to 300,000 years chronostratigraphy. Quatern. Res., 27, 1–29
Mason, B. J. (1976). Towards the understanding and prediction of climatic variations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 102, 478–98
Maunder, E. W. (1922). The prolonged sunspot minimum 1645–1715. J. Br. Astron. Assoc., 32, 140–5
May, B. R. &Hitch, T. J. (1989). Periodic variations in extreme hourly rainfall in the UK. Meteorol. Mag., 118, 45–50
McDermott, F., Mattey, D. P. &Hawkesworth, C. (2001). Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem δ18O Record from SW Ireland. Science, 294, 1328–31
McPhaden, M. J., Delcroix, T., Hanawa, K., Kuroda, Y., Meyers, G. Picaut, J. & Swenson, M. (2001). The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) observing system. In Observing the Ocean in the 21st Century, pp. 231–46. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Mitchell, J. M. (1990) Climatic variability: past, present & future. Climatic Change, 16, 231–46
Mitchell, J. M., Stockton, C. W. & Meko, D. M. (1979). Evidence of a 22-year rhythm of drought in the Western United States related to the Hale Solar Cycle since the 17th century. In Solar–Terrestrial Influences on Weather and Climate, ed. B. M. McCormac & T. A. Seliga, pp. 125–43. D. Reidel Publishing Co
Mitton, S. M. (ed.) (1977). Cambridge Encyclopedia of Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Mock, S. J. &Hibler, W. D. III (1976). The 20-year oscillation in American temperature records. Nature, 261, 484–6
Montgomery, R. B. (1940). Report on the work of G. T. Walker. Mon. Wea. Rev., Supp. No. 39, 1–22
Muller, R. A. &MacDonald, G. J. (1997). Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing. Science, 277, 215–18
Namias, J. (1985). Some empirical evidence of influence of snow cover on temperature and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 1542–53
Neff, U., et al. (2001). Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6 kyr ago. Nature, 411, 290–3
Neftel, A., Oeschger, H. &Suess, H. E. (1981). Secular non-random variations of cosmogenic carbon-14 in the terrestrial atmosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 56, 127–47
Newell, N. E., Newell, R. E., Hsuing, J. &Wu, Z. (1989). Global marine temperature variation and the solar magnetic cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, 311–14
Nicholas, F. J. &Glasspoole, J. (1932). General monthly rainfall for England and Wales, 1727 to 1931. Br. Rainfall, 1931, 299–306
Nobre, P. &Shukla, J. (1996). Variations of sea surface temperature, wind stress, and rainfall over the tropical Atlantic and South America. J. Climate, 9, 2464–79
Oeschger, H. & Beer, J. (1990). In the past 5000 years history of solar modulation of cosmic radiation from 10Be and 14C studies. The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun over Recent Millennia, ed. J. C. Pecker and S. K. Runcorn, pp. 73–82. London: Royal Society
Oix, et al. (1999). Spectral analysis of a 1000-year stalagmite lamina-thickness record from Shihua Cavern, Beijing, China, and its climatic significance. The Holocene, 9, 689–94
Okal, E. &Anderson, D. L. (1975). On the planetary theory of sunspots. Nature, 253, 511–13
Oliver, R., Ballester, J. L. &Baudin, F. (1998). Emergence of magnetic flux on the Sun as the cause of a 158-day periodicity in sunspot areas. Nature, 394, 552–3
Paillard, D. (1998). The timing of Pleistocene glaciations from a simple multiple-state model. Nature, 391, 378–81
Palmer, T. (1993). A nonlinear dynamical perspective on climate change. Weather, 48, 314–25
Parker, D. E., Legg, T. P. &Folland, C. K. (1992). A new daily Central England temperature series, 1772–1991. Int. J. Climatol. 12, 317–42
Pestiaux, P., et al. (1988). Paleoclimatic variability at frequencies ranging from one cycle per 20 kyr to one cycle per kyr: evidence of non-linear behaviour of the climate system. Climate Change, 12, 9–37
Peterson, R. G. &White, W. (1998). Slow oceanic teleconnections linking the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave with tropical ENSO. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 24573–83
Petit, J. R., et al. (1999). Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature, 399, 429–36
Philander, S. G. H. (1983). El Niño Southern Oscillation. Nature, 302, 295–301
Philander, S. G. H. (1990). El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation. New York: Academic Press
Pittock, A. B. (1978). A critical look at long term sun–weather relationships. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 16, 400–20
Pittock, A. B. (1983). Solar variability, weather and climate: an update. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 109, 23–55
Plaut, G., Ghil, M. &Vautard, R. (1995). Interannual and interdecadal variability in 335 years of Central England temperatures. Science, 250, 324–7
Pool, R. (1989). Ecologists flirt with chaos. Science, 243, 310–13
Rahmstorf, S. (2003). Timing of abrupt climate change: A precise clock. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, No. 10, 1510, doi 10.1029/2003GLO17115
Rahmstorf, S. &Alley, R. (2002). Stochastic resonance in glacial climate. Eos, 83, 129–35
Raisbeck, G. M., Yiou, F., Jouzel, J & Petit, J. R. (1990). 10Be and δH in polar ice cores as a probe of the solar variability's influence on climate. In The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun over Recent Millennia, eds. J. C. Pecker and S. K. Runcorn, pp. 65–72. London: Royal Society
Rajagopalan, B., Kushnir, Y. &Torre, Y. M. (1998). Observed decadal midlatitude and tropical atlantic variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3967–70
Ram, M. &Stolz, M. (1999). Possible solar influences on the dust profile of the GISP2 ice core from central Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1043–6
Ram, M.Stolz, M. &Koenig, G. (1997). Eleven-year cycle of dust concentration variability observed in the dust profile of the GISP2 ice core from central Greenland: possible solar cycle connection. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2359–62
Ramanathan, R., et al. (1989). Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: results of the Earth radiation budget experiment. Science, 243, 57–63
Rampino, M. R., Sanders, J. E., Newman, W. S. & Konigson, L. K. (1987). Climate: History, Periodicity and Predictability. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
Rex, D. F. (1950). Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effects on regional climate. Tellus, 2, 196–211 (Part I), 275–301 (Part II)
Rind, D. (2001). The Sun's role in climatic variations. Science, 296, 673–7
Roberts, W. O. &Olson, R. H. (1973). Geomagnetic storms and wintertime 300 mb trough development in the North Pacific–North America area. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 135–40
Robertson, A. W., Mechoso, C. R. &Kim, Y.-J. (2000). The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 122–38
Rodwell, M. J.Rowell, D. P. &Folland, C. K. (1999). Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398, 320–3
Roosen, R. G., Harrington, R. S., Giles, J. &Browning, I. (1976). Earth tides, volcanoes and climate change. Nature, 261, 680–2
Ropelewski, C. F. &Halpert, M. S. (1987). Global and regional scale preciptation patterns associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1606–26
Ropelewski, C. F., Halpert, M. S. &Wang, X. (1992). Observed tropical biennial variability and its relationship to the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 5, 536–47
Rossow, W. B. &Schiffer, R. A. (1999). Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 2261–87
Ruiz-Barradas, A., Carton, J. A. &Nigam, S. (2000). Structure of interannual-to-decadal climate variability in the tropical Atlantic sector. J. Climate, 13, 3285–97
Saito, K. &Cohen, J. (2003). The potential role of snow cover in forcing interannual variability of the major Northern Hemisphere mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, No. 6, 1302, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016341
Saji, N. J., Goswami, B. N., Vinayachandran, P. N. &Yamagata, T. (1999). A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401, 360–3
Schlesinger, M. E. &Ramankutty, N. (1994). An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65–70 years. Nature, 367, 723–6
Schmutz, C., et al. (2000). Can we trust proxy-based NAO index reconstructions?Geophys. R. Lett., 27, 1135–8
Schonweise, C. D. (1980). Statistical comparison of central England annual and monthly air temperature variability. Meteorol. Mag. 109, 101–12
Schwabe, H. (1844). Solar observations during 1843. Astr. Nachr., 21, 233–48
Shackleton, N. J. &Opdyke, N. D. (1973). Quatern. Res., 3, 39
Shaw, N. (1926–1932). Manual of Meteorology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Shaw, N. (1933). The Drama of the Weather. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Selley, R. C. (1988). Applied Sedimentology. London: Academic Press
Sherratt, A. (1980). Cambridge Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Shindell, D. T., Rind, D., Balachandran, N., Lean, J. &Lonergan, P. (1999). Solar cycle variability, ozone and climate. Science, 284, 305–8
Slingo, J. M., et al. (1996). Intra seasonal oscillations in 15 atmospheric general circulation models: results from an AMIP diagnostic subproject. Clim. Dyn., 12, 325–57
Slingo, J. M., Rowell, D. P.Sperber, K. R. &Nortley, F. (1999). On the predictability of the interannual behaviour of the Madden–Julian Oscillation and its relationship with El Niño. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 583–609
Smith, D. G. (1982). Cambridge Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Sommeria, J., Meyers, S. D. &Swinney, H. L. (1988). A laboratory simulation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. Nature, 331, 374–6
Soon, W. H., Posmentier, E. &Baliunas, S. L. (2000a). Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing?Ann. Geophys., 18, 583–8
Soon, W. H., Baliunas, S. L., Posmentier, E. &Okeke, P. (2000b). Variations in solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower tropospheric temperature from 1979 to mid-1998: astronomical forcings of change in earth's climate?New Astron., 4, 563–79
Steig, E. J. &Alley, R. B. (2002). Phase relationships between Antarctica and Greenland climate records. Ann. Glaciol., 35, 451–6
Stommel, H. (1961). Thermohaline circulation with two stable regimes of flow. Tellus, 13, 224–30
Stone, L., Saparin, P. I., Huppert, A., &Price, C. (1998). El Niño chaos – the role of noise and stochastic resonance on the ENSO cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 175–8
Stuiver, M. &Braziunas, T. F. (1989). Atmospheric 14C and century-scale solar oscillations. Nature, 338, 405–8
Stuiver, M. &Quay, P. D. (1980). Changes in atmospheric carbon-14 attributable to a variable Sun. Science, 207, 11–19
Stuiver, M., et al. (1998). INTCAL98 Radiocarbon age calibration, 24,000–0 cal BP. Radiocarbon, 40, 1041–83
Sturges, W. &Hong, B. G. (2001). Gulf stream transport variability at periods of decades. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, No. 5, 1304–12
Suarez, M. J., &Schopf, P. S. (1988). A delayed action oscillator for ENSO. J. Atmos. Sci. 45, 3283–7
Suess, H. E. &Linick, T. W. (1990). The C record in bristlecone pine wood of the past 8000 years based on the dendrochronology of the late C. W. Ferguson. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A 330, 403–412. (Also published in Pecker, & Runcorn (1990).)
Sutton, R. T. &Allen, M. R. (1997). Decadal predictability of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature and climate. Nature, 388, 563–7
Svensmark, H. andFriis-Christensen, E. (1997). Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage – a missing link in solar–climate relationships. J. Atmos. Solar–Terrestrial Phys., 59, 1225–32
Tabony, R. C. (1979). A spectral filter analysis of long-period records in England and Wales. Meteorol. Mag. 108, 97–119
Takahashi, M. (1999). Simulation of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation in a general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1307–10
Taylor, K. C., et al. (1993). The ‘flickering switch’ of late Pleistocene climate change. Nature, 361, 432–6
Thejll, P. (2001). Decadal power in land air temperatures: is it statistically significant?J. Geophys. Res., 106, 31693–704
Thompson, J. M. T. & Stewart, H. B. (1986). Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos. New York: John Wiley
Thompson, D. W. C., Baldwin, M. P. &Wallace, J. M. (2002). Stratospheric connection to Northern Hemisphere wintertime weather: implications for prediction. J. Climate, 15, 1421–8
Thompson, D. W. J. &Wallace, J. M. (2000). Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13, 409–12
Thompson, D. W. J., Wallace, J. M. &Hegerl, G. C. (2000). Annual modes in the extratropical circulation Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13, 1018–36
Tinsley, B. A. (1988). The solar cycle and the QBO influences on the latitude of storm tracks in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 1000–16
Tinsley, B. A. (1996). Correlations of atmospheric dynamics with solar wind-induced changes of air–earth current density into cloud top. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 29701–14
Tinsley, B. A. & Yu, F. (2002). Effects of particle flux variations on clouds and climate. AGU Monograph Solar Variability and its Effect on the Earth's Atmospheric and Climate System, ed. C. Frolich, H. Hudson, J. Kuhn, J. McCormack, J. North, J. Pap, W. Sprigg, and S. T. Wu
Torrence, C. &Compo, G. P. (1998). A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 61–78
Tourre, Y. M., Rajagopalan, B B..,Kushnir, Y., Barlow, M. &White, W. B. (2001). Patterns of coherent decadal and interdecadal climate signals in the Pacific basin during the 20th century. Geophy. Res. Lett., 28, 2069–72
Trenberth, K. E. (ed.) (1992). Climate System Modelling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tripathi, S. N. &Harrison, R. G. (2002). Enhancement of contact nucleation by scavenging of charged aerosol particles. Atmos. Res., 62, 57–70
Tsien, H. S. (1954). Engineering Cybernetics. New York: McGraw Hill
Tyson, P. D. (1986). Climate Change and Variability in Southern Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Ulrych, T. J. &Bishop, T. N. (1975). Maximum entropy spectral analysis and autoregressive decomposition. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 183–200
Loon, H. &Labitzke, K. (2000). The influence of the 11-year solar cycle on the stratosphere below 30 km: a review. Space Science Rev., 94, 259–78
Loon, H. &Rogers, J. C. (1978). The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part 1: General description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 295–310
Venegas, S. A. (2001). Statistical Methods of Signal Detection in Climate. Danish Center for Earth System Science, University of Copenhagen
Vines, R. G. &Tomlinson, A. I. (1985). The Southern Oscillation and rainfall patterns in the Southern Hemisphere. S. Afr. J. Sci. 85, 151–6
Walker, G. T. (1927). World weather III, Mem. R. Meteorol. Soc., 2, No. 17. London
Walker, G. T. (1928). World Weather. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 54, 79–87
Walker, G. T. (1929). World Weather IV – some applications to seasonal foreshadowing. Mem. R. Meteorol. Soc., 3, No. 24. London
Walker, G. T &Bliss, E. W. (1933). World weather V, Mem. R. Meteorol. Soc., 4, No. 36. London
Wang Shao-Wu & Zhao Zong-ci (1981). Droughts and floods in China 1470–1979. In Climate and History. Studies in Past Climates and their Impact on Man, ed. T. M. L. Wrgley, M. J. Ingram & G. Farmer, pp. 271–88. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Weaver, A. J., Sarachik, E. S. &Marotzke, J. (1992). Freshwater flux forcing of decadal and interdecadal oceanic variability. Nature, 353, 836–8
Webster, P. J., Moore, A. M.Loschnigg, J. P. &Leben, R. R. (1999). Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98. Nature, 401, 356–60
White, W., &Peterson, R. G. (1996). An Antarctic circumpolar wave in surface pressure, wind, temperature, and sea ice extent. Nature, 380, 699–702
Whitlock, C. &Bartlein, P. J. (1997). Vegetation and climate change in northwestern America during the last 125 kyr. Nature, 388, 57–61
Wigley, T. M. L., Lough, J. M. &Jones, P. D. (1984). Spatial patterns of precipitation in England and Wales and a revised homogenous England and Wales precipitation series. J. Climatol., 4, 1–25
Wilcox, J. M.Duffy, P. B.Schatten, K. H.Svalgaard, L.Scherrer, P. S.Roberts, W. O. &Olson, R. (1979). Interplanetary magnetic field polarity and the size of low pressure troughs near 180 degrees west longitude. Science, 204, 60
Williams, E. R. (1992). The Schumann resonance: a global tropical thermometer. Science, 256, 1184
Williams, E. R. (1994). Global circuit response to seasonal variations in global surface air temperature. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1917–29
Williams, G. E. (1981). Sunspot periods in the late Precambrian glacial climate and solar–planetary relations. Nature, 291, 624–8
Williams, G. E. (1986). The solar cycle in Precambrian time. Sci. Am., August, p. 84
Williams, G. E. (1988). Cyclicity in the late Precambrian Elatina Formation, South Australia: solar or tidal signal?Clim. Change, 13, 117–28
Willson, R. (1997). Total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21 and 21. Science, 277, 1963–65
Willson, R. C. &Hudson, H. S. (1991). The Sun's luminosity over a complete cycle. Nature, 351, 42–4
Willson, R. C. &Mordvinov, A. V. (2003). Secular total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21–23. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1199–202
Winograd, I. J. (2002). The California Current, Devils Hole, and Pleistocene climate. Science. 296, 7
Winograd, I. J., Szabo, B. J., Coplen, T. B., &Riggs, A. C. (1988). A 250,000-year climatic record from Great Basin vein calcite: implications for Milankovitch theory. Science, 242, 1275–80
Winograd, I. J., et al. (1992). Continuous 500,000-year climate record from vein calcite in Devil's Hole, Nevada. Science, 258, 255–60
Winograd, I. J., Landwehr, J. M., Ludwig, K. R., Coplan, T. B. &Riggs, A. C. (1997). Duration and structure of the past four interglaciations. Quatern. Res., 48, 141–54
Wunsch, C. (2000). Moon, tides and climate. Nature, 405, 743–4
Yiou, P., Sornette, D. &Ghil, M. (2000). Data-adaptive wavelettes and multi-scale singular-spectrum analysis. Physica D, 142, 254–90
Yule, G. U. (1927). A method of investigating periodicities in disturbed series, with special reference to Wolfe's sunspot numbers. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 226, 267–98
Zebiak, S. E., &Cane, M. A. (1987). A model El Niño/Southern Oscillation, Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 2262–78
Zhang, L. H. &Swinney, H. L. (1985). Non-propagating oscillatory modes in Couette–Taylor flow. Phys. Rev. A, 31, 1006–9


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.