1. , , , et al. Penetrating cardiac injuries: a complex challenge. Surg Today 2001; 31: 1041–53.
2. , , , et al. One hundred five penetrating cardiac injuries: a 2-year prospective evaluation. J Trauma 1998; 44: 1073–82.
3. , , , et al. Penetrating cardiac injuries: a population-based study. J Trauma 1998; 45: 366–70.
4. , , , et al. Penetrating cardiac injuries in America: predictors of outcome in 2016 patients from the National Trauma Data Bank; in preparation. As quoted by , , . Trauma to the heart. In , , eds., Trauma, 6th edition. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2008, pp. 569–88.
5. , , , et al. The role of surgeon-performed ultrasound in patients with possible cardiac wounds. Ann Surg 1996; 223: 737–44.
6. . Advanced Trauma Life Support, 9th edition. Chicago, IL: ACS, 2012.
7. , , . Prehospital pulseless, unconscious penetrating trauma victims: field assessments associated with survival. J Trauma 1998; 45: 96–100.
8. , . In extremis use of a Foley catheter in a cardiac stab wound. J Trauma 1986; 26: 400–2.
9. , , . Cardiac stapling in the management of penetrating injuries of the heart: rapid control of hemorrhage and decreased risk of personal contamination. J Trauma 1993; 34: 711–15.
10. , , . Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine, 4th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2004.
11. , , , . The use of adenosine for repair of penetrating cardiac injuries: a novel method. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 71: 1714–15.
12. , . Acute traumatic mitral valve insufficiency. J Trauma 1999; 47: 165–8.
13. , , . Traumatic heart disease. In , , eds., Braunwald’s Heart Disease a Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2005, pp. 1781–8.
14. , , , et al. Blunt cardiac rupture: a 5-year NTDB analysis. J Trauma 2009; 67: 788–91.
15. , , . The value of echocardiography in blunt chest trauma. J Trauma 1988; 28: 914–22.
16. , , , et al. The use of transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of chest trauma. J Trauma 1992; 32: 761–5.
17. , , , et al. Role of imaging in penetrating and blunt traumatic injury to the heart. Radiographics 2011; 31: E101–15.
18. , , . Blunt rupture of the myocardium. Ann Thorac Surg 1989; 48: 139–42.
19. , . Non-penetrating cardiac and aortic trauma. Heart 1997; 78: 226–9.
20. , . Blunt trauma to the heart and great vessels. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 626–32.
21. , , , et al. Reversible myocardial contraction abnormalities in patients with an acute noncardiac illness. Chest 1998; 114: 98–105.
22. , , , et al. Surgical treatment of acute traumatic tear of the thoracic aorta. Ann Surg 1988; 207: 699–706.
23. , , , et al. Thoracic aorta injuries: management and outcome of 144 patients. J Trauma 1996; 40: 547–55.
24. , , , et al. An autopsy case review of 142 nonpenetrating (blunt) injuries of the aorta. J Trauma 1992; 33: 846–9.
25. , . Delayed presentation and rupture of a posttraumatic innominate artery aneurysm: case report and review of the literature. J Trauma 1997; 42: 1187–95.
26. , , , et al. Minimal aortic injury: a lesion associated with advancing diagnostic techniques. J Trauma 2001; 51: 1042–8.
27. , , , et al. Traumatic aortic injury score (TRAINS): an easy and simple score for early detection of traumatic aortic injuries in major trauma patients with associated blunt chest trauma. Intensive Care Med 2012; 38: 1487–96.
28. , , , et al. Helical CT in emergency radiology. Radiology 1999; 213: 321–39.
29. , , , et al. Thoracic involvement of type A aortic dissection and intramural hematoma: diagnostic accuracy–comparison of emergency helical CT and surgical findings. Radiology 2003; 228: 430–5.
30. , , , et al. Vancouver simplified grading system with computed tomographic angiography for blunt aortic injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012; 144: 347–354.e1.
31. , , , et al. Transesophageal echocardiography for diagnosis of traumatic aortic injury: an appraisal of the evidence. J Trauma 2004; 57: 1246–55.
32. , , , et al.; Open Versus Endovascular Repair (OVER) Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Outcomes following endovascular vs open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a randomized trial. JAMA 2009; 302: 1535–42.
33. , , , et al. Operative repair or endovascular stent graft in blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: results of an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study. J Trauma 2008; 64: 561–71.
34. , , , et al. Diagnosis and treatment of blunt thoracic aortic injuries: changing perspectives. J Trauma 2008; 64: 1415–19.
35. , , , et al. Evolution of treatment for traumatic thoracic aortic injuries. J Vasc Surg 2012; 56: 74–80.
36. , , , et al. Late outcomes following open and endovascular repair of blunt thoracic aortic injury. J Vasc Surg 2011; 53: 615–21.
37. , , , et al. Left subclavian artery coverage during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair does not mandate revascularization. J Vasc Surg 2013; 57: 116–24.
38. , , , et al. Intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery during endovascular repair of traumatic descending thoracic aortic transection. J Vasc Surg 2013; 57: 684–90.e1.
39. , , , et al. Neurological complications after left subclavian artery coverage during thoracic endovascular aortic repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49: 1594–601.
40. , . A modern theory of paraplegia in the treatment of aneurysms of the thoracoabdominal aorta: an analysis of the technique specific observed/expected ratios for paralysis. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49: 1117–24.