Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 7
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: February 2015

9 - Pharmaceutical Patents and the Human Right to Health

from Part III - Transnational Legal Orders and Human Rights Law


Abbott, Frederick M. 2002. The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health: Lighting a Dark Corner at the WTO. Journal of International Economic Law 5:469–505.
Abbott, Frederick M. 2005. The WTO Medicines Decision: World Pharmaceutical Trade and the Protection of Public Health. American Journal of International Law 99:317–358.
Abbott, Frederick M., and Jerome H. Reichman. 2007. The Doha Round’s Public Health Legacy: Strategies for the Production and Diffusion of Patented Medicines under the Amended TRIPS Provisions. Journal of International Economic Law 10:921–987.
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. 2008. Resolution on Access to Health and Needed Medicines in Africa. ACHPR/Res.141 (XXXXIIII).
Bird, Robert, and Daniel R. Cahoy. 2008. The Impact of Compulsory Licensing on Foreign Direct Investment: A Collective Bargaining Approach. American Business Law Journal 45:283–330.
Braithwaite, John, and Peter Drahos. 2000. Global Business Regulation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Buscaglia, Edgardo, and José-Luis Guerrero-Cusumano. 1995. Quantitative Analysis of Counterfeiting Activities in Developing Countries in the Pre-GATT Period. Jurimetrics Journal 35:221–241.
Byrne, Iain. 2009. Enforcing the Right to Health: Innovative Lessons from Domestic Courts. In Realizing the Right to Health, eds. Andrew Clapham and Mary Robinson, 525–538. Zurich: Ruffer & Rub.
Center for Strategic Studies and Debates. 2013. Brazil’s Patent Reform: Innovation towards National Competitiveness.
Chapman, Audrey R. 1998. Conceptualizing the Right to Health: A Violations Approach 65(2):389–418.
Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO Convention). 1967. 21 U.S.T. 1749, 828 U.N.T.S. 3. July 14, as amended on September 28, 1979.
Cordray, Monique L. 1994. GATT v. WIPO. Journal of Patents & Trademarks Official Society 76(2):121–144.
Correa, Carlos M. 2000. Intellectual Property Rights, The WTO and Developing Countries: The TRIPS Agreement and Policy Options. London and New York: Zed Books.
Correa, Carlos M. 2007. Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights: A Commentary on the TRIPS Agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cruz del Valle Bermúdez v. Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social. 1999. Expediente no. 15,789, Corte Suprema de Justicia, Venezuela. July 15.
Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health. 2001. WTO Doha Ministerial Conference, 4th Session. WTO Doc. WT/MIN(01)/DEC/W/2. November 14.
Deere, Carolyn. 2009. The Implementation Game: The TRIPS Agreement and the Global Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dennis, Michael J., and David P. Stewart. 2004. Justiciability of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: Should There Be an International Complaints Mechanism to Adjudicate the Rights to Food, Water, Housing, and Health?American Journal of International Law 98(3):462–515.
Drahos, Peter. 2002. Developing Countries and International Intellectual Property Standard-Setting. Journal of World Intellectual Property 5:765–789.
Drahos, Peter 2010. The Global Governance of Knowledge: Patent Offices and Their Clients. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dreyfuss, Rochelle, and César Rodríguez-Garavito, eds. 2014. Balancing Wealth and Health: Global Administrative Law and the Battle over Intellectual Property and Access to Medicines in Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drezner, Daniel W. 2007. All Politics Is Global: Explaining International Regulatory Regimes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
European Commission Seeks Mandate to Negotiate Major New International Anti-Counterfeiting Pact. 2007. Press Release IP/07/1573. October 23.
Fidler, David P. 1999. International Law and Infectious Diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Forman, Lisa. 2007. Trade Rules, Intellectual Property and the Right to Health. Ethics and International Affairs 21:337–357.
Forman, Lisa 2008. “Rights” and Wrongs: What Utility for the Right to Health in Reforming Trade Rules on Medicines?Health and Human Rights 10:37–52.
Geist, Michael. 2010. ACTA Guide, Part Three: Transparency and ACTA Secrecy
General Comment No. 3. 1991. The Nature of States Parties’ Obligations (Art. 2, Para. 1), UN ESCOR Commission on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, 5th Sess., Supp. No. 3, UN Doc. E/1991/23.
General Comment No. 14. 2000. The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health. UN Doc. E/C.12/2000/4, Article 12.
Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN). 2001. “TRIPs-plus” Through the Back Door: How Bilateral Treaties Impose Much Stronger Rules for IPRs on Life than the WTO. July.
Gervais, Daniel. 2003. The TRIPS Agreement: Drafting History and Analysis. 2nd ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
Govaere, Inge, and Paul Demaret. 2001. The TRIPs Agreement: A Response to Global Regulatory Competition or an Exercise in Global Regulatory Coercion? In Regulatory Competition and Economic Integration: Comparative Perspectives, eds. Daniel C. Esty and Damien Geradin, 364. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grosse Ruse-Khan, Henning. 2011. A Trade Agreement Creating Barriers to International Trade?: ACTA Border Measures and Goods in Transit. American University International Law Review 26:545–726.
Gruskin, Sofia, Michael A. Grodin, Stephen P. Marks, and George J. Annas, eds. 2005. Perspectives on Health and Human Rights. New York: Routledge.
Harris, Donald P. 2006. Carrying a Good Joke Too Far: TRIPS and Treaties of Adhesion. University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law 27:681–755.
Helfer, Laurence R. 1999. Forum Shopping for Human Rights. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 148:285–400.
Helfer, Laurence R. 2003. Human Rights and Intellectual Property: Conflict or Coexistence?Minnesota Journal of Law, Science and Technology 5:47–61.
Helfer, Laurence R. 2004. Regime Shifting: The TRIPs Agreement and New Dynamics of International Intellectual Property Lawmaking. Yale International Law Journal 29:1–83.
Helfer, Laurence R. 2007. Toward a Human Rights Framework for Intellectual Property. U.C. Davis Law Review 40:971–1020.
Helfer, Laurence R., Karen J. Alter, and M. Florencia Guerzovich. 2009. Islands of Effective International Adjudication: Constructing an Intellectual Property Rule of Law in the Andean Community. American Journal of International Law 103:1–46.
Helfer, Laurence R., and Graeme W. Austin. 2011. Human Rights and Intellectual Property: Mapping the Global Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Henkin, Louis, Sarah Cleveland, Laurence R. Helfer, Gerald L. Neuman, and Diane F. Orentlicher. 2009. Human Rights, 2nd ed. New York: Foundation Press.
Hestermeyer, Holger P. 2007. Human Rights in the WTO: The Case of TRIPS and Access to Medicines. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heywood, Mark. 2001. Debunking “Conglomo-Talk”: A Case Study of the Amicus Curiae as an Instrument for Advocacy, Investigation and Mobilisation. Law, Democracy and Development 2:133–162.
Ho, Cynthia M. 2007. A New World Order for Addressing Patent Rights and Public Health. Chicago-Kent Law Review 82:1469–1515.
Ho, Cynthia M. 2009. Patent Breaking or Balancing? Separating Strands of Fact from Fiction under TRIPS. North Carolina Journal of International Law & Commercial Regulation 34:371.
Ho, Cynthia M. 2011. Access to Medicine in the Global Economy: International Agreements on Patent and Related Rights. Oxford University Press
HogerzeilHans V. et al. 2006. Is Access to Essential Medicines as Part of the Fulfillment of the Right to Health Enforceable Through the Courts?Lancet 368:305.
Kapczynski, Amy. 2009. Harmonization and Its Limits: A Case Study of TRIPS Implementation in India’s Pharmaceutical Sector. California Law Review 97:1571–1650.
Katzenberger, Paul, and Annette Kur. 1996. TRIPs and Intellectual Property. In From GATT to TRIPs: The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. Friedrich-Karl Beier and Gerhard Schricker (eds.). New York: Weinheim.
Kinney, Eleanor D., and Brian Alexander Clark. 2004. Provisions for Health and Health Care in the Constitutions of the Countries of the World. Cornell International Law Journal 37:285–355.
Klug, Heinz. 2008. Law, Politics and Access to Essential Medicines in Developing Countries. Policy & Society 36:207–245.
Lazzarini, Zita. 2003. Making Access to Pharmaceuticals a Reality: Legal Options under TRIPS and the Case of Brazil. Yale Human Rights & Development Law Journal 6:103.
Lohr, Steve. 2002. The Intellectual Property Debate Takes a Page from 19th Century America. The New York Times, October 14, C4.
Lutz, Ellen, and Kathryn Sikkink. 2001. The Justice Cascade: The Evolution and Impact of Foreign Human Rights Trials in Latin America. Chicago Journal of International Law 21(2):1–33.
Marks, Stephen P. 2006. Health and Human Rights: Basic International Documents. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Meier, Benjamin M., and Larisa M. Mori. 2005. The Highest Attainable Standard: Advancing a Collective Human Right to Public Health. Columbia Human Rights Law Review 37:101–147.
Muriu, Daniel Wanjau. 2009. Third World Resistance to International Economic and Structural Constraints: Assessing the Utility of the Right to Health in the Context of the TRIPS Agreement. International Community Law Review 11:409–429.
O’Neil Institute for National and Global Health Law. 2013. Global Health and Human Rights Database.
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). 2003. Regionalism and Multilateral Trading Systems.
Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich. 1996–1997. Constitutionalism and International Organizations. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business 17:398–469.
Puckett, A. Lynne, and William L. Reynolds. 1996. Rules, Sanctions and Enforcement under Section 301: At Odds with the WTO?American Journal of International Law 90:675–689.
Raustiala, Kal, and DavidVictor. 2004. The Regime Complex for Plant Genetic Resources. International Organization 58:277–309.
Reichman, J. H. 1997. Enforcing the Enforcement Procedures of the TRIPS Agreement. Virginia Journal of International Law 37:335–356.
Sell, Susan K. 1998. Power and Ideas: North-South Politics of Intellectual Property and Antitrust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sell, Susan K. 2001–2002. TRIPS and the Access to Medicines Campaign. Wisconsin International Law Journal 20:481–522.
Sell, Susan K. 2003. Private Power, Public Law: The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Steinberg, Richard H. 2002. In the Shadow of Law or Power? Consensus-Based Bargaining and Outcomes in the GATT/WTO. International Organization 56(2):339–374.
‘t Hoen, Ellen. 2002. TRIPS, Pharmaceutical Patents, and Access to Essential Medicines: A Long Way from Seattle. Chicago Journal of International Law 3:27–46.
‘t Hoen, Ellen 2005. TRIPS, Pharmaceutical Patents and Access to Essential Medicines: A Long Way from Seattle to Doha. In Perspectives on Health and Human Rights, eds. Sofia Gruskin, Michael A. Grodin, Stephen P. Marks, and George J. Annas. 194–210. New York: Routledge.
‘t Hoen, Ellen 2009. The Global Politics of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power: Drug Patents, Access, Innovation and the Application of the WTO Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health. Dieman, The Netherlands: AMB Publishers.
Toebes, Brigit. 1999. Towards an Improved Understanding of the International Human Right to Health. Human Rights Quarterly 21:661–679.
UK Commission on Intellectual Property Rights. 2002. Final Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property: Integrating Intellectual Property Rights and Development Policy Commission on Intellectual Property Rights.
UNAIDS. 2006. Courting Rights: Case Studies in Litigating the Human Rights of People Living with HIV. UN Doc. UNAIDS/06.01E. March.
Weissbrodt, David, and Schoff, Kell. 2003. A Human Rights Approach to Intellectual Property Protection: The Genesis and Application of Sub-Commission Resolution 2000/7. Minnesota Intellectual Property Review 5:1–47.
World Health Organization. 2010. Essential Medicines List (EML): 30 Years of Vital Health Care. Fact Sheet No. 325. June.
Yamin, Alicia Ely. 2003. Not Just a Tragedy: Access to Medications as a Right under International Law. Boston University International Law Journal 21:325–371.
Yamin, Alicia Ely, and Siri Gloppen. 2011. Litigating Health Rights: Can Courts Bring More Justice to Health? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Yamin, Alicia Ely, and Oscar Parra-Vera. 2009. How Do Courts Set Health Policy? The Case of the Colombian Constitutional Court. Public Library of Science Medicine6:147–150.
Yu, Peter K. 2012. Intellectual Property and Human Rights in the Nonmultilateral Era. Florida Law Review64:1045–1100.