Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: January 2014

7 - Chemistry of Titan's atmosphere


7.1 Introduction

Understanding Titan's atmospheric chemistry is a daunting task because of the multiplicity of chemical as well as physical processes involved. Chemical processes begin with the dissociation and/or ionization of the most abundant species, N2 and CH4, by a variety of energy sources. The energetic species produced further react to generate a plethora of gaseous molecules that will eventually become heavy enough to become organic aerosols. Thus, molecular growth is driven by gas phase reactions involving radicals and positive and negative ions, all possibly in some excited electronic state, as well as by heterogenous chemistry on the surface of the aerosols. The efficiency and outcome of these reactions depend strongly on the physical characteristics of the atmosphere, namely pressure and temperature. Moreover, the distribution of the species is affected by molecular diffusion and vertical and horizontal winds, as well as escape from the top of the atmosphere and condensation in the lower stratosphere. An illustration of Titan's atmospheric chemistry is presented in Figure 7.1.

Our interest in Titan's chemistry started in the 1970s, when it became apparent that the atmospheric CH4-to-H2 ratio was much larger than that in the atmospheres of the giant planets, rendering Titan's atmosphere better suited for the synthesis of organic compounds. However, ground-based observations indicated that CH4 was the principal atmospheric constituent and, because of this, the photochemical models of Allen et al. (1980) and Strobel (1974) were restricted to hydrocarbon chemistry.

Adams, N. G., Poterya, V, and Babcock, L. M. 2006. Electron Molecular Ion Recombination: Product Excitation and Fragmentation. Mass Spec. Rev., 25, 798–828. 10.1002/mas.20084.
Adams, N. G., Mathews, L. D., and Osborne, D. Jr. 2010. Laboratory Chemistry Relevant to Understanding and Modeling the Ionosphere of Titan. Faraday Discuss., 147, 323–335. 10.1039/c003233f.
Agren, K., Wahlund, J.-E., Modolo, R., Lummerzheim, D., et al. 2007. On Magnetospheric Electron Impact Ionisation and Dynamics in Titan's Ram-Side and Polar Ionosphere – a Cassini Case Study. Ann. Geophys., 25, 2359–2369. 10.5194/angeo-25-2359-2007.
Agren, K., Wahlund, J.-E., Garnier, P., Modolo, R., et al. 2009. On the Ionospheric Structure of Titan. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1821–1827. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.04.012.
Agúndez, M., Cernicharo, J., Guelin, M., Kahane, C., et al. 2010. Astronomical Identification of CN-, the Smallest Observed Molecular Anion. Astron. Astrophys., 517, L2. 10.1051/0004-6361/201015186.
Ajello, J. M., Stevens, M. H., Stewart, I., Larsen, K., et al. 2007. Titan Airglow Spectra from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS): EUV Analysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24202. 10.1029/2007GL031555.
Ajello, J. M., Gustin, J., Stewart, I., Larsen, K., et al. 2008. Titan Airglow Spectra from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph: FUV Analysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L06102. 10.1029/2007GL032315.
Allen, M., Pinto, J. P., and Yung, Y. L. 1980. Titan: Aerosol Photochemistry and Variations Related to the Sunspot Cycle. Astrophys. J., 242, L125–L128. 10.1086/183416.
Anicich, V. G. 1993. Evaluated Bimolecular Ion-Molecule Gas Phase Kinetics of Positive Ions for Use in Modeling Planetary Atmospheres, Cometary Comae, and Interstellar Clouds. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22, 1469–1569. 10.1063/1.555940.
Anicich, V G., and McEwan, M. J. 1997. Ion-Molecule Chemistry in Titan's Ionosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 45, 897–921. 10.1016/S0032-0633(97)00053-6.
Anicich, V G., Milligan, D. B., Fairley, D. A., and McEwan, M. J. 2000. Termolecular Ion-Molecule Reactions in Titan's Atmosphere. I: Principal Ions with Principal Neutrals. Icarus, 146, 118–124. 10.1006/icar.2000.6353.
Anicich, V G., Wilson, P., and McEwan, M. J. 2004. A SIFT Ion-Molecule Study of Some Reactions in Titan's Atmosphere. Reactions of N+,N+ and HCN+ with CH4, C2H2, and C2H4. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 15, 1148–1155. 10.1016/j.jasms.2004.04.005.
Anicich, V G., Wilson, P. F., and McEwan, M. J. 2006. An ICR Study of Ion-Molecules Reactions Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere: An Investigation of Binary Hydrocarbon Mixtures up to 1 Micron. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 17, 544–561. 10.1016/j.jasms.2005.11.022.
Aoto, T., Ito, K., Hikosaka, Y., Shibasaki, A., et al. 2006. Inner-Valence States of N+ and the Dissociation Dynamics Studied by Threshold Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Configuration Interaction Calculation. J. Chem. Phys., 124, 6. 10.1063/1.2206586.
Ascenzi, D., Cont, N., Guella, G., Franceschi, P., et al. 2007. New Insights into the Reaction Mechanisms of Phenylium Ions with Benzene. J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 12513–12523. 10.1021/jp075860h.
Ascenzi, D., Aysina, J., Tosi, P., Maranzana, A., et al. 2010. Growth of Polyaromatic Molecules via Ion-Molecule Reactions: An Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Study. J. Chem. Phys., 133, 184308. 184308 10.1063/1.3505553.
Ascenzi, D., Aysina, J., Zins, E.-L., Schröder, D., et al. 2011. Double Ionization of Cycloheptatriene and the Reactions of the Resulting C7H2+n Dications (n = 6,8) with Xenon. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13, 18330–18338. 10.1039/c1cp21634a.
Atreya, S. K. 1986. Atmospheres and Ionospheres of the Outer Planets and Their Satellites. Physics and Chemistry in Space, vol. 15. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Baines, K. H., Drossart, P., Lopez-Valverde, M. A., Atreya, S. K., et al. 2006. On the Discovery of CO Nighttime Emissions on Titan by Cassini/VIMS: Derived Stratospheric Abundances and Geological Implications. Planet. Space Sci., 54, 1552–1562. 10.1016/j.pss.2006.06.020.
Bakes, E. L. O., McKay, C. P., and Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr., 2002. Photoelectric Charging of Submicron Aerosols and Macromolecules in the Titan Haze. Icarus, 157, 464–475. 10.1006/icar.2002.6843.
Bakes, E. L. O., Lebonnois, S., Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr., and McKay, C. P. 2003. The role of Submicrometer Aerosols and Macromolecules in H2 Formation in the Titan Haze. Icarus, 161, 468–473. 10.1016/S0019-1035(02)00040-4.
Balko, B. A., Zhang, J., and Lee, Y. T. 1991. 193 nm Photodissociation of Acetylene. J. Chem. Phys., 94, 7958–7966. 10.1063/1.460130.
Balucani, N., Alagia, M., Cartechini, L., Casavecchia, P., et al. 2000a. Cyanomethylene Formation from the Reaction of Excited Nitrogen Atoms with Acetylene: A Crossed Beam and Ab Initio Study. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 122, 4443–4450. 10.1021/ja993448c.
Balucani, N., Asvany, O., Huang, L. C. L., Lee, Y. T., et al. 2000b. Formation of Nitriles in the Interstellar Medium via Reactions of Cyano Radicals, CN(X2Σ+), with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Astrophys. J., 545, 892–906. 10.1086/317848.
Balucani, N., Cartechini, L., Alagia, M., Casavecchia, P., et al. 2000c. Observation of Nitrogen-Bearing Organic Molecules from Reactions of Nitrogen Atoms with Hydrocarbons: A Crossed Beam study of N(2D) + Ethylene. J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 5655–5659. 10.1021/jp001057a.
Balucani, N., Bergeat, A., Cartechini, L., Volpi, G. G., et al. 2009. Combined Crossed Molecular Beam and Theoretical Studies of the N(2D) + CH4 Reaction and Implications for Atmospheric Models of Titan. J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11138–11152. 10.1021/jp904302g.
Balucani, N., Leonori, F., Petrucci, R., Stazi, M., etal. 2010. Formation of Nitriles and Imines in the Atmosphere of Titan: Combined Crossed-Beam and Theoretical Studies onthe Reaction Dynamics of Excited Nitrogen Atoms N(2D) with Ethane. Faraday Discuss., 147, 189–216. 10.1039/c004748a.
Banaszkiewicz, M., Lara, L. M., Rodrigo, R., López-Moreno, J. J., et al. 2000a. A Coupled Model of Titan's Atmosphere and Ionosphere. Icarus, 147, 386–404. 10.1006/icar.2000.6448.
Banaszkiewicz, M., Lara, L. M., Rodrigo, R., López-Moreno, J. J., et al. 2000b. The Upper Atmosphere and Ionospere of Titan: A Coupled Model. Adv. Space Res., 26, 1547–1550. 10.1016/S0273-1177(00)00095-8.
Banks, P. M., and Kockarts, G. 1973. Aeronomy, Part B. New York: Academic Press Inc.
Barckholtz, C., Snow, T. P., and Bierbaum, V M. 2001. Reactions of C- and Cn H- with Atomic and Molecular Hydrogen. Astrophys. J., 547, L171–L174. 10.1086/318909.
Basile, B., Lazcano, A., and Oro, J. 1984. Prebiotic Syntheses of Purines and Pyrimidines. Adv. Space Res., 4, 125–131. 10.1016/0273-1177(84)90554-4.
Bates, D. R. 1950. Dissociative Recombination. Phys. Rev., 78, 492. 10.1103/PhysRev.78.492.
Bates, D. R. 1986. Products of Dissociative Recombination of Polyatomic Ions. Astrophys. J., 306, L45–L47. 10.1086/184702.
Bates, D. R. 1989. Dissociative Recombinationof Polyatomic Ions - Curve Crossing. Astrophys. J., 344, 531–534. 10.1086/167823.
Baulch, D. L., Bowman, C. T., Cobos, C. L., Cox, R. A., et al. 2005. Evaluated Kinetic Data for Combustion Modeling: Supplement II. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 34, 757–1397. 10.1063/1.1748524.
Bazin, A., Vuitton, V, Yelle, R. V, and Lavvas, P. 2011. Altitude Distribution of the Negative Ions in Titan's Atmosphere. In: EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, vol. 6. Nantes, France: EPSC Abstracts.
Bell, J. M., Bougher, S. W., Waite, J. H. Jr., Ridley, A. J., et al. 2010a. Simulating the One-Dimensional Structure of Titan's Upper Atmosphere: 1. Formation of the Titan Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model and Benchmark Simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 115, E12002. 10.1029/2010JE003636.
Bell, J. M., Bougher, S. W., Waite, J. H. Jr., Ridley, A. J., et al. 2010b. Simulating the One-Dimensional Structure of Titan's Upper Atmosphere: 2. Alternative Scenarios for Methane Escape. J. Geophys. Res., 115, E12018. 10.1029/2010JE003638.
Bellucci, A., Sicardy, B., Drossart, P., Rannou, P., et al. 2009. Titan Solar Occultation Observed by Cassini/ VIMS: Gas Absorption and Constraints on Aerosol Composition. Icarus, 201, 198–216. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.12.024.
Benilan, Y., Smith, N., Jolly, A., and Raulin, F. 2000. The Long Wavelength Range Temperature Variations of the Mid-UV Acetylene Absorption Coefficient. Planet. Space Sci., 48, 463–471. 10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00019-2.
Bernard, J.-M., Coll, P., Coustenis, A., and Raulin, F. 2003. Experimental Simulation of Titan's Atmosphere: Detection of Ammonia and Ethylene Oxide. Planet. Space Sci., 51, 1003–1011. 10.1016/j.pss.2003.05.009.
Berteloite, C., Le Picard, S. D., Balucani, N., Canosa, A., et al. 2010a. Low Temperature Rate Coefficients for Reactions of the Butadiynyl Radical, C4H, with Various Hydrocarbons. Part I: Reactions with Alkanes CH4,C2H6, C3H8, C4H10. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 3666–3676. 10.1039/b907154g.
Berteloite, C., Le Picard, S. D., Balucani, N., Canosa, A., et al. 2010b. Low Temperature Rate Coefficients for Reactions of the Butadiynyl Radical, C4H, with Various Hydrocarbons. Part II: Reactions with Alkenes (Ethylene, Propene, 1-Butene), Dienes (Allene, 1,3-Butadiene) and Alkynes (Acetylene, Propyne and 1-Butyne). Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 3677–3689. 10.1039/b923867k.
Bézard, B. 2009. Composition and Chemistry of Titan's Stratosphere. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 367, 683–695. 10.1098/rsta.2008.0186.
Biemann, K. 2006. Complex Organic Matter in Titan's Aerosols?Nature, 444, E6. 10.038/nature05417.
Bohme, D. K., Wlodek, S., and Raksit, A. B. 1987a. Growing Interstellar Cyanopolyacetylenes with Ion/Molecule Reactions. Can. J. Chem., 65, 2057–2061. 10.1139/v87-341.
Bohme, D. K., Wlodek, S., Raksit, A. B., Schiff, H. I., et al. 1987b. Selected-Ion Flow Tube Studies of Reactions of C2N+ Ions Derived from Cyanogen by Electron Ionization. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process., 81, 123–145. 10.1016/0168-1176(87)80009-5.
Bohme, D. K., Wlodek, S., Zimmerman, J. A., and Eyler, J. R. 1991. Formation of C10H8+ from the Benzene Radical Cation. A Case for the Growth of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Ions by Ion Molecule Reactions in the Gas Phase. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process., 109, 31–47. 10.1016/0168-1176(91)85095-4.
Borucki, W. J., Levin, Z., Whitten, R. C., Keesee, R. G., et al. 1987. Predictions of the Electrical Conductivity and Charging of the Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere. Icarus, 72, 604–622. 10.1016/0019-1035(87)90056-X.
Borucki, W. J., Whitten, R. C., Bakes, E. L. O., Barth, E., et al. 2006. Predictions of the Electrical Conductivity and Charging of the Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere. Icarus, 181, 527–544. 10.1016/j.icarus.2005.10.030.
Boyé, S., Campos, A., Douin, S., Fellows, C., et al. 2002. Visible Emission from the Vibrationally Hot C2H Radical Following Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photolysis of Acetylene: Experiment and Theory. J. Chem. Phys., 116, 8843–8855. 10.1063/1.1471239.
Brownsword, R. A., Hillenkamp, M., Laurent, T., Vatsa, R. K., et al. 1997. Quantum Yield for H Atom Formation in the Methane Dissociation after Photoexcitation at the Lyman-Alpha (121.6 nm) Wavelength. Chem. Phys. Lett., 266, 259–266. 10.1016/S0009-2614(96)01526-6.
Brünken, S., Gupta, H., Gottlieb, C. A., McCarthy, M. C., et al. 2007. Detection of the Carbon Chain Negative Ion C8H- in TMC-1. Astrophys. J., 664, L43–L46. 10.1086/520703.
Cable, M. L., Hörst, S. M., Hodyss, R., Beauchamp, P. M., et al. 2012. Titan Tholins: Simulating Titan Organic Chemistry in the Cassini-Huygens Era. Chem. Rev., 112, 1882–1909. 10.1021/cr200221x.
Canosa, A. 2007. Gas Phase Reaction Kinetics at Very Low Temperatures: Recent Advances on Carbon Chemistry Using the CRESU Technique. Russian Chem. Rev., 76, 1093–1106. 10.1070/RC2007v076n12ABEH003733.
Capone, L. A., Whitten, R. C., Dubach, J., Prasad, S. S., et al. 1976. The Lower Ionosphere of Titan. Icarus, 28, 367–378. 10.1016/0019-1035(76)90150-0.
Carles, S., Adjali, F., Monnerie, C., Guillemin, J. C., etal. 2011. Kinetic Studies at Room Temperature of the Cyanide Anion CN- with Cyanoacetylene (HC3N) Reaction. Icarus, 211, 901–905. 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.08.019.
Carrasco, N., and Pernot, P. 2007. Modeling of Branching Ratio Uncertainty in Chemical Networks by Dirichlet Distributions. J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 3507–3512. 10.1021/jp067306y.
Carrasco, N., Hébrard, E., Banaszkiewicz, M., Dobrijevic, M., et al. 2007a. Influence of Neutral Transport on Ion Chemistry Uncertainties in Titan Ionosphere. Icarus, 192, 519–526. 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.08.016.
Carrasco, N., Dutuit, O., Thissen, R., Banaszkiewicz, M., et al. 2007b. Uncertainty Analysis of Bimolecular Reactions in Titan Ionosphere Chemistry Model. Planet. Space Sci., 55, 141–157. 10.1016/j.pss.2006.06.004.
Carrasco, N., Alcaraz, C., Dutuit, O., Plessis, S., et al. 2008a. Sensitivity of a Titan Ionospheric Model to the Ion-Molecule Reaction Parameters. Planet. Space Sci., 56, 1644–1657. 10.1016/j..pss.2008.04.007.
Carrasco, N., Plessis, S., Dobrijevic, M., and Pernot, P. 2008b. Toward a Reduction of the Bimolecular Reaction Model for Titan's Ionosphere. Int. J. Chem. Kin., 40, 699–709. 10.1002/kin.20374.
Cernicharo, J., Guelin, M., Agúndez, M., Kawaguchi, K., et al. 2007. Astronomical Detection of C4H-,the Second Interstellar Anion. Astron. Astrophys., 467, L37–L40. 10.1051/0004-6361:20077415.
Cernicharo, J., Guelin, M., Agúndez, M., McCarthy, M. C., et al. 2008. Detection of C5N- and Vibrationally Excited C6HinIRC + 10216. Astrophys. J., 688, L83–L86. 10.1086/595583.
Chaizy, P., Reme, H., Sauvaud, J. A., d'Uston, C., et al. 1991. Negative Ions in the Coma of Comet Halley. Nature, 349, 393–396. 10.1038/349393a0.
Chapman, S., and Cowling, T. G. 1990. The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press.
Chastaing, D., James, P. L., Sims, I. R., and Smith, I. W. M., 1998. Neutral-Neutral Reactions at the Temperatures of Interstellar Clouds. Rate Coefficients for Reactions of C2H Radicals with O2, C2H2, C2H4 and C3H6 down to 15 K. Faraday Discuss., 109, 165–181. 10.1039/A800495A.
Clarke, D. W., and Ferris, J. P. 1997. Titan Haze: Structure and Properties of Cyanoacetylene and Cyanoacetylene-Acetylene Photopolymers. Icarus, 127, 158–172. 10.1006/icar.1996.5667.
Coates, A. J., Crary, F., Lewis, G., Young, D. T., et al. 2007. Discovery of Heavy Negative Ions in Titan's Ionosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22103. 10.1029/2007GL030978.
Coates, A. J., Wellbrock, A., Lewis, G. R., Jones, G. H., et al. 2009. Heavy Negative Ions in Titan's Ionosphere: Altitude and Latitude Dependence. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1866–1871. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.009.
Coates, A. J., Wellbrock, A., Lewis, G. R., Jones, G. H., et al. 2010. Negative Ions at Titan and Enceladus: Recent Results. Faraday Discuss., 147, 293–305. 10.1039/c004700g.
Coll, P., Coscia, D., Gazeau, M.-C., de Vanssay, E., etal. 1995. Organic Chemistry in Titan's Atmosphere: New Data from Laboratory Simulations at Low Temperature. Adv. Space Res., 16, 93–103. 10.1016/0273-1177(95)00197-M.
Coll, P., Ramirez, S. I., Navarro-Gonzalez, R., and Raulin, F. 2001. Chemical and Optical Behaviour of Tholins, Laboratory Analogues of Titan Aerosols. Adv. Space Res., 27, 289–297. 10.1016/S0273-1177(01)00060-6.
Coll, P., Bernard, J.-M., Navarro-Gonzalez, R., and Raulin, F. 2003. Oxirane: An Exotic Oxygenated Organic Compound on Titan?Astrophys. J., 598, 700–703. 10.1086/378792.
Cordier, D., Mousis, O., Lunine, J. I., Lavvas, P., etal. 2009. An Estimate of the Chemical Composition of Titan's Lakes. Astrophys. J., 707, L128–L131. 10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/L128.
Courtin, R., Gautier, D., and McKay, C. P. 1995. Titan's Thermal Emission Spectrum: Reanalysis of the Voyager Infrared Measurements. Icarus, 114, 144–162. 10.1006/icar.1995.1050.
Coustenis, A., and Bézard, B. 1995. Titan's Atmosphere from Voyager Infrared Observations IV. Latitudinal Variations of Temperature and Composition. Icarus, 115, 126–140. 10.1006/icar.1995.1084.
Coustenis, A., Bézard, B., and Gautier, D. 1989. Titan's Atmosphere from Voyager Infrared Observations I. The Gas Composition of Titan's Equatorial Region. Icarus, 80, 54–76. 10.1016/0019-1035(89)90161-9.
Coustenis, A., Bézard, B., Gautier, D., Marten, A., et al. 1991. Titan's Atmosphere from Voyager Infrared Observations III. Vertical Distributions of Hydrocarbons and Nitriles near Titan's North Pole. Icarus, 89, 152–167. 10.1016/0019-1035(91)90095-B.
Coustenis, A., Salama, A., Lellouch, E., Encrenaz, Th., et al. 1998. Evidence for Water Vapor in Titan's Atmosphere from ISO/SWS Data. Astron. Astrophys., 336, L85–L89.
Coustenis, A., Salama, A., Schulz, B., Ott, S., et al. 2003. Titan's Atmosphere from ISO Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy. Icarus, 161, 383–403. 10.1016/S0019-1035(02)00028-3.
Coustenis, A., Achterberg, R. K., Conrath, B. J., Jennings, D. E., et al. 2007. The Composition of Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS Mid-Infrared Spectra. Icarus, 189, 35–62. 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.12.022.
Coustenis, A., Jennings, D. E., Nixon, C. A., Achterberg, R. K., et al. 2010. Titan Trace Gaseous Composition from CIRS at the End of the Cassini-Huygens Prime Mission. Icarus, 207, 461–476. 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.027.
Crary, F. J., Magee, B. A., Mandt, K., Waite, J. H. Jr., et al. 2009. Heavy Ions, Temperatures and Winds in Titan's Ionosphere: Combined Cassini CAPS and INMS Observations. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1847–1856. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.006.
Cravens, T. E., Vann, J., Clark, J., Yu, J., et al. The Ionosphere of Titan: An Updated Theoretical Model. Adv. Space Res., 33, 212–215. 10.1016/j.asr.2003.02.012.
Cravens, T. E., Robertson, I. P., Clark, J., Wahlund, J.-E., et al. 2005. Titan's Ionosphere: Model Comparisons with Cassini Ta Data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12108. 10.1029/2005GL023249.
Cravens, T. E., Robertson, I. P., Waite, J. H. Jr., Yelle, R. V., et al. 2006. Composition of Titan's Ionosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07105. 10.1029/2005GL025575.
Cravens, T. E., Robertson, I. P., Ledvina, S. A., Mitchell, D., et al. 2008. Energetic Ion Precipitation at Titan. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03103. 10.1029/2007GL032451.
Cravens, T. E., Robertson, I. P., Waite, J. H. Jr., Yelle, R. V., et al. 2009. Model-Data Comparisons for Titan's Nightside Ionosphere. Icarus, 199, 174–188. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.09.005.
Crespin, A., Lebonnois, S., Vinatier, S., Bézard, B., et al. 2008. Diagnostics of Titan's Stratospheric Dynamics Using the Cassini/CIRS Data and the 2-Dimensional IPSL Circulation Model. Icarus, 197, 556–571. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.010.
Cui, J., Yelle, R. V, Vuitton, V, Waite, J. H. Jr., et al. 2009a. Analysis of Titan's Neutral Upper Atmosphere from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Measurements. Icarus, 200, 581–615. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.12.005.
Cui, J., Galand, M., Yelle, R. V, Vuitton, V, et al. 2009b. Diurnal Variations of Titan's Ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 114, A06310. 10.1029/2009JA014228.
Cui, J., Galand, M., Yelle, R. V, Wahlund, J.-E., et al. 2010. Ion Transport in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A06314. 10.1029/2009JA014563.
Danielson, R. E., and Caldwell, J. J. 1973. An Inversion in the Atmosphere of Titan. Icarus, 20, 437–443. 10.1016/0019-1035(73)90016-X.
De Kok, R., Irwin, P. G. J., Teanby, N. A., Lellouch, E., et al. 2007. Oxygen Compounds in Titan's Stratosphere as Observed by Cassini CIRS. Icarus, 186, 354–363. 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.016.
De La Haye, V., Waite, J. H. Jr., Cravens, T. E., Nagy, A. F., et al. 2007. Titan's Corona: The Contribution of Exothermic Chemistry. Icarus, 191, 236–250. 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.04.031.
De La Haye, V., Waite, J. H. Jr., Cravens, T. E., Robertson, I. P., et al. 2008. Coupled Ion and Neutral Rotating Model of Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Icarus, 197, 110–136. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.03.022.
De Vanssay, E., Gazeau, M.-C., Guillemin, J.-C., and Raulin, F. 1995. Experimental Simulation of Titan's Organic Chemistry at Low Temperature. Planet. Space Sci., 43, 25–31. 10.1016/0032-0633(94)00146-I.
Delitsky, M. L., and McKay, C. P. 2010. The Photochemical Products of Benzene in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Icarus, 207, 477–484. 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.002.
Deschenaux, Ch., Affolter, A., Magni, D., Hollenstein, Ch., et al. 1999. Investigations of CH4, C2H2 and C2H4 Dusty RF Plasmas by Means of FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 32, 1876–1886. 10.1088/0022-3727/32/15/316.
Dire, J. R. 2000. Seasonal Photochemical and Meridional Transport Model for the Stratosphere of Titan. Icarus, 145, 428–444. 10.1006/icar.2000.6342.
Dransfeld, P., and Wagner, H.Gg. 1987. Investigation of the Gas Phase Reaction N + NH2 — N2 + 2H at Room Temperature. Z. Phys. Chem., 153, 89–97. 10.1524/zpch.1987.153.Part-1-2.089.
Dujardin, G., Winkoun, D., and Leach, S. 1985. Double Photoionization of Methane. Phys. Rev. A, 31, 3027–3038. 10.1103/PhysRevA.31.3027.
Edberg, N. J. T., Wahlund, J.-E., Agren, K., Morooka, M. W., et al. 2010. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements in the Cold Plasma Environment of Titan: Implications for Atmospheric Escape. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20105. 10.1029/2010GL044544.
Edwards, S. J., Freeman, C. G., and McEwan, M. J. 2008. The Ion Chemistry of Methylenimine and Propionitrile and Their Relevance to Titan. Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 272, 86–90. 10.1016/j.ijms.2008.01.006.
Edwards, S. J., Freeman, C. G., and McEwan, M. J. 2009. Some Ion Chemistry of HC5N. Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 279, 82–86. 10.1016/j.ijms.2008.10.003.
Ehrenfreund, P., Boon, J. J., Commandeur, J., Sagan, C., et al. 1995. Analytical Pyrolysis Experiments of Titan Aerosol Analogues in Preparation for the Cassini Huygens Mission. Adv. Space Res., 15, 335–42. 10.1016/S0273-1177(99)80105-7.
El-Shall, M. S., Ibrahim, Y. M., Alsharaeh, E. H., Meot-Ner, M., et al. 2009. Reactions between Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heterocycles: Covalent and Proton-Bound Dimer Cations of Benzene/Pyridine. J.Am. Chem. Soc., 131, 10066–10076. 10.1021/ja901130d.
Eland, J. H. D., 2006. Double Photoionisation Spectra of Methane, Ammonia and Water. Chem. Phys., 323, 391–396. 10.1016/j.chemphys.2005.09.047.
Fahr, A. 2003. Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum and Cross-Sections of Ethynyl (C2H) Radicals. J. Mol. Spectrosc., 217, 249–254. 10.1016/S0022-2852(02)00039-5.
Faure, A., Vuitton, V, Thissen, R., Wiesenfeld, L., et al. 2010. Fast Ion-Molecule Reactions in Planetary Atmospheres: A Semiempirical Capture Approach. Faraday Discuss., 147, 337. 10.1039/c003908j.
Fischer, G., and Gurnett, D. A. 2011. The Search for Titan Lightning Radio Emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L08206. 10.1029/2011GL047316.
Florescu-Mitchell, A. I., and Mitchell, J. B. A., 2006. Dissociative Recombination. Phys. Rep., 430, 277–374. 10.1016/j.physrep.2006.04.002.
Fondren, L. D., Adams, N. G., and Stavish, L. 2009. Gas Phase Reactions of CH+ with a Series of Homo- and Heterocyclic Molecules. J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 592–598. 10.1021/jp8091336.
Fox, J. L., and Yelle, R. V 1997. Hydrocarbon Ions in the Ionosphere of Titan. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2179–2182. 10.1029/97GL02051.
Franceschi, P., Ascenzi, D., Tosi, P., Thissen, R., et al. 2007. Dissociative Double Photoionization of N2 Using Synchrotron Radiation: Appearance Energy of the N++ Dication. J. Chem. Phys., 126, 4310. 10.1063/1.2714521.
Fray, N., and Schmitt, B. 2009. Sublimation of Ices of Astrophysical Interest: A Bibliographic Review. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 2053–2080. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.011.
Fulchignoni, M., Ferri, F., Angrilli, F., Ball, A. J., et al. 2005. In Situ Measurements of the Physical Characteristics of Titan's Environment. Nature, 438, 785–791. 10.1038/nature04314.
Galand, M., Lilensten, J., Toublanc, D., and Maurice, S. 1999. The Ionosphere of Titan: Ideal Diurnal and Nocturnal Cases. Icarus, 140, 92–105. 10.1006/icar.1999.6113.
Galand, M., Yelle, R., Cui, J., Wahlund, J.-E., et al. 2010. Ionization Sources in Titan's Deep Ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A07312. A07312 10.1029/2009ja015100.
Gan, L., Keller, C. N., and Cravens, T. E. 1992. Electrons in the Ionosphere of Titan. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 12137–12151. 10.1029/92JA00300.
Gannon, K. L., Glowacki, D. R., Blitz, M. A., Hughes, K. J., et al. 2007. H Atom Yields from the Reactions of CN Radicals with C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, trans-2-C4H8, and iso-C4H8. J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 6679–6692. 10.1021/jp0689520.
Gannon, K. L., Blitz, M. A., Liang, C.-H., Pilling, M. J., et al. 2010. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Competition between Chemical Reaction and Relaxation for the Reactions of 1CH2 with Acetylene and Ethene: Implications for the Chemistry of the Giant Planets. Faraday Discuss., 147, 173–188. 10.1039/c004131a.
Gans, B., Boyé-Péronne, S., Broquier, M., Delsaut, et al. 2011. Photolysis of Methane Revisited at 121.6 nm and at 118.2 nm: Quantum Yields of the Primary Products, Measured by Mass Spectrometry. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13, 8140–8152. 10.1039/c0cp02627a.
Geppert, W. D., and Larsson, M. 2008. Dissociative Recombination in the Interstellar Medium and Planetary Ionospheres. Mol. Phys., 106, 2199–2226. 10.1080/00268970802322074.
Gichuhi, W. K., and Suits, A. G. 2011. Primary Branching Ratios for the Low-Temperature Reaction of State-Prepared N+ with CH4, C2H2, and C2H4. J Phys. Chem. A, 115, 7105–7111. 10.1021/jp112427r.
Giordana, A., Ghigo, G., Tonachini, G., Ascenzi, D., et al. 2009. The Reaction of N2O with Phenylium ions C6(H,D)+: An Integrated Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Study. J. Chem. Phys., 131, 024304. 10.1063/1.3148366.
Gladstone, G. R., Allen, M., and Yung, Y. L. 1996. Hydrocarbon Photochemistry in the Upper Atmosphere of Jupiter. Icarus, 119, 1–52. 10.1006/icar.1996.0001.
Grasset, O., and Pargamin, J. 2005. The Ammonia-Water System at High Pressures: Implications for the Methane of Titan. Planet. Space Sci., 53, 371–384. 10.1016/j.pss.2004.09.062.
Gronoff, G., Lilensten, J., Desorgher, L., and Flückiger, E. 2009. Ionization Processes in the Atmosphere of Titan I. Ionization in the Whole Atmosphere. Astron. Astrophys., 506, 955–964. 10.1051/0004-6361/200912371.
Gu, X., Kim, Y. S., Kaiser, R. I., Mebel, A. M., et al. 2009. Chemical Dynamics of Triacetylene Formation and Implications to the Synthesis of Polyynes in Titan's Atmosphere. PNAS, 106, 16078–16083. 10.1073/pnas.0900525106.
Gurwell, M. 2004. Submillimeter Observations of Titan: Global Measures of Stratospheric Temperature, CO, HCN, HC3N, and the Isotopic Ratios 12C/13C and 14N/15N. Astrophys. J., 616, L7–L10. 10.1086/423954.
Hadamcik, E., Renard, J.-B., Alcouffe, G., Cernogora, G., et al. 2009. Laboratory Light-Scattering Measurements with Titan's Aerosols Analogues Produced by a Dusty Plasma. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1631–1641. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.013.
Hamelin, M., Béghin, C., Grard, R., López-Moreno, J. J., et al. 2007. Electron Conductivity and Density Profiles Derived from the Mutual Impedance Probe Measurements Performed during the Descent of Huygens through the Atmosphere of Titan. Planet. Space Sci., 55, 1964–1977. 10.1016/j.pss.2007.04.008.
Hansel, A., Glantschnig, M., Scheiring, C., Lindinger, W., et al. 1998a. Energy Dependence of the Isomerization of HCN+ to HNC+ via Ion Molecule Reactions. J. Chem. Phys., 109, 1743–1747. 10.1063/1.476748.
Hansel, A., Scheiring, C., Glantschnig, M., Lindinger, W., et al. 1998b. Thermochemistry of HNC, HNC+, and CF+. J. Chem. Phys., 109, 1748–1750. 10.1063/1.476749.
Hartle, R. E., Sittler, E. C. Jr., Neubauer, F. M., Johnson, R. E., et al. 2006. Initial Interpretation of Titan Plasma Interactions as Observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer: Comparisons with Voyager 1. Planet. Space Sci., 54, 1211–1224. 10.1029/2005GL024817.
He, C., Lin, G., Upton, K., Imanaka, H., et al. 2012a. Structural Investigation of HCN Polymer Isotopomers by Solution-State Multidimensional NMR. J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 4751–4759. 10.1021/jp301604f.
He, C., Lin, G., Upton, K., Imanaka, H., et al. 2012b. Structural Investigation of Titan Tholins by Solution-State 1H, 13C and 15NNMR: 1-Dimensional and Decoupling Experiments. J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 4760–4767. 10.1021/jp3016062.
Hébrard, E., Bénilan, Y., and Raulin, F. 2005. Sensitivity Effects of Photochemical Parameters Uncertainties on Hydrocarbon Production in the Atmosphere of Titan. Adv. Space Res., 36, 268–273. 10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.093.
Hébrard, E., Dobrijevic, M., Bénilan, Y., and Raulin, F. 2006. Photochemical Kinetics Uncertainties in Modeling Titan's Atmosphere: A Review. J. Photochem. Photobiol. C, 7, 211–230. 10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2006.12.004.
Hébrard, E., Dobrijevic, M., Bénilan, Y., and Raulin, F. 2007. Photochemical Kinetics Uncertainties in Modeling Titan's Atmosphere: First Consequences. Planet. Space Sci., 55, 1470–1489. 10.1016/j.pss.2007.04.006.
Hébrard, E., Dobrijevic, M., Pernot, P., Carrasco, N., et al. 2009. How Measurements of Rate Coefficients at Low Temperature Increase the Predictivity of Photochemical Models of Titan's Atmosphere. J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11227–11237. 10.1021/jp905524e.
Heck, A. J. R., Zare, R. N., and Chandler, D. W. 1996. Photofragment Imaging of Methane. J. Chem. Phys., 104, 4019–4030. 10.1063/1.471214.
Helbert, J., Rauer, H., Boice, D. C., and Huebner, W. F. 2005. The Chemistry of C2 and C3 in the Coma of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) at Heliocentric Distances rh > 2.9 AU. Astron. Astrophys., 442, 1107–1120. 10.1051/0004-6361:20041571.
Helm, H., and Cosby, P. C. 1989. Product Branching in Predissociation of the e 1 Πu, e' 1Σ+u, and b' 1Σ+u States of N2. J. Chem. Phys., 90, 4208–4215. 10.1063/1.455777.
Herbst, E., and Osamura, Y. 2008. Calculations on the Formation Rates and Mechanisms for CnH Anions in Interstellar and Circumstellar Media. Astrophys. J., 679, 1670–1679. 10.1086/587803.
Herron, J. T. 1999. Evaluated Chemical Kinetics Data for Reactions of N(2D), N(2P), and N2(A3E-)inthe Gas Phase. J. Phys. Chem. Ref Data, 28, 1453–1483. 10.1063/1.556043.
Hickman, A. P. 1979. Approximate Scaling Formula for Ion-Ion Mutual Neutralization Rates. J. Chem. Phys., 70, 4872–4878. 10.1063/1.437364.
Hirschfelder, J. O., Curtiss, C. F., and Bird, R. B. 1964. Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley.
Hörst, S. M., Vuitton, V, and Yelle, R. V 2008. The Origin of Oxygen Species in Titan's Atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10006. 10.1029/2008JE003135.
Hörst, S. M., Yelle, R. V, Buch, A., Carrasco, N., et al. 2012. Formation of Amino Acids and Nucleotide Bases in a Titan Atmosphere Simulation Experiment. Astrobiology, 12, 809–817.
Horvath, G., Aranda-Gonzalvo, Y., Mason, N. J., Zahoran, M., et al. 2010. Negative Ions Formed in N2/CH4/Ar Discharge – A Simulation of Titan's Atmosphere Chemistry. Eur. Phys.J. Appl.Phys., 49, 13105. 10.1051/epjap/2009192.
Imanaka, H., and Smith, M. A. 2007. Role of Photoionization in the Formation of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02204. 10.1029/2006GL028317.
Imanaka, H., and Smith, M. A. 2009. EUV Photochemical Production of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Implications to EUV Photochemistry in Titan and Jovian Planets. J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11187–11194. 10.1021/jp9041952.
Imanaka, H., and Smith, M. A. 2010. Formation of Nitrogenated Organic Aerosols in the Titan Upper Atmosphere. PNAS, 107, 12423–12428. 10.1073/pnas.0913353107.
Imanaka, H., Khare, B. N., Elsila, J. E., Bakes, E. L. O., et al. 2004. Laboratory Experiments of Titan Tholin Formed in Cold Plasma at Various Pressures: Implications for Nitrogen-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan Haze. Icarus, 168, 344–366. 0.1016/j.icarus.2003.12.014.
Ip, W. H. 1990. Titan's Upper Ionosphere. Astrophys. J., 362, 354–363. 10.1086/169271.
Israël, G., Szopa, C., Raulin, F., Cabane, M., et al. 2005. Complex Organic Matter in Titan's Atmospheric Aerosols from In Situ Pyrolysis and Analysis. Nature, 438, 796–799. 10.1038/nature04349.
Itikawa, Y. 2006. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Nitrogen Molecules. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 35, 31–53. 10.1063/1.1937426.
Jacox, M. E. 2003. Vibrational and Electronic Energy Levels of Polyatomic Transient Molecules. Supplement B. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 32, 1–441. 10.1063/1.1497629.
Jolly, A., and Bénilan, Y. 2008. Review of Quantitative Spectroscopy of Polyynes. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 109, 963–973. 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.12.010.
Jones, B., Zhang, F., Maksyutenko, P., Mebel, A. M., et al. 2010. Crossed Molecular Beam Study on the Formation of Phenylacetylene and Its Relevance to Titan's Atmosphere. J. Phys. Chem. A, 114, 5256–5262. 10.1021/jp912054p.
Kaiser, R. I., and Balucani, N. 2001. The Formation of Nitrites in Hydrocarbon-Rich Atmospheres of Planets and Their Satellites: Laboratory Investigations by the Crossed Molecular Beam Technique. Acc. Chem. Res., 34, 699–706. 10.1021/ar000112v.
Kella, D., Johnson, P. J., Pedersen, H. B., Vej by-Christensen, L., et al. 1996. Branching Ratios for Dissociative Recombination of 15N14N+. Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 2432–2435. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.2432.
Keller, C. N., Cravens, T. E., and Gan, L. 1992. A Model of the Ionosphere of Titan. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 12117–12135. 10.1029/92JA00231.
Keller, C. N., Anicich, V G., and Cravens, T. E. 1998. Model of Titan's Ionosphere with Detailed Hydrocarbon Ion Chemistry. Planet. Space Sci., 46, 1157–1174. 10.1016/S0032-0633(98)00053-1.
Khare, B. N., Sagan, C., Ogino, H., Nagy, B., et al. 1986. Amino Acids Derived from Titan Tholins. Icarus, 68, 176–184. 10.1016/0019-1035(86)90080-1.
Kim, S. J., Jung, A., Sim, C. K., Courtin, R., et al. 2011. Retrevial and Tentative Identification of the 3 μm Spectral Feature in Titan's Haze. Planet. Space Sci., 59, 699–704. 10.1016/j.pss.2011.02.002.
Kliore, A. J., Nagy, A. F., Marouf, E. A., French, R. G., et al. 2008. First Results from the Cassini Radio Occultations of the Titan Ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 113, A09317. 10.1029/2007JA012965.
Koskinen, T. T., Yelle, R. V., Snowden, D. S., Lavvas, P., et al. 2011. The Mesosphere and Thermosphere of Titan Revealed by Cassini/UVIS Stellar Occultations. Icarus, 216, 507–534. 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.09.022.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. 2009. A Photochemical Model of Titan's Atmosphere and Ionosphere. Icarus, 201, 226–256. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.12.038.
Krasnopolsky, V. A. 2010. The Photochemical Model of Titan's Atmosphere and Ionosphere: A Version without Hydrodynamic Escape. Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1507–1515. 10.1016/j.pss.2010.07.010.
Lara, L. M., Lorenz, R. D., and Rodrigo, R. 1994. Liquids and Solids on the Surface of Titan: Results of a New Photochemical Model. Planet. Space Sci., 42, 5–14. 10.1016/0032-0633(94)90135-X.
Lara, L. M., Lellouch, E., López-Moreno, J. J., and Rodrigo, R. 1996. Vertical Distribution of Titan's Atmospheric Neutral Constituents. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23261–23283. 10.1029/96JE02036.
Lara, L. M., Lellouch, E., and Shematovich, V 1999. Titan's Atmospheric Haze: The Case for HCN Incorporation. Astron. Astrophys., 341, 312–317.
Larsson, M., and Orel, A. E. 2008. Dissociative Recombination of Molecular Ions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Laufer, A. H., and Fahr, A. 2004. Reactions and Kinetics of Unsaturated C2 Hydrocarbon Radicals. Chem. Rev., 104, 2813–2832. 10.1021/cr030039x.
Laufer, A. H., Gardner, E. P., Kwok, T. L., and Yung, Y. L. 1983. Computations and Estimates of Rate Coefficients for Hydrocarbon Reactions of Interest to the Atmospheres of the Outer Solar System. Icarus, 56, 560–567. 10.1016/0019-1035(83)90173-2.
Läuter, A., Lee, K. S., Jung, K. H., Vatsa, R. K., et al. 2002. Absolute Primary H Atom Quantum Yield Measurements in the 193.3 and 121.6 nm Photodissociation of Acetylene. Chem. Phys. Lett., 358, 314–319. 10.1016/S0009-2614(02)00625-5.
Lavvas, P., Coustenis, A., and Vardavas, I. M. 2008a. Coupling Photochemistry with Haze Formation in Titan's Atmosphere. Part I: Model Description. Planet. Space Sci., 56, 27–66. 10.1016/j.pss.2007.05.026.
Lavvas, P., Coustenis, A., and Vardavas, I. M. 2008b. Coupling Photochemistry with Haze Formation in Titan's Atmosphere. Part II: Results and Validation with Cassini/Huygens Data. Planet. Space Sci., 56, 67–99. 10.1016/j.pss.2007.05.027.
Lavvas, P., Yelle, R. V, and Vuitton, V 2009. The Detached Haze Layer in Titan's Mesosphere. Icarus, 201, 626–633. 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.01.004.
Lavvas, P., Yelle, R. V, and Griffith, C. A. 2010. Titan's Vertical Aerosol Structure at the Huygens Landing Site: Constraints on Particle Size, Density, Charge, and Refractive Index. Icarus, 210, 832–842. 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.07.025.
Lavvas, P., Galand, M., Yelle, R. V, Heays, A. N., et al. 2011a. Energy Deposition and Primary Chemical Products in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Icarus, 213, 233–251. 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.03.001.
Lavvas, P., Sander, M., Kraft, M., and Imanaka, H. 2011b. Surface Chemistry and Particle Shape. Processes for the Evolution of Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere. Astrophys. J., 728, 80–90. 10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/80.
Lebonnois, S. 2005. Benzene and Aerosol Production in Titan and Jupiter's Atmospheres: A Sensitivity Study. Planet. Space Sci., 53, 486–497. 10.1016/j.pss.2004.11.004.
Lebonnois, S., and Toublanc, D. 1999. Actinic Fluxes in Titan's Atmosphere, from One to Three Dimensions: Application to High-Latitude Composition. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 22025–22034. 10.1029/1999JE001056.
Lebonnois, S., Toublanc, D., Hourdin, F., and Rannou, P. 2001. Seasonal Variations of Titan's Atmospheric Composition. Icarus, 152, 384–406. 10.1006/icar.2001.6632.
Lebonnois, S., Bakes, E. L. O., and McKay, C. P. 2002. Transition from Gaseous Compounds to Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere. Icarus, 159, 505–517. 10.1006/icar.2002.6943.
Lebonnois, S., Bakes, E. L. O., and McKay, C. P. 2003. Atomic and Molecular Hydrogen Budget in Titan's Atmosphere. Icarus, 161, 474–485. 10.1016/S0019-1035(02)00039-8.
Lee, S.-H., Chin, C.-H., Chen, W.-K., Huang, W.-J., et al. 2011. Exploring the Dynamics of Reaction N(2D) + C2H4 with Crossed Molecular-Beam Experiments and Quantum-Chemical Calculations. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13, 8515–8525. 10.1039/c0cp02439b.
Liang, M.-C., Yung, Y. L., and Shemansky, D. E. 2007a. Photolytically Generated Aerosols in the Mesosphere and Thermosphere of Titan. Astrophys. J., 661, L199–L202. 10.1086/518785.
Liang, M.-C., Heays, A. N., Lewis, B. R., Gibson, S. T., et al. 2007b. Source of Nitrogen Isotope Anomaly in HCN in the Atmosphere of Titan. Astrophys. J., 664, L115–L118. 10.1086/520881.
Lide, D. R. (ed). 2006. CRC Handbook of Chemistryand Physics. 87th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Lilensten, J., Witasse, O., Simon, C., Soldi-Lose, H., et al. 2005. Prediction of a N++ Layer in the Upper Atmosphere of Titan. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03202. 10.1029/2004GL021432.
López-Moreno, J. J., Molina-Cuberos, G. J., Hamelin, M., Grard, R., et al. 2008. Structure of Titan's Low Altitude Ionized Layer from the Relaxation Probe Onboard HUYGENS. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22104. 10.1029/2008GL035338.
Lorenz, R. D., Mitchell, K. L., Kirk, R. L., Hayes, A. G., etal. 2008. Titan's Inventory of Organic Surface Materials. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02206. 10.1029/2007GL032118.
Luine, J. A., and Dunn, G. H. 1985. Ion-Molecule Reaction Probabilities Near 10 K. Astrophys. J., 299, L67–L70. 10.1086/184582.
Lunine, J. I., and Stevenson, D. J. 1987. Clathrates and Ammonia Hydrates at High Pressure: Application to the Origin of Methane on Titan. Icarus, 70, 61–77. 10.1016/0019-1035(87)90075-3.
Magee, B. A., Waite, J. H. Jr., Mandt, K. E., Westlake, J., etal. 2009. INMS-Derived Composition of Titan's Upper Atmosphere: Analysis Methods and Model Comparison. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1895–1916. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.016.
Marten, A., Hidayat, T., Biraud, Y., and Moreno, R. 2002. New Millimeter Heterodyne Observations of Titan: Vertical Distributions of Nitriles HCN, HC3N, CH3CN, and the Isotopic Ratio 15N/14NinIts Atmosphere. Icarus, 158, 532–544. 10.1006/icar.2002.6897.
Mason, E. A., and Marrero, T. R. 1970. The diffusion of Atoms and Molecules. Adv. Atom. Mol. Phys., 6, 155–232. 10.1016/S0065-2199(08)60205-5.
Mathews, L. D., and Adams, N. G. 2011. Experimental Study of the Gas Phase Chemistry of C3H+ with Several Cyclic Molecules. Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 299, 139–144. 10.1016/j.ijms.2010.10.008.
Mathur, D., Andersen, L. H., Hvelplund, P., Kella, D., et al. 1995. Long-Lived, Doubly Charged Diatomic and Triatomic Molecular Ions. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 28, 3415–3426. 10.1088/0953-4075/28/15/027.
McCarthy, M. C., Gottlieb, C. A., Gupta, H., and Thaddeus, P. 2006. Laboratory and Astronomical Identification of the Negative Molecular Ion C6H-. Astrophys. J., 652, L141–L144. 10.1086/510238.
McDonald, G. D., Khare, B. N., Thompson, W. R., and Sagan, C. 1991. CH4/NH3/H2O Spark Tholin: Chemical Analysis and Interaction with Jovian Aqueous Clouds. Icarus, 94, 354–367. 10.1016/0019-1035(91)90234-K.
McDonald, G. D., Thompson, W. R., Heinrich, M., Khare, B. N., et al. 1994. Chemical Investigation of Titan and Triton Tholins. Icarus, 108, 137–145. 10.1006/icar.1994.1046.
McEwan, M. J., and Anicich, V G. 2007. Titan's Ion Chemistry: A Laboratory Perspective. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 26, 281–319. 10.1002/mas.20117.
McEwan, M. J., Anicich, V. G., Huntress, W. T. Jr., Kemper, P. R., et al. 1983. Reactions of CN+ and C2N+ Ions. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process., 50, 179–187. 10.1016/0020-7381(83)80008-4.
McEwan, M. J., Scott, G. B. I., and Anicich, V G. 1998. Ion-Molecule Reactions Relevant to Titan's Ionosphere. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process., 172, 209–219. 10.1016/S0168-1176(97)00236-X.
McKay, C. P. 1996. Elemental Composition, Solubility, and Optical Properties of Titan's Organic Haze. Planet. Space Sci., 44, 741–747. 10.1016/0032-0633(96)00009-8.
McKay, C. P., Coustenis, A., Samuelson, R. E., Lemmon, M. T., et al. 2001. Physical Properties of the Organic Aerosols and Clouds on Titan. Planet. Space Sci., 49, 79–99. 10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00051-9.
McLain, J. L., and Adams, N. G. 2009. Flowing Afterglow Studies of Temperature Dependencies for Electron Dissociative Recombination of HCNH+,CH3CNH+ and CH3CH2CNH+ and Their Symmetrical Proton-Bound Dimers. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1642–1647. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.005.
McLain, J. L., Molek, C. D., Osborne, D. Jr., and Adams, N. G. 2009. Flowing Afterglow Studies of the Electron Recombination of Protonated Cyanides (RCN)H+ and Their Proton-Bound Dimer Ions (RCN)(2)H+ where R is H, CH3, and CH3CH2. Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 282, 85–90. 10.1016/j.ijms.2009.02.004.
Mebel, A. M., Hayashi, M., Jackson, W. M., Wrobel, J., et al. 2001. Branching Ratios of C2 Products in the Photodissociation of C2H at 193 nm. J. Chem. Phys., 114, 9821–9831. 10.1063/1.1370942.
Michael, J. V, and Lee, J. H. 1977. Selected Rate Constants for H, O, N, and Cl Atoms with Substrates at Room Temperatures. Chem. Phys. Lett., 51, 303–306. 10.1016/0009-2614(77)80408-9.
Millar, T. J., Walsh, C., Cordiner, M. A., Ni Chuimin, R., et al. 2007. Hydrocarbon Anions in Interstellar Clouds and Circumstellar Envelopes. Astrophys. J., 662, L87–L90. 10.1086/519376.
Milligan, D. B., Wilson, P. F., Freeman, C. G., Meot-Ner, M., et al. 2002. Dissociative Proton Transfer Reactions of H+, N2H+, and H3O+ with Acyclic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Compounds, and Astrochemical Implications. J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 9745–9755. 10.1021/jp014659i.
Minard, R. D., Hatcher, P. G., Gourley, R. C., and Matthews, C. N. 1993. Structural Investigations of Hydrogen Cyanide Polymers: New Insights Using TMAH Thermochemolysis/GC-MS. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 28, 461–473. 10.1023/A:1006566125815.
Mitri, G., Showman, A. P., Lunine, J. I., and Lopes, R. M. C., 2008. Resurfacing of Titan by Ammonia-Water Cryomagma. Icarus, 196, 216–224. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.02.024.
Mitsuke, K., Suzuki, S., Imamura, T., and Koyano, I. 1991. Negative-Ion Mass Spectrometric Study of Ion-Pair Formation in the Vacuum Ultraviolet. IV. CH4 → H- + CH3+ and CD4 → D- + CD3+. J. Chem. Phys., 94, 6003–6006. 10.1063/1.460435.
Molina-Cuberos, G. J., López-Moreno, J. J., Rodrigo, R., Lara, L. M., et al. 1999a. Ionization by Cosmic Rays of the Atmosphere of Titan. Planet. Space Sci., 47, 1347–1354. 10.1016/S0032-0633(99)00056-2.
Molina-Cuberos, G. J., López-Moreno, J. J., Rodrigo, R., and Lara, L. M. 1999b. Chemistry of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Induced Ionosphere of Titan. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 21997–22024. 10.1029/1998JE001001.
Molina-Cuberos, G. J., López-Moreno, J. J., and Rodrigo, R. 2000. Influence of Electrophilic Species on the Lower Ionosphere of Titan. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1351–1354. 10.1029/1999GL010771.
Molina-Cuberos, G. J., Lammer, H., Stumptner, W., Schwingenschuh, K., et al. 2001. Ionospheric Layer Induced by Meteoric Ionization in Titan's Atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 49, 143–153. 10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00133-1.
Molina-Cuberos, G. J., Schwingenschuh, K., López-Moreno, J. J., Rodrigo, R., et al./2002. Nitriles Produced by Ion Chemistry in the Lower Ionosphere of Titan. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 5099. 10.1029/2000JE001480.
Mordaunt, D. H., Lambert, I. R., Morley, G. P., Ashfold, M. N. R., et al. 1993. Primary Product Channels in the Photodissociation of Methane at 121.6 nm. J. Chem. Phys., 98, 2054–2065. 10.1063/1.464237.
Neish, C. D., Lorenz, R. D., O'Brien, D. P., and the Cassini RADAR Team. 2006. The Potential for Prebiotic Chemistry in the Possible Cryovolcanic Dome Ganesa Macula on Titan. Int. J. Astrobiol., 5, 57–65. 10.1017/S1473550406002898.
Neish, C. D., Somogyi, A., Imanaka, H., Lunine, J. I., et al. 2008. Rate Measurements of the Hydrolysis of Complex Organic Macromolecules in Cold Aqueous Solutions: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry on the early Earth and Titan. Astrobiology, 8, 273–287. 10.1089/ast.2007.0193.
Neish, C. D., Somogyi, A., Lunine, J. I., and Smith, M. A. 2009. Low Temperature Hydrolysis of Laboratory Tholins in Ammonia-Water Solutions: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry on Titan. Icarus, 201, 412–421. 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.01.003.
Neish, C. D., Somogyi, A., and Smith, M. A. 2010. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low-Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins. Astrobiology, 10, 337–347. 10.1089/ast.2009.0402.
Nicolas, C., Alcaraz, C., Thissen, R., Vervloet, M., et al. 2003a. Dissociative Photoionization of N2 in the 24-32 eV Photon Energy Range. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 36, 2239–2251. 10.1088/0953-4075/36/11/309.
Nicolas, C., Torrents, R., and Gerlich, D. 2003b. Integral and Differential Cross Section Measurements at Low Collision Energies for the N2+ + CH4/CD4 Reactions. J. Chem. Phys., 118, 2723–2730. 10.1063/1.1535423.
Niemann, H. B., Atreya, S. K., Demick, J. E., Gautier, D., et al. 2010. Composition of Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Simple Surface Volatiles as Measured by the Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 115, E12006. 10.1029/2010JE003659.
Nixon, C. A., Jennings, D. E., Flaud, J.-M., Bézard, B., et al. 2009. Titan's Prolific Propane: The Cassini CIRS Perspective. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1573–1585. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.021.
O'Brien, D. P., Lorenz, R. D., and Lunine, J. I. 2005. Numerical Calculations of the Longevity of Impact Oases on Titan. Icarus, 173, 243–253. 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.08.001.
Okabe, H. 1981. Photochemistry of Acetylene at 1470 A. J Chem. Phys., 75, 2772–2778. 10.1063/1.442348.
Okabe, H. 1983. Photochemistry of Acetylene at 1849 A. J. Chem. Phys., 78, 1312–1317. 10.1063/1.444868.
Omont, A. 1986. Physics and Chemistry of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Molecules. Astron. Astrophys., 164, 159–178.
Peng, Z., Dobrijevic, M., Hébrard, E., Carrasco, N., et al. 2010. Photochemical Modeling of Titan Atmosphere at the “10 Percent Uncertainty Horizon.”Faraday Discuss., 147, 137–153. 10.1039/c003366a.
Pernot, P., Carrasco, N., Thissen, R., and Schmitz-Afonso, I. 2010. Tholinomics: Chemical Analysis of Nitrogen-Rich Polymers. Anal. Chem., 82, 1371–1380. 10.1021/ac902458q.
Peterson, J. R., and Moseley, J. T. 1973. Time-of-Flight Determination of Lifetimes of N2+(A2Pu), the Meinel Band System. J. Chem. Phys., 58, 172–177. DOI:10.1063/1.1678901.
Peterson, J. R., Le Padellec, A., Danared, H., Dunn, G. H., et al. 1998. Dissociative Recombination and Excitation of N2+: Cross Sections and Product Branching Ratios. J. Chem. Phys., 108, 1978–1988. 10.1063/1.475577.
Petrie, S. 1996. Novel Pathways to CN- within Interstellar Clouds and Circumstellar Envelopes: Implications for IS and CS Chemistry. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 281, 137–144.
Pietrogrande, M. C., Coll, P., Sternberg, R., Szopa, C., etal. 2001. Analysis of Complex Mixtures Recovered from Space Missions. Statistical Approach to the Study of Titan Atmosphere Analogues (Tholins). J. Chromat. A, 939, 69–77. 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)01333-4.
Piper, L. G. 1993. Reevaluation of the Transition-Moment Function and Einstein Coefficients for the N2(A3 Σu+ — X1Σg+) Transition. J. Chem. Phys., 99, 3174–3181. DOI:10.1063/1.465178.
Plessis, S., Carrasco, N., and Pernot, P. 2010. Knowledge-Based Probabilistic Representations of Branching Ratios in Chemical Networks: The Case of Dissociative Recombinations. J. Chem. Phys., 133, 134110. 10.1063/1.3479907.
Quirico, E., Montagnac, G., Lees, V, McMillan, P. F., et al. 2008. New Experimental Constraints on the Composition and Structure of Tholins. Icarus, 198, 218–231. 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.07.012.
Rages, K., and Pollack, J. B. 1980. Titan Aerosols: Optical Properties and Vertical Distribution. Icarus, 41, 119–130. 10.1016/0019-1035(80)90164-5.
Rages, K., Pollack, J. B., and Smith, P. H. 1983. Size Estimated of Titan's Aerosols Based on Voyager High-Phase-Angle Images. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 8721–8728. 10.1029/JA088iA11p08721.
Ralchenko, Yu., Kramida, A. E., Reader, J., and the NIST ASD Team. 2011. NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 4.1.0). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. Available at:
Ram, N. B., and Krishnakumar, E. 2011. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Methane Probed Using Velocity Slice Imaging. Chem. Phys. Lett., 511, 22–27. 10.1016/j.cplett.2011.05.065.
Rannou, P., Cabane, M., Chassefiere, E., Botet, R., et al. 1995. Titan's Geometric Albedo: Role of the Fractal Structure of the Aerosols. Icarus, 118, 355–372. 10.1006/icar.1995.1196.
Rannou, P., McKay, C. P., and Lorenz, R. D. 2003. A Model of Titan's Haze of Fractal Aerosols Constrained by Multiple Observations. Planet. Space Sci., 51, 963–976. 10.1016/j.pss.2003.05.008.
Rannou, P., Cours, T., Le Mouélic, S., Rodriguez, S., et al. 2010. Titan Haze Distribution and Optical Properties Retrieved from Recent Observations. Icarus, 208, 850–867. 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.03.016.
Raulin, F. 1987. Organic Chemistry in the Oceans of Titan. Adv. Space Res., 7(5), 71–81. 10.1016/0273-1177(87)90358-9.
Redondo, P., Pauzat, F., and Ellinger, Y. 2006. Theoretical Survey of the NH + CH3 Potential Energy Surface in Relation to Titan Atmospheric Chemistry. Planet. Space Sci., 54, 181–187. 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.008.
Remijan, A. J., Hollis, J. M., Lovas, F. J., Cordiner, M. A., et al. 2007. Detection of C8H- and Comparison with C8H toward IRC + 10216. Astrophys. J., 664, L47–L50. 10.1086/520704.
Ricketts, C. L., Schröder, D., Alcaraz, C., and Roithova, J. 2008. Growth of Larger Hydrocarbons in the Ionosphere of Titan. Chem. Eur. J., 14, 4779–4783. 10.1002/chem.200800524.
Robertson, I. P., Cravens, T. E., Waite, J. H. Jr., Yelle, R. V., et al. 2009. Structure of Titan's Ionosphere: Model Comparisons with Cassini Data. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1834–1846. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.07.011.
Roithova, J., and Schröder, D. 2007. Bond-Formation versus Electron Transfer: C-C Coupling Reactions of Hydrocarbon Dications with Benzene. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 9, 731–738. 10.1039/b615648g.
Romani, P. N. 1996. Recent Rate Constant and Product Measurements of the Reactions C2H3 + H2 and C2H3 + H - Importance for Photochemical Modeling of Hydrocarbons on Jupiter. Icarus, 122, 233–241. 10.1006/icar.1996.0122.
Rowe, B. R., Marquette, J. B., and Rebrion, C. 1989. Mass-selected Ion-Molecule Reactions at Very Low Temperatures: The CRESUS Apparatus. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, 85, 1631–1641. 10.1039/F29898501631.
Ruscic, B., and Berkowitz, J. 1990. Photoion Pair Formation and Photoelectron Induced Dissociative Attachment in C2H2:D0(HCC-H). J. Chem. Phys., 93, 5586–5593. 10.1063/1.459629.
Sagan, C., and Thompson, W. R. 1984. Production and Condensation of Organic Gases in the Atmosphere of Titan. Icarus, 59, 133–161. 10.1016/0019-1035(84)90018-6.
Sailer, W., Pelc, A., Limao-Vieira, P., Mason, N. J., etal. 2003. Low Energy Electron Attachment to CH3CN. Chem. Phys. Lett., 381, 216–222. 10.1016/j.cplett.2003.09.118.
Samson, J. A. R., Masuoka, T., Pareek, P. N., and Angel, G. C. 1987. Total and Dissociative Photoionization Cross Sections of N2 from Threshold to 107 eVJ. Chem. Phys., 86, 6128–6132. 10.1063/1.452452.
Samson, J. A. R., Haddad, G. N., Masuoka, T., Pareek, P. N., et al. 1989. Ionization Yields, Total Absorption, and Dissociative Photoionization Cross Sections of CH4 from 110 to 950 A. J. Chem. Phys., 90, 6925–6932. 10.1063/1.456267.
Sander, S. P., Friedl, R. R., Golden, D. M., Kurylo, M. J., et al. 2006. Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies. Evaluation Number 15. JPL Publication 06-2. Pasadena, CA: JPL NASA.
Scattergood, T. W., Lau, E. Y., and Stome, B. M. 1992. Titan's Aerosols I. Laboratory Investigations of Shapes, Size Distributions, and Aggregation of Particles Produced by UV Photolysis of Model Titan Atmospheres. Icarus, 99, 98–105. 10.1016/0019-1035(92)90174-6.
Schofield, K. 1973. Evaluated Chemical Kinetic Rate Constants for Various Gas Phase Reactions. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2, 25–84. 10.1063/1.3253112.
Seki, K., and Okabe, H. 1993. Photochemistry of Acetylene at 193.3 nm. J. Phys. Chem., 97, 5284–5290. 10.1021/j100122a018.
Sekine, Y., Imanaka, H., Matsui, T., Khare, B. N., et al. 2008a. The Role of Organic Haze in Titan's Atmospheric Chemistry I. Laboratory Investigation on Heterogeneous Reaction of Atomic Hydrogen with Titan Tholin. Icarus, 194, 186–200. 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.08.031.
Sekine, Y., Lebonnois, S., Imanaka, H., Matsui, T., et al. 2008b. The Role of Organic Haze in Titan's Atmospheric Chemistry II. Effect of Heterogeneous Reaction to the Hydrogen Budget and Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. Icarus, 194, 201–211. 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.08.030.
Semaniak, J., Minaev, B. F., Derkatch, A. M., Hellberg, F., etal. 2001. Dissociative Recombination of HCNH+: Absolute Cross-Sections and Branching Ratios. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 135, 275–283. 10.1086/321797.
Shaw, D. A., Holland, D. M. P., MacDonald, M. A., Hopkirk, A., et al. 1992. A Study of the Absolute Photoabsorption Cross Section and the Photoionization Quantum Efficiency of Nitrogen from the Ionization Threshold to 485 A. Chem. Phys., 166, 379–391. 10.1016/0301-0104(92)80097-f.
Shirai, T., Tabata, T., Tawara, H., and Itikawa, Y. 2002. Analytic Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Hydrocarbons. At. Data Nucl. Data Tables, 80, 147–204. 10.1006/adnd.2001.0878.
Sittler, E. C. Jr., Ali, A., Cooper, J. F., Hartle, R. E., et al. 2009. Heavy Ion Formation in Titan's Ionosphere: Magnetospheric Introduction of Free Oxygen and a Source of Titan's Aerosols?Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1547–1557. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.07.017.
Slagle, I. R., Gutman, D., Davies, J. W., and Pilling, M. J. 1988. Study of the Recombination Reaction CH3 + CH3 - C2H6. 1. Experiment. J. Phys. Chem., 92, 2455–2462. 10.1021/j100320a015.
Slanger, T. G., and Black, G. 1982. Photodissociative Channels at 1216 A for H2O, NH3, and CH4. J. Chem. Phys., 77, 2432–2437. 10.1063/1.444111.
Smith, D., Church, M. J., and Miller, T. M. 1978. Mutual Neutralization of Simple and Clustered Positive and Negative Ions. J. Chem. Phys., 68, 1224–1229. 10.1063/1.435842.
Smith, G. R., Strobel, D. F., Broadfoot, A. L., Sandel, B. R., et al. 1982. Titan's Upper Atmosphere: Composition and Temperature from the EUV Solar Occultation Results. J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1351–1359. 10.1029/JA087iA03p01351.
Smith, I. W. M., 2008. The Temperature-Dependence of Elementary Reaction Rates: Beyond Arrhenius. Chem. Soc. Rev., 37, 812–826. 10.1039/b704257b.
Smith, I. W. M., Sage, A. M., Donahue, N. M., Herbst, E., et al. 2006. The Temperature-Dependence of Rapid Low Temperature Reactions: Experiment, Understanding and Prediction. Faraday Discuss., 133, 137–156. 10.1039/b600721j.
Smith, N. S., and Raulin, F. 1999. Modeling of Methane Photolysis in the Reducing Atmospheres of the Outer Solar System. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1873–1876. 10.1029/1998JE900027.
Sorkhabi, O., Blunt, V M., Lin, H., Xu, D., et al. 1997a. Photodissociation of C2H at 193 nm: Branching Ratios for the Formation of C2 in the X, A and B' States. J. Chem. Phys., 107, 9842–9851. 10.1063/1.475281.
Sorkhabi, O., Blunt, V M., Lin, H., A'Hearn, M. F., et al. 1997b. Using Photochemistry to Explain the Formation and Observation of C2 in Comets. Planet. Space Sci., 45, 721–730. 10.1016/S0032-0633(97)00077-9.
Stief, L. J., Nesbitt, F. L., Payne, W. A., et al. 1995. Rate Constant and Reaction Channels for the Reaction of Atomic Nitrogen with the Ethyl Radical. J. Chem. Phys., 102, 5309–5316. 10.1063/1.469257.
Straub, H. C., Lin, D., Lindsay, B. G., Smith, K. A., et al. 1997. Absolute Partial Cross Sections for Electron-Impact Ionization of CH4 from Threshold to 1000 eV. J. Chem. Phys., 106, 4430–4435. DOI:10.1063/1.473468.
Strobel, D. F. 1974. The Photochemistry of Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere of Titan. Icarus, 21, 466–470. 10.1016/0019-1035(74)90149-3.
Strobel, D. F. 2010. Molecular Hydrogen in Titan's Atmosphere: Implications of the Measured Tropospheric and Thermospheric Mole Fractions. Icarus, 208, 878–886. 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.03.003.
Szopa, C., Cernogora, G., Boufendi, L., Correia, J. J., et al. 2006. PAMPRE: A Dusty Plasma Experiment for Titan's Tholins Production and Study. Planet. Space Sci., 54, 394–404. 10.1016/j.pss.2005.12.012.
Tahara, H., Minami, K., Murai, A., Yasui, T., et al. 1995. Diagnostic Experiment and Kinetic Model Analysis of Microwave CH4/H2 Plasmas for Deposition of Diamondlike Carbon Films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 34, 1972–1979. 10.1143/JJAP.34.1972.
Talbi, D., Le Padellec, A., and Mitchell, J. B. A., 2000. Quantum Chemical Calculations for the Dissociative Recombination of HCN+ and HNC+. J Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 33, 3631–3646. 10.1088/0953-4075/33/18/311.
Teanby, N. A., Irwin, P. G. J., de Kok, R., Nixon, C. A., et al. 2008. Global and Temporal Variations in Hydrocarbons and Nitriles in Titan's Stratosphere for Northern Winter Observed by Cassini/CIRS. Icarus, 193, 595–611. 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.08.017.
Teanby, N. A., Irwin, P. G. J., de Kok, R., Jolly, A., et al. 2009. Titan's Stratospheric C2N2, C3H4, and C4H2 Abundances from Cassini/CIRS Far-Infrared Spectra. Icarus, 202, 620–631. 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.03.022.
Teanby, N. A., Irwin, P. G. J., de Kok, R., and Nixon, C. A. 2010. Mapping Titan's HCN in the Far Infra-Red: Implications for Photo-Chemistry. Faraday Discuss., 147, 51–64. 10.1039/c001690j.
Teslja, A., Nizamov, B., and Dagdigian, P. J. 2004. The Electronic Spectrum of Methyleneimine. J. Phys. Chem. A, 108, 4433–4439. 10.1021/jp037938+.
Thaddeus, P., Gottlieb, C. A., Gupta, H., Brünken, S., et al. 2008. Laboratory and Astronomical Detection of the Negative Molecular Ion C3N-. Astrophys. J., 677, 1132–1139. 10.1086/528947.
Thissen, R., Vuitton, V, Lavvas, P., Lemaire, J., et al. 2009. Laboratory Studies of Molecular Growth in the Titan Ionosphere. J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11211–11220. 10.1021/jp9050353.
Thissen, R., Witasse, O., Dutuit, O., Simon Wedlund, C., et al. 2011. Double Charged Ions in the Planetary Ionospheres: A Review. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13, 18264–18287. 10.1039/c1cp21957j.
Thomas, R. D. 2008. When Electrons Meet Molecular Ions and What Happens Next: Dissociative Recombination from Interstellar Molecular Clouds to Internal Combustion Engines. Mass Spec. Rev., 27, 485–530. 10.1002/mas.20169.
Tian, C., and Vidal, C. R. 1998. Electron Impact Ionization of N2 and O2: Contributions from Different Dissociation Channels of Multiply Ionized Molecules. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 31, 5369–5381. 10.1088/0953-4075/31/24/018.
Tobie, G., Grasset, O., Lunine, J. I., Mocquet, A., et al. 2005. Titan's Internal Structure Inferred from a Coupled Thermal-Orbital Model. Icarus, 175, 496–502. 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.12.007.
Tomasko, M. G., Archinal, B., Becker, T., Bézard, B., et al. 2005. Rain, Winds and Haze during the Huygens Probe's Descent to Titan's Surface. Nature, 438, 765–778. 10.1038/nature04126.
Tomasko, M. G., Doose, L., Engel, S., Dafoe, L. E., et al. 2008. A Model of Titan's Aerosols Based on Measurements Made Inside the Atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 56, 669–707. 10.1016/j.pss.2007.11.019.
Toublanc, D., Parisot, J. P., Brillet, J., Gautier, D., et al. 1995. Photochemical Modeling of Titan's Atmosphere. Icarus, 113, 2–26. 10.1006/icar.1995.1002.
Troe, J. 1977. Theory of Thermal Unimolecular Reactions at Low Pressures. I. Solutions of the Master Equation. J. Chem. Phys., 66, 4745. 10.1063/1.433837.
Vervack, R. J. Jr., Sandel, B. R., and Strobel, D. F. 2004. New Perspectives on Titan's Upper Atmosphere from a Reanalysis of the Voyager 1 UVS Solar Occultations. Icarus, 170, 91–112. 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.03.005.
Vigren, E., Hamberg, M., Zhaunerchyk, V, Kaminska, M., et al. 2009. The Dissociative Recombination of Protonated Acrylonitrile, CH2CHCNH+, with Implications for the Nitrile Chemistry in Dark Molecular Clouds and the Upper Atmosphere of Titan. Astrophys. J., 695, 317–324. 10.1088/0004-637X/695/1/317.
Vigren, E., Semaniak, J., Hamberg, M., Zhaunerchyk, V., et al. 2012. Dissociative Recombination of Nitrile Ions with Implications for Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 60, 102–106. 10.1016/j.pss.2011.03.001.
Vinatier, S., Bézard, B., Fouchet, T., Teanby, N. A., et al. 2007. Vertical Abundance Profiles of Hydrocarbons in Titan's Atmosphere at 15°S and 80°N Retrieved from Cassini/CIRS Spectra. Icarus, 188, 120–138. 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.10.031.
Vinatier, S., Bézard, B., Nixon, C. A., Mamoutkine, A., et al. 2010. Analysis of Cassini/CIRS Lim Spectra of Titan Acquired During the Nominal Mission I. Hydrocarbons, Nitriles and CO2 Vertical Mixing Ratio Profiles. Icarus, 205, 559–570. 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.08.013.
Vuitton, V, Doussin, J.-F., Bénilan, Y., Raulin, F., et al. 2006a. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Hydrocarbon Photochemistry Applied to Titan Stratosphere. Icarus, 185, 287–300. 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.06.002.
Vuitton, V, Yelle, R. V, and Anicich, V G. 2006b. The Nitrogen Chemistry of Titan's Upper Atmosphere Revealed. Astrophys. J., 647, L175–L178. 10.1086/507467.
Vuitton, V, Yelle, R. V, and McEwan, M. J. 2007. Ion Chemistry and N-Containing Molecules in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Icarus, 191, 722–742. 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.06.023.
Vuitton, V, Yelle, R. V, and Cui, J. 2008. Formation and Distribution of Benzene on Titan. J. Geophys. Res., 113, E05007. 10.1029/2007JE002997.
Vuitton, V, Lavvas, P., Yelle, R. V, Galand, M., et al. 2009. Negative Ion Chemistry in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1558–1572. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.04.004.
Vuitton, V., Bonnet, J.-Y., Frisari, M., Thissen, R., et al. 2010. Very High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of HCN Polymers and Tholins. Faraday Discuss., 147, 495–508. 10.1039/C003758C.
Vuitton, V, Yelle, R. V, Lavvas, P., and Klippenstein, S. J. 2012. Rapid Association Reactions at Low Pressure: Impact on the Formation of Hydrocarbons on Titan. Astrophys. J., 744, 11–17. 10.1088/0004-637X/744/1/11.
Wahlund, J.-E., Bostrom, R., Gustafsson, G., Gurnett, D. A., et al. 2005. Cassini Measurements of Cold Plasma in the Ionosphere of Titan. Science, 308, 986–989. 10.1126/science.1109807.
Wahlund, J.-E., Galand, M., Müller-Wodarg, I., Cui, J., et al. 2009. On the Amount of Heavy Molecular Ions in Titan's Ionosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1857–1865. 10.1016/j.pss.2009.07.014.
Waite, J. H. Jr., Young, D. T., Cravens, T. E., Coates, A. J., etal. 2007. The Process of Tholin Formation in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Science, 316, 870–875. 10.1126/science.1139727.
Wakelam, V., Smith, I. W. M., Herbst, E., Troe, J., et al. 2010. Reaction Networks for Interstellar Chemical Modelling: Improvements and Challenges. Space Sci. Rev., 156, 13–72. 10.1007/s11214-010-9712-5.
Walter, C. W., Cosby, P. C., and Helm, H. 1993. N(4S0), N(2D0), and N(2P0) Yields in Predissociation of Excited Singlet-States of N2. J. Chem. Phys., 99, 3553–3561. 10.1063/1.466152.
Wang, B., Hou, H., Yoder, L. M., Muckerman, J. T., etal. 2003. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Methyl-Methyl Recombination Reaction. J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 11414–11426. 10.1021/jp030657h.
Wang, H., and Frenklach, M. 1994. Calculations of Rate Coefficients for the Chemically Activated Reactions of Acetylene with Vinylic and Aromatic Radicals. J. Phys. Chem., 98, 11465–11489. 10.1021/j100095a033.
Wang, J. H., and Liu, K. 1998. VUV Photochemistry of CH4 and Isotopomers. I. Dynamics and Dissociation Pathway of the H/D-Atom Elimination Channel. J. Chem. Phys., 109, 7105–7112. 10.1063/1.477394.
Wang, J. H., Liu, K. P., Min, Z. Y., Su, H. M., et al. 2000. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photochemistry of CH4 and Isotopomers. II. Product Channel Fields and Absorption Spectra. J. Chem. Phys., 113, 4146–4152. 10.1063/1.1288145.
Wehlitz, R. 2010. Simultaneous Emission of Multiple Electrons from Atoms and Molecules Using Synchrotron Radiation. Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys., 58, 1–76. 10.1016/s1049-250x(10)05806-4.
West, R. A., and Smith, P. H. 1991. Evidence for Aggregate Particles in the Atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter. Icarus, 90, 330–333. 10.1016/0019-1035(91)90113-8.
Wiese, W. L., and Fuhr, J. R. 2007. Improved Critical Compilations of Selected Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and Singly Ionized Carbon and Nitrogen. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 36, 1287–1345. 10.1063/1.2740642.
Wilson, E. H., and Atreya, S. K. 2000. Sensitivity Studies of Methane Photolysis and its Impact on Hydrocarbon Chemistry in the Atmosphere of Titan. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20263–20273. 10.1029/1999JE001221.
Wilson, E. H., and Atreya, S. K. 2003. Chemical Sources of Haze Formation in Titan's Atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 51, 1017–1033. 10.1016/j.pss.2003.06.003.
Wilson, E. H., and Atreya, S. K. 2004. Current State of Modeling the Photochemistry of Titan's Mutually Dependent Atmosphere and Ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 109, E06002. 10.1029/2003JE002181.
Wilson, E. H., Atreya, S. K., and Coustenis, A. 2003. Mechanisms for the Formation of Benzene in the Atmosphere of Titan. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 5014. 10.1029/2002JE001896.
Wong, A. S., Morgan, C. G., Yung, Y. L., and Owen, T. 2002. Evolution of CO on Titan. Icarus, 155, 382–392. 10.1006/icar.2001.6720.
Wuerker, R. F., Schmitz, L., Fukuchi, T., and Straus, P. 1988. Lifetime Measurements of the Excited States of N2 and N2+ by Laser Induced Fluorescence. Chem. Phys. Lett., 150, 443–446. 10.1016/0009-2614(88)80434-2.
Yang, Z., Snow, T. P., and Bierbaum, V M. 2010a. Computational Studies of Gas Phase Reactions of Carbon Chain Anions with N and O Atoms. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 13091. 10.1039/c0cp00537a.
Yang, Z., Eichelberger, B., Carpenter, M. Y., Martinez, O. Jr., et al. 2010b. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Reactions between H Atoms and Carbanions of Interstellar Relevance. Astrophys. J., 723, 1325–1330. 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1325.
Yang, Z., Cole, C. A., Martinez, O. Jr., Carpenter, M. Y., et al. 2011. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Reactions between H Atoms and Nitrogen-Containing Carbanions. Astrophys. J., 739, 19. 10.1088/0004-637X/739/1/19.
Yelle, R. V, Cui, J., and Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F., 2008. Methane Escape from Titan's Atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10003. 10.1029/2007JE003031.
Yelle, R. V, Vuitton, V, Lavvas, P., Klippenstein, S. J., et al. 2010. Formation of NH3 and CH2NH in Titan's Upper Atmosphere. Faraday Discuss., 147, 31–49. 10.1039/c004787m.
Yung, Y. L. 1987. An Update of Nitrile Photochemistry on Titan. Icarus, 72, 468–472. 10.1016/0019-1035(87)90186-2.
Yung, Y. L., and DeMore, W. B. 1999. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yung, Y. L., Allen, M., and Pinto, J. P. 1984. Photochemistry of the Atmosphere of Titan: Comparison Between Model and Observations. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 55, 465–506. 10.1086/190963.
Zabka, J., Romanzin, C., Alcaraz, C., and Polašek, M. 2012. Anion Chemistry on Titan: A Possible Route to Large N-Bearing Hydrocarbons. Icarus, 219, 161–167. 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.02.031.
Zhang, F., Kim, Y. S., Kaiser, R. I., Krishtal, S. P., et al. 2009. Crossed Molecular Beams Study on the Formation of Vinylacetylene in Titan's Atmosphere. J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11167–11173. 10.1021/jp9032595.
Zhang, F., Maksyutenko, P., and R. I., Kaiser. 2012. Chemical Dynamics of the CH(X2P) + C2H4(X1A1g), CH(X2P) + C2D4(X1 A1g), and CD(X2P) + C2H4(X1 A1g) Reactions Studied under Single Collision Conditions. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 14, 529–537. 10.1039/c1cp22350j.
Zins, E.-L., and Schröder, D. 2010. Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions of Medium-Sized Nitrogen-Containing Dications. J. Phys. Chem. A, 114, 5989–5996. 10.1021/jp100852q.
Zipf, E. C., Espy, P. J., and Boyle, C. F. 1980. The Excitation and Collisional Deactivation of Metastable N(2P) Atoms in Auroras. J. Geophys. Res., 85, 687–694. 10.1029/JA085iA02p00687.