Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: August 2011

1 - Polymer nanocomposites

from Part I - Thermal stability



Inorganic fillers have conventionally been added to polymer matrices to enhance their mechanical strength and other properties, as well as to reduce the cost of the overall composites. Layered aluminosilicates, also popularly described as clays, are one such type of filler, which are responsible for a revolutionary change in polymer composite synthesis as well as for transforming polymer composites into polymer nanocomposites. Aluminosilicate particles consist of stacks of 1 nm–thick aluminosilicate layers (or platelets) in which a central octahedral aluminum sheet is fused between two tetrahedral silicon sheets. Owing to isomorphic substitutions, there is a net negative charge on the surface of the platelets that is compensated for by the adsorption of alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. Because of the presence of alkali or alkaline earth metal cations on their surfaces, the platelets are electrostatically bound to each other, causing an interlayer to form in between. The majority of the cations are present in the interlayers bound to the surfaces of the platelets, but a small number of cations are bound to the edges of the platelets. Though the use of layered aluminosilicates has been documented in some older studies, indicating their potential for substantially improving polymer properties, reports from Toyota researchers in the early nineties attracted serious attention. In these studies, polyamide nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization in the presence of clay with organic modifiers.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Bailey, S. W.Reviews in MineralogyBlacksburgVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 1984
Brindley, G. W.Brown, G.Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and Their X-Ray IdentificationLondonMineralogical Society 1980
Carter, L. W.Hendricks, J. G.Bolley, D. S.Elastomer Reinforced with Modified ClayUnited States Patent 2,531,396 1950
Greenland, D. J.Adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohols) by montmorilloniteJournal of Colloid Science 18 1963 647
Yano, K.Usuki, A.Okada, A.Kurauchi, T.Kamigaito, O.Synthesis and properties of polyimide–clay hybridJournal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry 31 1993 2493
Kojima, Y.Fukumori, K.Usuki, A.Okada, O.Kurauchi, T.Gas permeabilities in rubber–clay hybridJournal of Materials Science Letters 12 1993 889
Messersmith, P. B.Giannelis, E. P.Synthesis and barrier properties of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)–layered silicate nanocompositesJournal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry 33 1995 1047
Lan, T.Kaviratna, P. D.Pinnavaia, T. J.On the nature of polyimide–clay hybrid compositesChemistry of Materials 6 1994 573
Chin, I.-J.Thurn-Albrecht, T.Kim, H.-C.Russell, T. P.Wang, J.On exfoliation of montmorillonite in epoxyPolymer 42 2001 5947
LeBaron, P. C.Wang, Z.Pinnavaia, T. J.Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites: An overviewApplied Clay Science 15 1999 11
Lim, S. K.Kim, J. W.Chin, I.-J.Kwon, Y. K.Choi, H. J.Preparation and interaction characteristics of organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposite with miscible polymer blend of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(methyl methacrylateChemistry of Materials 14 2002 1989
Wang, Z.Pinnavaia, T. J.Nanolayer reinforcement of elastomeric polyurethaneChemistry of Materials 10 1998 3769
Yano, K.Usuki, A.Okada, A.Synthesis and properties of polyimide–clay hybrid filmsJournal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry 35 1997 2289
Shi, H.Lan, T.Pinnavaia, T. J.Interfacial effects on the reinforcement properties of polymer–organoclay nanocompositesChemistry of Materials 8 1996 1584
Giannelis, E. P.Polymer layered silicate nanocompositesAdvanced Materials 8 1996 29
Gilman, J. W.Jackson, C. L.Morgan, A. B.Harris, Jr. R.Manias, E.Giannelis, E. P.Wuthenow, M.Hilton, D.Phillips, S. H.Flammability properties of polymer–layered-silicate nanocomposites: Polypropylene and polystyrene nanocompositesChemistry of Materials 12 2000 1866
Heinz, H.Castelijns, H. J.Suter, U. W.Structure and phase transitions of alkyl chains on micaJournal of the American Chemical Society 125 2003 9500
Theng, B. K. G.The Chemistry of Clay–Organic ReactionsNew YorkWiley 1974
Jasmund, K.Lagaly, G.Tonminerale und Tone StrukturDarmstadt: Steinkopff 1993
Osman, M. A.Ploetze, M.Suter, U. W.Surface treatment of clay minerals: Thermal stability, basal plane spacing and surface coverageJournal of Materials Chemistry 13 2003 2359
Pinnavaia, T. J.Intercalated clay catalystsScience 220 1983 365
Krishnamoorti, R.Giannelis, E. P.Rheology of end tethered polymer layered silicate nanocompositesMacromolecules 30 1997 4097
Fischer, H.Polymer nanocomposites: From fundamental research to specific applicationsMaterials Science and Engineering C 23 2003 763
Tjong, S. C.Meng, Y. Z.Preparation and characterization of melt-compounded polyethylene/vermiculite nanocompositesJournal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics 41 2003 1476
Xu, J.Li, R. K. Y.Xu, Y.Li, L.Meng, Y. Z.Preparation of poly(propylene carbonate)/organo-vermiculite nanocomposites via direct melt intercalationEuropean Polymer Journal 41 2005 881
Osman, M. A.Ploetze, M.Skrabal, P.Structure and properties of alkylammonium monolayers self-assembled on montmorillonite plateletsJournal of Physical Chemistry B 108 2004 2580
Heinz, H.Vaia, R. A.Krishnamoorti, R.Farmer, B. L.Self-assembly of alkylammonium chains on montmorillonite: Effect of chain length, headgroup structure, and cation exchange capacityChemistry of Materials 19 2007 59
Vaia, R. A.Ishii, H.Giannelis, E. P.Synthesis and properties of two-dimensional nanostructures by direct intercalation of polymer melts in layered silicatesChemistry of Materials 5 1993 1694
Mehrotra, V.Giannelis, E. P.Conducting molecular multilayers: Intercalation of conjugated polymers in layered mediaMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 171 1990 39
Mittal, V.Polymer nanocomposites: Synthesis, microstructure and propertiesOptimization of Polymer Nanocomposite PropertiesMittal, V.WeinheimWiley–VCH 2009 1
Mittal, V.Role of clean clay surface on composite propertiesPolymer Nanocomposites: Advances in Filler Surface ModificationsMittal, V.New York:Nova Science Publishers 2009 143
Osman, M. A.Mittal, V.Suter, U. W.Poly(propylene)-layered silicate nanocomposites: Gas permeation properties and clay exfoliationMacromolecular Chemistry and Physics 208 2007 68
Mittal, V.Effect of the presence of excess ammonium ions on the clay surface on permeation properties of epoxy nanocompositesJournal of Materials Science 43 2008 4972
Gilman, J. W.Flammability and thermal stability studies of polymer layered-silicate clay/nanocomposites, 1Applied Clay Science 15 1999 31
Osman, M. A.Mittal, V.Morbidelli, M.Suter, U. W.Epoxy-layered silicate nanocomposites and their gas permeation propertiesMacromolecules 37 2004 7250
Mittal, V.Gas permeation and mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites with thermally-stable imidazolium modified clayEuropean Polymer Journal 43 2007 3727
Awad, W. H.Gilman, J. W.Nyden, M.Harris, Jr. R. H.Sutto, T. E.Callahan, J.Trulove, P. C.DeLong, H. C.Fox, D. M.Thermal degradation studies of alkyl-imidazolium salts and their application in nanocompositesThermochimica Acta 409 2004 3
Avalos, F.Ortiz, J. C.Zitzumbo, R.López-Manchado, M. A.Verdejo, R.Arroyo, M.Phosphonium salt intercalated montmorillonitesApplied Clay Science 43 2009 27
Mittal, V.Polypropylene-layered silicate nanocomposites: Filler matrix interactions and mechanical propertiesJournal of Thermoplastic Composites Materials 20 2007 575
Gultek, A. M.Icduygu, G.Seckin, T.Preparation and characterization of polybenzimidazole–clay hybrid materialsMaterials Science and Engineering B 107 2004 166
Chigwada, G.Wang, D.Wilkie, C. A.Polystyrene nanocomposites based on quinolinium and pyridinium surfactantsPolymer Degradation and Stability 91 2006 848
Yei, D.-R.Kuo, S.-W.Fu, H.-K.Chang, F.-C.Enhanced thermal properties of PS nanocomposites formed from montmorillonite treated with a surfactant/cyclodextrin inclusion complexPolymer 46 2005 741
Mittal, V.Polypropylene nanocomposites with thermally-stable imidazolium modified clay: Mechanical modeling and effect of compatibilizerJournal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials 22 2009 453
Mittal, V.Herle, V.Physical adsorption of organic molecules on the surface of layered silicate clay platelets: A thermogravimetric studyJournal of Colloid and Interface Science 327 2008 295