Risk factors, outcome, and treatment in subtypes of ischemic stroke: the German stroke data bank. Stroke 2001; 32:2559–66., , , , , , et al.
Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management. New York: Churchill Livingston; 1992: 3–27., , . Epidemiology of stroke. In , , , , eds.
The high risk of stroke immediately after transient ischemic attack: a population-based study. Neurology 2004; 62:2015–20., , , , , .
Early risk of recurrence by subtype of ischemic stroke in population-based incidence studies. Neurology 2004; 62:569–73., , .
Complications following acute ischemic stroke. Eur Neurol 2002; 48:133–40., , , , , , et al.
An improved scoring system for identifying patients at high early risk of stroke and functional impairment after an acute transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. Int J Stroke 2008; 3(1):3–10., , , , , , et al.
Systemic Risk Score Evaluation in Ischemic Stroke Patients (SCALA): a prospective cross sectional study in 85 German stroke units. J Neurol 2007; 254(11):1562–8., , , , , , et al.
Risk of stroke early after transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6(12):1063–72., .
Effect of urgent treatment of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke on early recurrent stroke (EXPRESS study): a prospective population-based sequential comparison. Lancet 2007; 370(9596):1432–42., , , , , , et al.
Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med 2008; 358(15):1547–59., , , , , , et al.
Blood pressure reduction and secondary prevention of stroke and other vascular events. A systematic review. Stroke 2003; 34:2741–9., , .
Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. Lancet 2000; 355:1575–81., , , , , , et al.
2001; 358:1033–41.. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure lowering regimen among 6105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet
The ACCESS Study: evaluation of acute candesartan cilexetil therapy in stroke survivors. Stroke 2003; 34:1699–703., , , , , , et al.
Randomized trial of telmisartan therapy to prevent recurrent strokes and major vascular events among 20,332 individuals with recent stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:1225–37., , , , , , et al.
Statins and stroke prevention. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 24(2–3):170–82., , , .
Statins in stroke prevention and carotid atherosclerosis: systematic review and up-to-date meta-analysis. Stroke 2004; 35(12):2902–9., , , .
Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44(3):720–32., , , , , , et al.
2002; 360:7–22.. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet
Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. Effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on stroke and other major vascular events in 20536 people with cerebrovascular disease or other high-risk conditions. Lancet 2004; 363:757–67., , , , .
2006; 355:549–59.. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med
Discontinuation of statin treatment in stroke patients. Stroke 2006; 37(10):2640–3., .
Statin treatment withdrawal in ischemic stroke: a controlled randomized study. Neurology 2007; 69(9):904–10., , , , , , et al.
Effects of pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without previous stroke: results from PROactive (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events 04). Stroke 2007; 38(3):865–73., , , , , , et al.
Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358(24):2545–59., , , , , , et al.
Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358(24):2560–72., , , , , , et al.
Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291(5):565–75., , , , , , et al.
2006; 354:1567–77. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N Engl J Med
A clinical trial of estrogen-replacement therapy after ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1243–9., , , , , .
1994; 308:81–106.. Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy – I: prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. BMJ
2002; 524:71–86.. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ
Antiplatelet drugs. Br J Pharmacol 2006; 147 Suppl 1:S241–51., .
Cumulative meta-analysis of aspirin efficacy after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 65:255., .
Low-dose aspirin for the prevention of atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353(22):2373–83., , , .
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international trial of the oral IIb/IIIa antagonist lotrafiban in coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Circulation 2003; 108:16–23., , , , , , et al.
Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:494–502., , , , , , et al.
1996; 348:1329–39.. A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet
Acetylsalicylic acid on a background of clopidogrel in high-risk patients randomised after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack: the MATCH trial results. Lancet 2004; 364:331–334., , , , , , et al.
Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med 2006; 354(16):1706–17., , , , , , et al.
Patients with prior myocardial infarction, stroke, or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease in the CHARISMA trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 49(19):1982–8., , , , , , et al.
European Stroke Prevention Study 2. Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of stroke. J Neurol Sci 1996; 143:1–13., , , , , .
Cardiac safety in the European stroke prevention study 2 (ESPS2). Int J Clin Pract 2001; 55:162–3., , , .
2006; 367:1665–73.. Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial. Lancet
Rationale, design and baseline data of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing two antithrombotic regimens and telmisartan vs. placebo in patients with strokes: the prevention regimen for effectively avoiding second strokes (PRoFESS) trial. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 23:368–80., , , for the Steering Committee and PRoFESS Study Group.
Clopidogrel for secondary prevention of stroke. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2005; 6:755–64., , .
Modified-release dipyridamole combined with aspirin for secondary stroke prevention. Aging Health 2005; 1:19–26..
Platelet GPIIb-IIIa blockers. Lancet 1999; 353:227–31., , .
1993; 342:1255–62.. Secondary prevention in non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke. Lancet
Anticoagulants for preventing stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation and a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2004; 35:1782–3., .
Cardioembolic vs. noncardioembolic strokes in atrial fibrillation: Frequency and effect of antithrombotic agents in the stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation studies. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000; 10:39–43., , , , , , et al.
Atrial fibrillation management: a prospective survey in ESC member countries: the Euro Heart Survey on Atrial Fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2005; 26(22):2422–34., , , , , , et al.
ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: full text: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation) developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society. Europace 2006; 8(9):651–745., , , , , , et al.
Major hemorrhage and tolerability of warfarin in the first year of therapy among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2007; 115(21):2689–96., , , , .
ACTIVE Writing Group on behalf of the ACTIVE Investigators, Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 367:1903–12., , , , , et al.
1997; 42:857–65.. A randomized trial of anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischemia of presumed arterial origin. Ann Neurol
A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1444–51., , , , , , et al.
2007; 6(2):115–24.. Medium intensity oral anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol
Oral anticoagulants versus antiplatelet therapy for preventing further vascular events after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3:CD001342., , , , .
Antiphospholipid antibodies and subsequent thrombo-occlusive events in patients with ischemic stroke. JAMA 2004; 291(5):576–84., , , , , , et al.
Cervical arterial dissection. Time for a therapeutic trial?Stroke 2003; 34:2856–60., , , , , , et al.
Antithrombotic drugs for carotid artery dissection. Stroke 2004; 35(2):613–4., .
Antiplatelets versus anticoagulation in cervical artery dissection. Stroke 2007; 38(9):2605–11., , , , , , et al.
Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:1415–1425., , , , , , et al.
1998; 351:1379–87.. Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST). Lancet
1991; 337:1235–43.. MRC European carotid surgery trial: interim results for symptomatic patients with severe carotid stenosis and with mild carotid stenosis. Lancet
The North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial: surgical result in 1415 patients. Stroke 1999; 30:1751–8., , , , , , et al.
Prediction of benefit from carotid endarterectomy in individual patients: a risk-modelling study. Lancet 1999; 353:2105–10., , on behalf of the European Carotid Surgery Trialists' Collaborative Group.
Analysis of pooled data from the randomized controlled trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Lancet 2003; 361:107–16., , , , , , et al.
Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists Collaboration. Endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in relation to clinical subgroups and timing of surgery. Lancet 2004; 363:915–24., , , , ,
Carotid endarterectomy – an evidence-based review: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2005; 65(6):794–801., , , , , , et al.
30 day results from the SPACE trial of stent-protected angioplasty versus carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2006; 368(9543):1239–47., , , , , , et al.
Clinical and angiographic risk factors for stroke and death within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy and stent-protected angioplasty: a subanalysis of the SPACE study. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7(3):216–222., , , , , , et al.
Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1660–71., et al, for the EVA-3S Investigators.
Stenting for carotid artery stenosis. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2007; 3(4):212–20., , , , .
Comparison of warfarin and aspirin for symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(13):1305–16., , , , , , et al.
Predictors of ischemic stroke in the territory of a symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. Circulation 2006; 113(4):555–63., , , , , , et al.
The NIH registry on use of the Wingspan stent for symptomatic 70–99% intracranial arterial stenosis. Neurology 2008; 70(17):1518–24., , , , , , et al.
Comparison of elective stenting of severe vs moderate intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. Neurology 2007; 68(6):420–6., , , , , , et al.