1. , , , et al. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. Stroke 1993; 24:35–41.
2. , , , , et al. A computerized algorithm for etiologic classification of ischemic stroke: the Causative Classification of Stroke System. Stroke 2007; 38:2979–84.
3. , , , et al. The Causative Classification of Stroke system: an international reliability and optimization study. Neurology 2010; 75:1277–84.
4. , , , et al. Coronary risk evaluation in patients with transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council and the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2003; 34:2310–22.
5. , , , et al. Autopsy prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with fatal stroke. Stroke 2007; 38:1203–10.
6. , , , . Large artery intracranial occlusive disease. A large worldwide burden but a relatively neglected frontier. Stroke 2008; 39:2396–9.
7. , , , et al. Geographic and sex difference in the distribution of intracranial atherosclerosis in China. Stroke 2013; 44:2109–14.
8. , , , et al. Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch and the risk of ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:1474–9.
9. . Atherothrombosis and ischaemic stroke. BMJ 2007; 334:379–80.
10. , . Risk of stroke early after transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6:1063–72.
11. , , , et al. Early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167:2417–22.
12. , , , . Is hypoperfusion an important cause of strokes? If so, how? Cerebrovasc Dis 2006; 21(3):145–53.
13. , , , et al. Heart and vessel pathology underlying brain infarction in 142 stroke patients. Ann Neurol 2008; 63:770–81.
14. , , , et al. Contribution of atrial fibrillation to incidence and outcome of ischemic stroke: results from a population-based study. Stroke 2005; 36:1115–19.
15. , , , , . Noninvasive cardiac monitoring for detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter after acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review. Stroke 2007; 38:2935–40.
16. , , , et al. Recurrent cerebrovascular events associated with patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, or both. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1740–6.
17. , , , et al. Clinical and imaging findings in cryptogenetic stroke patients with and without patent foramen ovale: the PFO-ASA Study. Stroke 2002; 33:706–11.
18. , , , , . Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke in older patients. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:2262–8.
19. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale and migraine: a cross-sectional study from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). Circulation 2008; 118:1419–24.
20. , . Neurologic manifestations of cardiogenic embolism: an update. Neurol Clin 2002; 20:179–93.
21. . Cardioembolic stroke: an update. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2:177–88.
22. , , , , . Early ischemic lesion recurrence within a week after acute ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol 2003; 54:66–74.
23. , , , et al. Early hemorrhagic transformation of brain infarction: rate, predictive factors, and influence on clinical outcome: results of a prospective multicenter study. Stroke 2008; 39:2249–56.
24. , , , et al. Timing of spontaneous recanalization and risk of hemorrhagic transformation in acute cardioembolic stroke. Stroke 2001; 32:1079–84.
25. , , . Spectacular shrinking deficit: rapid recovery from a major hemispheric syndrome by migration of an embolus. Neurology 1992; 42:17–62.
26. , , , , . A diffusion-weighted MRI study of acute ischemic distal arm paresis. Neurology 2001; 57:1589–94.
27. . Posterior Circulation Disease. Clinical Findings, Diagnosis and Management. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Science; 1996.
28. , , , et al. Association of ischaemic lesion patterns on early diffusion-weighted imaging with TOAST stroke subtypes. Arch Neurol 2003; 60:1730–4.
29. , , . Mechanisms of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease: insights from neuroimaging. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12:483–97.
30. , . Are lacunar strokes really different? A systematic review of differences in risk factor profiles beween lacuna and nonlacunar infarcts. Stroke 2005; 36:891–901.
31. , . Lacunar stroke is the major cause of progressive motor deficits. Stroke 2002; 33:1510–16.
32. , , , . Cerebrovascular brainstem diseases with isolated cranial nerve palsies. Cerebrovasc Dis 2002; 13:147–55.
33. , , . Silent brain infarcts: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6:611–19.
34. , , , et al. Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12:822–38.
35. , , , et al. Acute cerebrovascular disease in the young: the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients Study. Stroke 2013; 44:340–9.