Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: May 2014

Chapter 9 - Plasticity in visual connections: retinal ganglion cell axonal development and regeneration

from Section 2 - Functional plasticity in the central nervous system

References

1. RichardsonPM, IssaVM, ShemieS. Regeneration and retrograde degeneration of axons in the rat optic nerve. J Neurocytol 1982; 11: 949–66.
2. DaviesSJ, FieldPM, RaismanG. Regeneration of cut adult axons fails even in the presence of continuous aligned glial pathways. Exp Neurol 1996; 142: 203–16.
3. SchnellL, SchwabME. Axonal regeneration in the rat spinal cord produced by an antibody against myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors. Nature 1990; 343: 269–72.
4. HuangDW, McKerracherL, BraunPE, et al. A therapeutic vaccine approach to stimulate axon regeneration in the adult mammalian spinal cord. Neuron 1999; 24: 639–47.
5. StichelCC, NiermannH, D’UrsoD, et al. Basal membrane-depleted scar in lesioned CNS: characteristics and relationships with regenerating axons. Neuroscience 1999; 93: 321–33.
6. BeharO, MizunoK, NeumannS, et al. Putting the spinal cord together again. Neuron 2000; 26: 291–3.
7. GoldbergJL, BarresBA. The relationship between neuronal survival and regeneration. Annu Rev Neurosci 2000; 23: 579–612.
8. BahrM. Live or let die – retinal ganglion cell death and survival during development and in the lesioned adult CNS. Trends Neurosci 2000; 23: 483–90.
9. KoeberlePD, BallAK. Neurturin enhances the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in vivo: combined effects with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Neuroscience 2002; 110: 555–67.
10. DerghamP, EllezamB, EssagianC, et al. Rho signaling pathway targeted to promote spinal cord repair. J Neurosci 2002; 22: 6570–7.
11. EllezamB, DubreuilC, WintonM, et al. Inactivation of intracellular Rho to stimulate axon growth and regeneration. Prog Brain Res 2002; 137: 371–80.
12. StuermerCA, BastmeyerM. The retinal axon’s pathfinding to the optic disk. Prog Neurobiol 2000; 62: 197–214.
13. KolodkinAL, GintyDD. Steering clear of semaphorins: neuropilins sound the retreat. Neuron 1997; 19: 1159–62.
14. BroseK, BlandKS, WangKH, et al. Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance. Cell 1999; 96: 795–806.
15. LiMS, DavidS. Topical glucocorticoids modulate the lesion interface after cerebral cortical stab wounds in adult rats. Glia 1996; 18: 306–18.
16. WilkinsonDG. Multiple roles of EPH receptors and ephrins in neural development. Nat Rev Neurosci 2001; 2: 155–64.
17. NakamotoM, ChengHJ, FriedmanGC, et al. Topographically specific effects of ELF-1 on retinal axon guidance in vitro and retinal axon mapping in vivo. Cell 1996; 86: 755–66.
18. HigenellV, HanSM, FeldheimDA, et al. Expression patterns of Ephs and ephrins throughout retinotectal development in Xenopus laevis. Dev Neurobiol 2012; 72: 547–63.
19. RodgerJ, BartlettCA, BeazleyLD, et al. Transient up-regulation of the rostrocaudal gradient of ephrin A2 in the tectum coincides with reestablishment of orderly projections during optic nerve regeneration in goldfish. Exp Neurol 2000; 166: 196–200.
20. SperryRW. Visuomotor coordination in the newt (Triturus viridescens) after regeneration of the optic nerves. J Comp Neurol 1943; 79: 33–55.
21. SperryRW. Chemoaffinity in the orderly growth of nerve fiber patterns and connections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1963; 50: 703–10.
22. GazeRM. The Formation of Nerve Connections. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1970.
23. HorderTJ, MartinKA. Morphogenetics as an alternative to chemospecificity in the formation of nerve connections. A review of literature, before 1978, concerning the control of growth of regenerating optic nerve fibres to specific locations in the optic tectum and a new interpretation based on contact guidance. Symp Soc Exp Biol 1978; 32: 275–358.
24. JacobsonM. Developmental Neurobiology. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehard and Winston Inc, 1978.
25. GazeRM, JacobsonM. A study of the retinotectal projection during regeneration of the optic nerve in the frog. Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 1963; 157: 420–48.
26. FujisawaH, TaniN, WatanabeK, et al. Branching of regenerating retinal axons and preferential selection of appropriate branches for specific neuronal connection in the newt. Dev Biol 1982; 90: 43–57.
27. GazeRM. The representation of the retina on the optic lobe of the frog. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci 1958; 43: 209–14.
28. WalterJ, Henke-FahleS, BonhoefferF. Avoidance of posterior tectal membranes by temporal retinal axons. Development 1987; 101: 909–13.
29. WalterJ, Kern-VeitsB, HufJ, et al. Recognition of position-specific properties of tectal cell membranes by retinal axons in vitro. Development 1987; 101: 685–96.
30. GodementP, BonhoefferF. Cross-species recognition of tectal cues by retinal fibers in vitro. Development 1989; 106: 313–20.
31. VielmetterJ, StuermerCA. Goldfish retinal axons respond to position-specific properties of tectal cell membranes in vitro. Neuron 1989; 2: 1331–9.
32. RoskiesAL, O’LearyDD. Control of topographic retinal axon branching by inhibitory membrane-bound molecules. Science 1994; 265: 799–803.
33. HoltCE, HarrisWA. Order in the initial retinotectal map in Xenopus: a new technique for labelling growing nerve fibres. Nature 1983; 301: 150–2.
34. HoltCE. Does timing of axon outgrowth influence initial retinotectal topography in Xenopus? J Neurosci 1984; 4: 1130–52.
35. SakaguchiDS, MurpheyRK. Map formation in the developing Xenopus retinotectal system: an examination of ganglion cell terminal arborizations. J Neurosci 1985; 5: 3228–45.
36. GazeRM, KeatingMJ, ChungSH. The evolution of the retinotectal map during development in Xenopus. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1974; 185: 301–30.
37. SretavanD, ShatzCJ. Prenatal development of individual retinogeniculate axons during the period of segregation. Nature 1984; 308: 845–8.
38. O’RourkeNA, FraserSE. Dynamic changes in optic fiber terminal arbors lead to retinotopic map formation: an in vivo confocal microscopic study. Neuron 1990; 5: 159–71.
39. ClineH. Sperry and Hebb: oil and vinegar? Trends Neurosci 2003; 26: 655–61.
40. DeinerMS, KennedyTE, FazeliA, et al. Netrin-1 and DCC mediate axon guidance locally at the optic disc: loss of function leads to optic nerve hypoplasia. Neuron 1997; 19: 575–89.
41. PlumpAS, ErskineL, SabatierC, et al. Slit1 and Slit2 cooperate to prevent premature midline crossing of retinal axons in the mouse visual system. Neuron 2002; 33: 219–32.
42. NiclouSP, JiaL, RaperJA. Slit2 is a repellent for retinal ganglion cell axons. J Neurosci 2000; 20: 4962–74.
43. PlasDT, LopezJE, CrairMC. Pretarget sorting of retinocollicular axons in the mouse. J Comp Neurol 2005; 491: 305–19.
44. FrisenJ, YatesPA, McLaughlinT, et al. Ephrin-A5 (AL-1/RAGS) is essential for proper retinal axon guidance and topographic mapping in the mammalian visual system. Neuron 1998; 20: 235–43.
45. HornbergerMR, DuttingD, CiossekT, et al. Modulation of EphA receptor function by coexpressed ephrinA ligands on retinal ganglion cell axons. Neuron 1999; 22: 731–42.
46. DrescherU, BonhoefferF, MullerBK. The Eph family in retinal axon guidance. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1997; 7: 75–80.
47. FlanaganJG, VanderhaeghenP. The ephrins and Eph receptors in neural development. Annu Rev Neurosci 1998; 21: 309–45.
48. O’LearyDD, WilkinsonDG. Eph receptors and ephrins in neural development. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1999; 9: 65–73.
49. FeldheimDA, KimYI, BergemannAD, et al. Genetic analysis of ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5 shows their requirement in multiple aspects of retinocollicular mapping. Neuron 2000; 25: 563–74.
50. SakuraiT, WongE, DrescherU, et al. Ephrin-A5 restricts topographically specific arborization in the chick retinotectal projection in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 10795–800.
51. McLaughlinT, HindgesR, O’LearyDD. Regulation of axial patterning of the retina and its topographic mapping in the brain. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2003; 13: 57–69.
52. HindgesR, McLaughlinT, GenoudN, et al. EphB forward signaling controls directional branch extension and arborization required for dorsal-ventral retinotopic mapping. Neuron 2002; 35: 475–87.
53. MannF, RayS, HarrisW, et al. Topographic mapping in dorsoventral axis of the Xenopus retinotectal system depends on signaling through ephrin-B ligands. Neuron 2002; 35: 461–73.
54. SchmittAM, ShiJ, WolfAM, et al. Wnt-Ryk signalling mediates medial-lateral retinotectal topographic mapping. Nature 2006; 439: 31–7.
55. BuhusiM, DemyanenkoGP, JannieKM, et al. ALCAM regulates mediolateral retinotopic mapping in the superior colliculus. J Neurosci 2009; 29: 15630–41.
56. CampbellDS, ReganAG, LopezJS, et al. Semaphorin 3A elicits stage-dependent collapse, turning, and branching in Xenopus retinal growth cones. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 8538–47.
57. LiuY, BerndtJ, SuF, et al. Semaphorin3D guides retinal axons along the dorsoventral axis of the tectum. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 310–18.
58. WolmanMA, LiuY, TawarayamaH, et al. Repulsion and attraction of axons by semaphorin3D are mediated by different neuropilins in vivo. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 8428–35.
59. HebbD. The Organization of Behavior. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1949.
60. WieselTN, HubelDH. Effects of visual deprivation on morphology and physiology of cells in the cat’s lateral geniculate body. J Neurophysiol 1963; 26: 978–93.
61. WieselTN, HubelDH. Comparison of the effects of unilateral and bilateral eye closure on cortical unit responses in kittens. J Neurophysiol 1965; 28: 1029–40.
62. HubelDH, WieselTN. Ferrier lecture. Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1977; 198: 1–59.
63. KatzLC, ShatzCJ. Synaptic activity and the construction of cortical circuits. Science 1996; 274: 1133–8.
64. Constantine-PatonM, LawMI. Eye-specific termination bands in tecta of three-eyed frogs. Science 1978; 202: 639–41.
65. IdeCF, FraserSE, MeyerRL. Eye dominance columns from an isogenic double-nasal frog eye. Science 1983; 221: 293–5.
66. ColettiSM, IdeCF, BlankenauAJ, MeyerRL. Ocular dominance stripe formation by regenerated isogenic double temporal retina in Xenopus laevis. J Neurobiol 1990; 21: 276–82.
67. StraznickyC, GlastonburyJ. Anomalous ipsilateral optic fibre projection in Xenopus induced by larval tectal ablation. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1979; 50: 111–22.
68. LawMI, Constantine-PatonM. Right and left eye bands in frogs with unilateral tectal ablations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1980; 77: 2314–18.
69. RuthazerES, ClineHT. Insights into activity-dependent map formation from the retinotectal system: a middle-of-the-brain perspective. J Neurobiol 2004; 59: 134–46.
70. RuthazerES, AkermanCJ, ClineHT. Control of axon branch dynamics by correlated activity in vivo. Science 2003; 301: 66–70.
71. MeyerRL. Tetrodotoxin blocks the formation of ocular dominance columns in goldfish. Science 1982; 218: 589–91.
72. BossVC, SchmidtJT. Activity and the formation of ocular dominance patches in dually innervated tectum of goldfish. J Neurosci 1984; 4: 2891–905.
73. ClineHT, DebskiEA, Constantine-PatonM. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist desegregates eye-specific stripes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987; 84: 4342–5.
74. RehTA, Constantine-PatonM. Eye-specific segregation requires neural activity in three-eyed Rana pipiens. J Neurosci 1985; 5: 1132–43.
75. KobayashiT, NakamuraH, YasudaM. Disturbance of refinement of retinotectal projection in chick embryos by tetrodotoxin and grayanotoxin. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1990; 57: 29–35.
76. KaethnerRJ, StuermerCA. Growth behavior of retinotectal axons in live zebrafish embryos under TTX-induced neural impulse blockade. J Neurobiol 1994; 25: 781–96.
77. ClineHT, Constantine-PatonM. NMDA receptor antagonists disrupt the retinotectal topographic map. Neuron 1989; 3: 413–26.
78. SimonDK, O’LearyDD. Development of topographic order in the mammalian retinocollicular projection. J Neurosci 1992; 12: 1212–32.
79. StentGS. A physiological mechanism for Hebb’s postulate of learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1973; 70: 997–1001.
80. ZhangLI, TaoHW, HoltCE, et al. A critical window for cooperation and competition among developing retinotectal synapses. Nature 1998; 395: 37–44.
81. Tsui, J, Schwartz, N, Ruthazer, ES. A developmental sensitive period for spike timing-dependent plasticity in the retinotectal projection. Front Synaptic Neurosci 2010; 2: 13.
82. ZhangLI, TaoHW, PooM. Visual input induces long-term potentiation of developing retinotectal synapses. Nat Neurosci 2000; 3: 708–15.
83. TaoHW, ZhangLI, EngertF, et al. Emergence of input specificity of ltp during development of retinotectal connections in vivo. Neuron 2001; 31: 569–80.
84. CrairMC. Neuronal activity during development: permissive or instructive? Curr Opin Neurobiol 1999; 9: 88–93.
85. NicolX, VoyatzisS, MuzerelleA, et al. cAMP oscillations and retinal activity are permissive for ephrin signaling during the establishment of the retinotopic map. Nature Neurosci 2007; 10: 340–7.
86. MeyerRL. Tetrodotoxin inhibits the formation of refined retinotopography in goldfish. Brain Res 1983; 282: 293–8.
87. CookJE, RankinEC. Impaired refinement of the regenerated retinotectal projection of the goldfish in stroboscopic light: a quantitative WGA-HRP study. Exp Brain Res 1986; 63: 421–30.
88. SchmidtJT, EiseleLE. Stroboscopic illumination and dark rearing block the sharpening of the regenerated retinotectal map in goldfish. Neuroscience 1985; 14: 535–46.
89. SchmidtJT, BuzzardM. Activity-driven sharpening of the retinotectal projection in goldfish: development under stroboscopic illumination prevents sharpening. J Neurobiol 1993; 24: 384–99.
90. Ben-AriY, GaiarsaJL, TyzioR, et al. GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and generates primitive oscillations. Physiol Rev 2007; 87: 1215–84.
91. AkermanCJ, ClineHT. Depolarizing GABAergic conductances regulate the balance of excitation to inhibition in the developing retinotectal circuit in vivo. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 5117–30.
92. TaoHW, PooMM. Activity-dependent matching of excitatory and inhibitory inputs during refinement of visual receptive fields. Neuron 2005; 45: 829–36.
93. RichardsBA, VossOP, AkermanCJ. GABAergic circuits control stimulus-instructed receptive field development in the optic tectum. Nat Neurosci 2010; 13: 1098–106.
94. ShenW, McKeownCR, DemasJA, et al. Inhibition to excitation ratio regulates visual system responses and behavior in vivo. J Neurophysiol 2011; 106: 2285–302.
95. DemasJA, PayneH, ClineHT. Vision drives correlated activity without patterned spontaneous activity in developing Xenopus retina. Dev Neurobiol 2011; 72: 537–46.
96. FellerMB, WellisDP, StellwagenD, et al. Requirement for cholinergic synaptic transmission in the propagation of spontaneous retinal waves. Science 1996; 272: 1182–7.
97. WongRO, MeisterM, ShatzCJ. Transient period of correlated bursting activity during development of the mammalian retina. Neuron 1993; 11: 923–38.
98. MeisterM, WongRO, BaylorDA, et al. Synchronous bursts of action potentials in ganglion cells of the developing mammalian retina. Science 1991; 252: 939–43.
99. MooneyR, PennAA, GallegoR, et al. Thalamic relay of spontaneous retinal activity prior to vision. Neuron 1996; 17: 863–74.
100. ShatzCJ, StrykerMP. Prenatal tetrodotoxin infusion blocks segregation of retinogeniculate afferents. Science 1988; 242: 87–9.
101. SretavanDW, ShatzCJ, StrykerMP. Modification of retinal ganglion cell axon morphology by prenatal infusion of tetrodotoxin. Nature 1988; 336: 468–71.
102. PennAA, RiquelmePA, FellerMB, et al. Competition in retinogeniculate patterning driven by spontaneous activity. Science 1998; 279: 2108–12.
103. DhandeOS, HuaEW, GuhE, et al. Development of single retinofugal axon arbors in normal and beta2 knock-out mice. J Neurosci 2011; 31: 3384–99.
104. HubermanAD, FellerMB, ChapmanB. Mechanisms underlying development of visual maps and receptive fields. Annu Rev Neurosci 2008; 31: 479–509.
105. EngertF, TaoHW, ZhangLI, et al. Moving visual stimuli rapidly induce direction sensitivity of developing tectal neurons. Nature 2002; 419: 470–5.
106. GaraschukO, LinnJ, EilersJ, et al. Large-scale oscillatory calcium waves in the immature cortex. Nat Neurosci 2000; 3: 452–9.
107. RuthazerES, StrykerMP. The role of activity in the development of long-range horizontal connections in area 17 of the ferret. J Neurosci 1996; 16: 7253–69.
108. O’LearyDD, CowanWM. Topographic organization of certain tectal afferent and efferent connections can develop normally in the absence of retinal input. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1983; 80: 6131–5.
109. AttardiDG, SperryRW. Preferential selection of central pathways by regenerating optic fibers. Exp Neurol 1963; 7: 46–64.
110. GazeRM, KeatingMJ. The restoration of the ipsilateral visual projection following regeneration of the optic nerve in the frog. Brain Res 1970; 21: 207–16.
111. StuermerCA, EasterSS Jr. A comparison of the normal and regenerated retinotectal pathways of goldfish. J Comp Neurol 1984; 223: 57–76.
112. UdinSB, FawcettJW. Formation of topographic maps. Annu Rev Neurosci 1988; 11: 289–327.
113. WestermanRA. Specificity of Optic and Olfactory Pathways in Teleost Fish. CurtisDR, McIntyreAK, eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1965.
114. MeyerRL. Mapping the normal and regenerating retinotectal projection of goldfish with autoradiographic methods. J Comp Neurol 1980; 189: 273–89.
115. HumphreyMF, BeazleyLD. An electrophysiological study of early retinotectal projection patterns during optic nerve regeneration in Hyla moorei. Brain Res 1982; 239: 595–602.
116. MurrayM, EdwardsMA. A quantitative study of the reinnervation of the goldfish optic tectum following optic nerve crush. J Comp Neurol 1982; 209: 363–73.
117. SchmidtJT, BuzzardMJ, TurcotteJC. Morphology of regenerated optic arbors in goldfish tectum. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1984; 10: 667.
118. FujisawaH. Persistence of disorganized pathways and tortuous trajectories of regenerating retinal fibers in the adult newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. Dev Growth Differentiation 1981; 23: 215–19.
119. AdamsonJR, Grobstein, P. Reestablishment of the ipsilateral oculotectal projection after optic nerve crush in the frog: evidence for synaptic remodeling during regeneration. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1982; 8: 514.
120. RankinEC, CookJE. Topographic refinement of the regenerating retinotectal projection of the goldfish in standard laboratory conditions: a quantitative WGA-HRP study. Exp Brain Res 1986; 63: 409–20.
121. StuermerCA. Trajectories of regenerating retinal axons in the goldfish tectum: II. Exploratory branches and growth cones on axons at early regeneration stages. J Comp Neurol 1988; 267: 69–91.
122. JohnsonFA, DawsonAJ, MeyerRL. Activity-dependent refinement in the goldfish retinotectal system is mediated by the dynamic regulation of processes withdrawal: an in vivo imaging study. J Comp Neurol 1999; 406: 548–62.
123. SchmidtJT, TurcotteJC, BuzzardM, et al. Staining of regenerated optic arbors in goldfish tectum: progressive changes in immature arbors and a comparison of mature regenerated arbors with normal arbors. J Comp Neurol 1988; 269: 565–91.
124. StuermerCA. Trajectories of regenerating retinal axons in the goldfish tectum: I. A comparison of normal and regenerated axons at late regeneration stages. J Comp Neurol 1988; 267: 55–68.
125. NorthmoreDP. Quantitative electrophysiological studies of regenerating visuotopic maps in goldfish–I. Early recovery of dimming sensitivity in tectum and torus longitudinalis. Neuroscience 1989; 32: 739–47.
126. OhDJ, NorthmoreDP. Functional properties of retinal ganglion cells during optic nerve regeneration in the goldfish. Vis Neurosci 1998; 15: 1145–55.
127. NorthmoreDP. Quantitative electrophysiological studies of regenerating visuotopic maps in goldfish–II. Delayed recovery of sensitivity to small light flashes. Neuroscience 1989; 32: 749–57.
128. NorthmoreDP, MasinoT. Recovery of vision in fish after optic nerve crush: a behavioral and electrophysiological study. Exp Neurol 1984; 84: 109–25.
129. SchmidtJT. Selective stabilization of retinotectal synapses by an activity-dependent mechanism. Fed Proc 1985; 44: 2767–72.
130. SchmidtJT, BuzzardM. Activity-driven sharpening of the regenerating retinotectal projection: effects of blocking or synchronizing activity on the morphology of individual regenerating arbors. J Neurobiol 1990; 21: 900–17.
131. WizenmannA, ThiesE, KlostermannS, et al. Appearance of target-specific guidance information for regenerating axons after CNS lesions. Neuron 1993; 11: 975–83.
132. RodgerJ, LindseyKA, LeaverSG, et al. Expression of ephrin-A2 in the superior colliculus and EphA5 in the retina following optic nerve section in adult rat. Eur J Neurosci 2001; 14: 1929–36.
133. KingCE, WallaceA, RodgerJ, et al. Transient up-regulation of retinal EphA3 and EphA5, but not ephrin-A2, coincides with re-establishment of a topographic map during optic nerve regeneration in goldfish. Exp Neurol 2003; 183: 593–9.
134. KingC, LaceyR, RodgerJ, et al. Characterisation of tectal ephrin-A2 expression during optic nerve regeneration in goldfish: implications for restoration of topography. Exp Neurol 2004; 187: 380–7.
135. SchmidtJT, EdwardsDL. Activity sharpens the map during the regeneration of the retinotectal projection in goldfish. Brain Res 1983; 269: 29–39.
136. SchmidtJT. Formation of retinotopic connections: selective stabilization by an activity-dependent mechanism. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1985; 5: 65–84.
137. EiseleLE, SchmidtJT. Activity sharpens the regenerating retinotectal projection in goldfish: sensitive period for strobe illumination and lack of effect on synaptogenesis and on ganglion cell receptive field properties. J Neurobiol 1988; 19: 395–411.
138. CookJE, BeckerDL. Spontaneous activity as a determinant of axonal connections. Eur J Neurosci 1990; 2: 162–9.
139. OlsonMD, MeyerRL. The effect of TTX-activity blockade and total darkness on the formation of retinotopy in the goldfish retinotectal projection. J Comp Neurol 1991; 303: 412–23.
140. SchmidtJT, LemereCA. Rapid activity-dependent sprouting of optic fibers into a local area denervated by application of beta-bungarotoxin in goldfish tectum. J Neurobiol 1996; 29: 75–90.
141. DunlopSA, StirlingRV, RodgerJ, et al. Failure to form a stable topographic map during optic nerve regeneration: abnormal activity-dependent mechanisms. Exp Neurol 2003; 184: 805–15.
142. SchmidtJT, BuzzardM, BorressR, et al. MK801 increases retinotectal arbor size in developing zebrafish without affecting kinetics of branch elimination and addition. J Neurobiol 2000; 42: 303–14.
143. DunlopSA. Axonal sprouting in the optic nerve is not a prerequisite for successful regeneration. J Comp Neurol 2003; 465: 319–34.
144. SchmidtJT. Long-term potentiation and activity-dependent retinotopic sharpening in the regenerating retinotectal projection of goldfish: common sensitive period and sensitivity to NMDA blockers. J Neurosci 1990; 10: 233–46.
145. KeatingMJ, GrantS, DawesEA, et al. Visual deprivation and the maturation of the retinotectal projection in Xenopus laevis. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1986; 91: 101–15.
146. BeazleyLD, SheardPW, TennantM, et al. Optic nerve regenerates but does not restore topographic projections in the lizard Ctenophorus ornatus. J Comp Neurol 1997; 377: 105–20.
147. DunlopSA, TeeLB, StirlingRV, et al. Failure to restore vision after optic nerve regeneration in reptiles: interspecies variation in response to axotomy. J Comp Neurol 2004; 478: 292–305.
148. BeazleyLD, RodgerJ, ChenP, et al. Training on a visual task improves the outcome of optic nerve regeneration. J Neurotrauma 2003; 20: 1263–70.
149. InoueT, FukudaY. [Optic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of vision following peripheral nerve transplant]. No To Shinkei 1998; 50: 227–35.
150. FoersterAP, HolmesMJ. Spontaneous regeneration of severed optic axons restores mapped visual responses to the adult rat superior colliculus. Eur J Neurosci 1999; 11: 3151–66.
151. KawaguchiS, MiyataH, KatoN. Regeneration of the cerebellofugal projection after transection of the superior cerebellar peduncle in kittens: morphological and electrophysiological studies. J Comp Neurol 1986; 245: 258–73.
152. GalliL, RaoK, LundRD. Transplanted rat retinae do not project in a topographic fashion on the host tectum. Exp Brain Res 1989; 74: 427–30.
153. CaroniP, SchwabME. Two membrane protein fractions from rat central myelin with inhibitory properties for neurite growth and fibroblast spreading. J Cell Biol 1988; 106: 1281–8.
154. McLoonSC, McLoonLK, PalmSL, et al. Transient expression of laminin in the optic nerve of the developing rat. J Neurosci 1988; 8: 981–90.
155. RagerG, MorinoP, SchnitzerJ, et al. Expression of the axonal cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Ng-CAM during the development of the chick retinotectal system. J Comp Neurol 1996; 365: 594–609.
156. McKerracherL, DavidS, JacksonDL, et al. Identification of myelin-associated glycoprotein as a major myelin-derived inhibitor of neurite growth. Neuron 1994; 13: 805–11.
157. Smith-ThomasLC, StevensJ, Fok-SeangJ, et al. Increased axon regeneration in astrocytes grown in the presence of proteoglycan synthesis inhibitors. J Cell Sci 1995; 108: 1307–15.
158. GhoshA, DavidS. Neurite growth-inhibitory activity in the adult rat cerebral cortical gray matter. J Neurobiol 1997; 32: 671–83.
159. KnollB, IsenmannS, KilicE, et al. Graded expression patterns of ephrin-As in the superior colliculus after lesion of the adult mouse optic nerve. Mech Dev 2001; 106: 119–27.
160. Vidal-SanzM, BrayGM, Villegas-PerezMP, et al. Axonal regeneration and synapse formation in the superior colliculus by retinal ganglion cells in the adult rat. J Neurosci 1987; 7: 2894–909.
161. CarterDA, BrayGM, AguayoAJ. Regenerated retinal ganglion cell axons can form well-differentiated synapses in the superior colliculus of adult hamsters. J Neurosci 1989; 9: 4042–50.
162. CarterDA, BrayGM, AguayoAJ. Long-term growth and remodeling of regenerated retino-collicular connections in adult hamsters. J Neurosci 1994; 14: 590–8.
163. SauveY, SawaiH, RasminskyM. Functional synaptic connections made by regenerated retinal ganglion cell axons in the superior colliculus of adult hamsters. J Neurosci 1995; 15: 665–75.
164. SauveY, SawaiH, RasminskyM. Topological specificity in reinnervation of the superior colliculus by regenerated retinal ganglion cell axons in adult hamsters. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 951–60.
165. Aviles-TriguerosM, SauveY, LundRD, et al. Selective innervation of retinorecipient brainstem nuclei by retinal ganglion cell axons regenerating through peripheral nerve grafts in adult rats. J Neurosci 2000; 20: 361–74.
166. KeirsteadSA, RasminskyM, FukudaY, et al. Electrophysiologic responses in hamster superior colliculus evoked by regenerating retinal axons. Science 1989; 246: 255–7.