Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 12 - RAS signaling networks

from Part 4 - Functional networks of events that modulate phenotypic manifestation of cancer


1. Karnoub A.E., and Weinberg R.A. (2008) Ras oncogenes: split personalities. Nat Rev 9, 517–531.
2. Malumbres M., and Pellicer A. (1998) Ras pathways to cell cycle control and cell transformation. Front Biosci 3, 887–912.
3. Hancock J.F. (2003) RAS proteins: different signals from different locations. Nat Rev 4, 373–384.
4. Yamamoto T., Taya S., and Kaibuchi K. (1999) Ras-induced transformation and signaling pathway. J Biochem 126, 799–803.
5. Campbell S.L., Khosravi-Far R., Rossman K.L., Clark G.J., and Der C.J. (1998) Increasing complexity of Ras signaling. Oncogene 17, 1395–1413.
6. Nel A.E. (2002) T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. Part 1: signaling components, signaling pathways, and signal integration at the T-cell antigen receptor synapse. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109, 758–770.
7. Keshamouni V.G., Mattingly R.R., and Reddy K.B. (2002) Mechanism of 17-β-estradiol- induced Erk1/2 activation in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 277, 22558–22565.
8. Rojas J.M., and Santos E. (2006) RAS-GEFS and RAS GAPS. RAS Family GTPases, 15–43.
9. Bondeva T., Balla A., Várnai P., and Balla T. (2002) Structural determinants of Ras-Raf interaction analyzed in live cells. Mol Biol Cell 13, 2323–2333.
10. Pruitt K., and Der C.J. (2001) Ras and Rho regulation of the cell cycle and oncogenesis. Cancer Lett 171, 1–10.
11. Downward J. (2003) Targeting RAS signalling pathways in cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 3, 11–22.
12. Kerkhoff E., and Rapp U.R. (1998) Cell cycle targets of Ras/Raf signalling. Oncogene 17, 1457–1462.
13. Marshall C. (1999) How do small GTPase signal transduction pathways regulate cell cycle entry? Curr Opin Cell Biol 11, 732–736.
14. Downward J. (1997) Cell cycle: routine role for Ras. Curr Biol 7, R258–R260.
15. Parker P.J., and Murray-Rust J. (2004) PKC at a glance. J Cell Sci 117, 131–132.
16. Reyland M.E. (2007) Protein kinase Cδ and apoptosis. Biochem Soc Trans 35, 1001–1004.
17. Xia S., Forman L.W., and Faller D.V. (2007) Protein kinase C δ is required for survival of cells expressing activated p21RAS. J Biol Chem 282, 13199–13210.
18. Xia S., Forman L.W., Chen Z., and Faller D.V. (2009) PKCδ survival signaling in cells containing an activated p21Ras oncoprotein. Cell Signal 21, 502–508.
19. Song G., Ouyang G., and Bao S. (2005) The activation of Akt/PKB signaling pathway and cell survival. J Cell Mol Med 9, 59–71.
20. van Dam E.M., and Robinson P.J.(2006) Ral: mediator of membrane trafficking. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38, 1841–1847.
21. Malumbres M., and Barbacid M. (2003) RAS oncogenes: the first 30 years. Nat Rev Cancer. 3, 459–465.
22. Bos J.L. (1989) RAS oncogenes in human cancer: a review. Cancer Res 4, 4682–4689.
23. Mu D., Peng Y., and Xu Q. (2004) Values of mutations of K-ras oncogene at codon 12 in detection of pancreatic cancer: 15-year experience. World J Gastroenterol 10, 471–475.
24. Andreyev H.J.N., Norman A.R., Cunningham D., (2001) Kirsten ras mutations in patients with colorectal cancer: the ‘RASCAL II’ study. Br J Cancer 85, 692–696.
25. Kumar R., Angelini S., and Hemminki K. (2003) Activating BRAF and N-Ras mutations in sporadic primary melanomas: an inverse association with allelic loss on chromosome 9. Oncogene 22, 9217–9224.
26. Lynch T.M., and Gutmann D.H. (2002) Neurofibromatosis 1. Neurol Clin 3, 841–865.
27. Weiss B., Bollag G., Shannon K. (1999) Hyperactive Ras as a therapeutic target in neurofibromatosis type 1. Am J Med Genet 89, 14–22.
28. Mercer K.E., and Pritchard C.A. (2003) Raf proteins and cancer: B-Raf is identified as a mutational target. Biochim Biophys Acta 1653, 25–40.
29. Brose M.S., Volpe P., Feldman M., et al. (2002) BRAF and RAS mutations in human lung cancer and melanoma. Cancer Res 62, 6997–7000.
30. Davies H., Bignell G.R., Cox C., et al. (2002) Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature 417, 949–954.
31. Yuan T.L., and Cantley L.C. (2008) PI3K pathway alterations in cancer: variations on a theme. Oncogene 27, 5497–5510.
32. Bellacosa A., de Feo D., Godwin A.K., (1995) Molecular alterations of the AKT2 oncogene in ovarian and breast carcinomas. Int J Cancer 64, 280–285.
33. Simpson L., and Parsons R. (2001) PTEN: life as a tumor suppressor. Exp Cell Res 264, 29–41.
34. Mendelsohn J., and Baselga J. (2000) The EGF receptor family as targets for cancer therapy. Oncogene 19, 6550–6565.
35. Kuan C.T., Wikstrand C.J., and Bigner D.D. (2001) EGF mutant receptor vIII as a molecular target in cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer 8, 83–96.
36. Dean N.M., and Bennett C.F. (2003) Antisense oligonucleotide-based therapeutics for cancer. Oncogene 22, 9087–9096.
37. Harari P.M. (2004) Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition strategies in oncology. Endocr Relat Cancer 11, 689–708.
38. LoPiccolo J., Blumenthal G.M., Bernstein W.B., and Dennis P.A. (2008) Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: effective combinations and clinical considerations. Drug Resist Updat 11, 32–50.
39. Mundschau L.J., and Faller D.V. (1992) Oncogenic ras induces an inhibitor of double-stranded rna-dependent eukaryotic initiation factor 2ɑ-kinase activation. J Biol Chem 267, 23092–23098.
40. Marcato P., Shmulevitz M., and Lee P.W. (2005) Connecting reovirus oncolysis and Ras signaling. Cell Cycle 4, 556–559.