Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: August 2013

4 - The hunt for a stroke etiology: ischemic stroke

from Section II - The Hunt for a Stroke Etiology


Adams RJ, McKie VC, Hsu L et al. Prevention of a first stroke by transfusions in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal results on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. N Engl J Med, 1998; 339: 5–11.
Bash S, Villablanca JP, Jahan R et al. Intracranial vascular stenosis and occlusive disease: evaluation with CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. Am J Neuroradiol, 2005; 26: 1012–21.
Behrouz R, Benbadis SR. CADASIL: cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. eMedicine: Medscape Reference. Available at: Accessed 01/12/2012.
Calabrese LH. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: reflections on 20 years of investigation. Clin Exp Rheumatol, 2009; 27 (Suppl. 52): S3–S4.
Calabrese LH, Duna GF, Lie JT. Vasculitis in the central nervous system. Arthritis Rheum, 1997; 40: 1189–201.
Debrey SM, Yu H, Lynch JK et al. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography for internal carotid artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke, 2008; 39: 2237–48.
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 2011; 42: 227–76.
Greenspon AJ, Hart RG, Dawson D et al. Predictors of stroke in patients paced for sick sinus syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2004; 43: 1617–22.
Hajj-Ali RA, Ghamande S, Calabrese LH, Arroliga AC. Central nervous system vasculitis in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Clin, 2002; 18: 897–914.
Hunder GG. Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Med Clin North Am, 1997; 81: 195–219.
Ingall TJ, Homer D, Whisnant JP, Baker HL Jr, O’Fallon WM. Predictive value of carotid bruit for carotid atherosclerosis. Arch Neurol, 1989; 46: 418–22.
Kalidas K, Behrouz R. Inherited metabolic disorders and cerebral infarction. Expert Rev Neurother, 2008; 8: 1731–41.
Lo GK, Juhl D, Warkentin TE, Sigouin CS, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 T’s) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two clinical settings. 2006. J Thromb Haemost, 2006; 4: 759–65.
Loh E, Sutton MS, Wun CC et al. Ventricular dysfunction and the risk of stroke after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med, 1997; 336: 251–7.
Nedeltchev K, der Maur TA, Georgiadis D et al. Ischaemic stroke in young adults: predictors of outcome and recurrence. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2005; 76: 191–5.
Pullicino PM, Halperin JL, Thompson JL. Stroke in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Neurology, 2000; 54: 288–94.
Scott RM, Smith ER. Moyamoya disease and moyamoya syndrome. N Engl J Med, 2009; 360: 1226–37.
Silbert PL, Mokri B, Schievink WI. Headache and neck pain in spontaneous internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. Neurology, 1995; 45: 1517–22.
Suri MF, Johnston SC. Epidemiology of intracranial stenosis. J Neuroimaging, 2009; 19 (Suppl. 1):11S–16S.
Tait RC, Walker ID, Reitsma PH et al. Prevalence of protein C deficiency in the healthy population. Thromb Haem, 1995; 73(1): 87–93.
Tefferi A, Thiele J, Orazi A et al. Proposals and rationale for revision of the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis: recommendations from an ad hoc international expert panel. Blood, 2007; 110: 1092–7.
Warkentin TE. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Heme/Onc Clin North Am, 2007; 21: 589–607.
Witt BJ, Brown RD Jr, Jacobsen SJ et al. A community-based study of stroke incidence after myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med, 2005; 143: 785–92.