Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: February 2011

3 - Empirical and analytical hydrodynamics

References
Littman, H., Morgan, M. H. III, Vuković, D. V., Zdanski, F. K., and Grbavčić, Z. B.. Prediction of the maximum spoutable height and the average spout to inlet tube diameter ratio in spouted beds of spherical particles. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 57 (1979), 684–687.
Richardson, J. F. and Zaki, W. N.. Sedimentation and fluidization. Trans. Instn. Chem. Engrs. Part A, 32 (1954), 35–53.
Khan, A. R. and Richardson, J. F.. Fluid-particle interactions and flow characteristics of fluidized beds and settling suspensions of spherical particles. Chem. Eng. Commun., 78 (1989), 111–130.
Epstein, N.. Liquid-solids fluidization. In Handbook of Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Systems, ed. Yang, W.-C. (New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 705–764.
Becker, H. A.. An investigation of laws governing the spouting of coarse particles. Chem. Eng. Sci., 13 (1961), 245–262.
Eastwood, J., Matzen, E. J. P., Young, M. J., and Epstein, N.. Random loose porosity of packed beds. Brit. Chem. Eng., 14 (1969), 1542–1545.
Mathur, K. B. and Gishler, P. E.. A technique for contacting gases with coarse solid particles, AIChE J., 1 (1955), 157–164.
Chandnani, P. P. and Epstein, N.. Spoutability and spout destabilization of fine particles with a gas. In Fluidization V, ed. Ostergaard, K. and Sorensen, A. (New York: Engineering Foundation, 1986), pp. 233–240.
Ghosh, B.. A study of the spouted bed, part I – a theoretical analysis. Indian Chem. Engineer, 7 (1965), 16–19.
Grace, J. R. and Lim, C. J.. Permanent jet formation in beds of particulate solids. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 65 (1987), 160–162.
Mathur, K. B. and Epstein, N.. Spouted Beds (New York: Academic Press, 1974).
Li, Y., Lim, C. J., and Epstein, N.. Aerodynamic aspects of spouted beds at temperatures up to 580°C. J. Serbian Chem. Soc., 61 (1996), 253–266.
Altwicker, E. R. and Konduri, R. K. N. V.. Hydrodynamic aspects of spouted beds at elevated temperatures. Combustion Sci. and Tech., 87 (1992), 173–197.
Clift, R., Grace, J. R., and Weber, W. E.. Bubbles, Drops, and Particles (New York: Academic Press, 1978), p. 114.
Thorley, B., Saunby, J. B., Mathur, K. B., and Osberg, G. L.. An analysis of air and solid flow in a spouted wheat bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 37 (1959), 184–192.
Du, W., Bi, X., and Epstein, N.. Exploring a non-dimensional varying exponent equation relating minimum spouting velocity to maximum spoutable bed depth. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 87 (2009), 157–162.
Fane, A. G. and Mitchell, R. A.. Minimum spouting velocity of scaled-up beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 62 (1984), 437–439.
He, Y. L., Lim, C. J., and Grace, J. R.. Spouted bed and spout-fluid bed behaviour in a column of diameter 0.91 m. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 70 (1992), 848–857.
Lefroy, G. A. and Davidson, J. F.. The mechanics of spouted beds. Trans. Instn Chem. Engrs., 47 (1969), T120–T128.
Ergun, S.. Fluid flow through packed columns. Chem. Eng. Progr., 48:2 (1952), 89–94.
Wen, C. Y. and Yu, Y. H.. A generalized method of predicting the minimum fluidization velocity. AIChE J., 12 (1966), 610–612.
McNab, G. S. and Bridgwater, J.. Spouted beds – estimation of spouting pressure drop and the particle size for deepest bed. In Proceedings of the European Congress on Particle Technology (Nuremberg, Germany, 1977), 17 pages.
Littman, H., Morgan, M. H. III, Vuković, D. V., Zdanski, F. K., and Grbavčić, Z. B.. A theory for predicting the maximum spoutable bed height in a spouted bed. Can. J. Chem Eng., 55 (1977), 497–501.
Wu, S. W. M., Lim, C. J., and Epstein, N.. Hydrodynamics of spouted beds at elevated temperatures. Chem. Eng. Commun., 62 (1987), 251–268.
Malek, M. A. and Lu, B. C.-Y.. Pressure drop and spoutable bed height in spouted beds. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 4 (1965), 123–128.
Morgan, M. H. III, Littman, H., and Sastri, B.. Jet penetration and pressure drops in water spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 66 (1988), 735–739.
Grbavčić, Z. B., Vuković, D. V., Zdanski, F. K., and Littman, H.. Fluid flow pattern, minimum spouting velocity and pressure drop in spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 54 (1976), 33–42.
Mamuro, T. and Hattori, H.. Flow pattern of fluid in spouted beds. J. Chem. Eng. Japan, 1 (1968), 1–5.
Brown, R. L. and Richards, J. C.. Principles of Powder Mechanics (Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 1970), p. 70.
Scheidegger, A. E.. The Physics of Flow through Porous Media, 3rd ed. (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1974), p. 155.
Epstein, N., Lim, C. J., and Mathur, K. B.. Data and models for flow distribution and pressure drop in spouted beds. Can J. Chem. Eng., 56 (1978), 436–447.
Epstein, N. and Levine, S.. Non-Darcy flow and pressure distribution in a spouted bed. In Fluidization, ed. J. F. Davidson and D. L. Keairns (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1978), pp. 98–103.
He, Y. L., Lim, C. J., Grace, J. R., and Zhu, J. X.. Measurements of voidage profiles in spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 72 (1994), 229–234.
He, Y. L., Lim, C. J., and Grace, J. R.. Pressure gadients, voidage and gas flow in the annulus of spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 78 (2000), 161–167.
Yokogawa, A., Ogina, E., and Yoshii, N.. Trans. The distribution of static pressure and stress in the spouted bed. Japan Soc. Mech. Engrs., 38 (1972), 1081–1086.
Bridgwater, J. and Mathur, K. B.. Prediction of spout diameter in a spouted bed – a theoretical model. Powder Technol., 6 (1972), 183–187.
McNab, G. S.. Prediction of spout diameter. Brit. Chem. Eng. & Proc. Technol., 17 (1972), 532.
José, M. J. San, Olazar, M., Izquierdo, M. A., Alvarez, S., and Bilbao, J.. Spout geometry in shallow spouted beds. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40 (2001), 420–426.
José, M. J. San, Alvarez, S., Salazar, A. O., Olazar, M., and Bilbao, J.. Spout geometry in spouted beds with solids of different density and different sphericity. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (2005), 8393–8400.
He, Y. L., Lim, C. J., Qin, S., and Grace, J. R.. Spout diameters in full and half spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 76 (1998), 696–701.
Epstein, N. and Chandnani, P. P.. Gas spouting characteristics of fine particles. Chem. Eng. Sci., 42, (1987), 2977–2981.
Zanoelo, E. F. and Rocha, S. C. S.. Spout shape predictions in spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 80 (2002), 967–973.
Lim, C. J. and Mathur, K. B.. Residence time distribution of gas in spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 52 (1974), 150–155.