Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: July 2016

3 - Soft Computing in Electromagnetics: A Review

Summary

Soft computing finds application in a wide range of problems in both engineering and nonengineering fields. Chapter 1 of this book discusses the potential applications of soft computing in fields ranging from engineering to finance, and architecture among others, etc. As the focus of this book is on design optimization of electromagnetic applications, it is necessary to understand the common optimization problems, and the advances and solutions to overcome them. Hence, a comprehensive review of soft computing techniques with a focus on electromagnetic applications is reported in this chapter.

Overview

An important aspect of electromagnetic applications is design and optimization towards actual hardware realization. In this chapter, an extensive literature survey of the soft computing techniques for electromagnetic applications has been carried out. It is observed that artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) has been employed extensively for diverse microwave engineering applications [Choudhury et al., 2012]. In contrast, emerging soft computing techniques like particle swarm optimization (PSO) and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) have not been explored comprehensively for these applications. Hence, soft computing techniques for various microwave engineering applications such as antenna engineering, frequency selective surfaces, radar absorber design applications, microwave devices, etc., are systematically reviewed in this chapter. This chapter also identifies the emerging trends and suitability of different soft computing techniques for various electromagnetic design and optimization problems.

Radar Absorbers

As the name suggests, electromagnetic absorbers are devices that absorb any incident radiation. In other words, the reflection off, and transmission through these devices is zero and the entire incident energy is absorbed by the materials present in the absorbers. The resonant properties of these absorbers are dependent on the constituent material, structure, and morphology. Conventionally, most absorbers are multi-layer in nature and consist of multiple dielectrics stacked one above the other. The thicknesses of these layers play an important role in the performance of the absorber. In addition, advances in the field of metamaterials have resulted in the use of metamaterials in absorber designs. A multi-band metamaterial absorber is given in Fig. 3.1 along with the absorption characteristic. It is seen that each peak in the absorption characteristic corresponds to a ring in the metamaterial structure [Shen et al., 2011]. Therefore, it is clear that designing of radar absorbers is a complicated task and requires careful manipulation of material and structural properties.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Soft Computing in Electromagnetics
  • Online ISBN: 9781316402924
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316402924
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Acharya, O. P., A., Patnaik, and S. N., Sinha, “Null steering in failed antenna arrays,” Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing, vol. 2011, pp. 1–9, 2011.
Assimonis, S. D., T. V., Yioultsis and C. S., Antonopoulos, “Computational investigation and design of planar EBG structures for coupling reduction in antenna applications,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 771–774, Feb. 2012.
Azadegan, R., and K., Sarabandi, “A novel approach for miniaturization of slot antennas,” IEEE transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 421–429, Mar. 2003.
Bayraktar, Z., J., Bossard and D. H., Werner, “AMC metamaterials for low-profile antennas mounted on or embedded in composite platforms,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1305–1308, Jun. 2007.
Bayraktar, Z., M., Gregory and D. H., Werner, “Composite planar double-sided AMC surfaces for MIMO applications,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jun. 2009b.
Bayraktar, Z., P. L., Werner, D. H., Werner, R., Zadegan, and K., Sarabandi, “The design of miniature three-element stochastic Yagi-Uda arrays using particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 5, pp. 22–26, 2006.
Bayraktar, Z., X., Wang and D. H., Werner, “Thin composite matched impedance magnetodielectric metamaterial absorbers,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jul. 2010.
Bossard, J. A., S., Yun, D. H., Werner and T. S., Mayer, “Synthesizing low loss negative index metamaterial stacks for the mid-infrared using genetic algorithms,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 17, pp. 14771–14779, Aug. 2009.
Bossard, J. A., X., Liang, L., Li, S., Yun, D. H., Werner, B., Weiner, T. S., Mayer, P. F., Cristman, A., Diaz and I. C., Khoo, “Tunable frequency selective surfaces and negative-zero-positive index metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1308–1319, May. 2008.
Chen, P. Y., C. H., Chen, H., Wang, J. H., Tsai and W. X., Ni, “Synthesis design of artificial magnetic metamaterials using a genetic algorithm,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no.17, pp. 12806–12818, Aug. 2008.
Choudhury, B., S., Bisoyi and R.M., Jha, “Bacteria foraging algorithm for metamaterial design and optimization,” 2013 IEEE Applied Electromagnetics Conference (AEMC), Bhubaneswar, India, Paper No.: CAD-2–1884, 2 p., December 18th –20nd, 2013.
Choudhury, B., S., Bisoyi and R.M., Jha, “Emerging trends in soft computing for metamaterial design and optimization,” Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 201–228, 2012.
Deias, L., G., Mazzarella and N., Sirena, “Synthesis of EBG surfaces using evolutionary optimization algorithms,” Proceedings of European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 99–102, Mar. 2009.
Feng, Y. J., X. F., Xu and Z. Z., Yu, “Practical realization of transformation-optics designed invisibility cloak through layered structures,” pp. 3456–3460, 2011.
Ge, Y., and K. P., Esselle, “GA/FDTD technique for the design and optimization of periodic metamaterials,” IET Microwave Antennas propagation, pp. 158-164, 2007.
Gingrich, M. A. and D. H., Werner, “Synthesis of low / zero index of refraction metamaterials from frequency selective surfaces using genetic algorithms,” Electronics Letters, vol. 41, no. 23, Nov. 2005a.
Gingrich, M. A. and D. H., Werner, “Synthesis of zero index of refraction metamaterials via frequency-selective surfaces using genetic algorithms,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 1A, pp. 713–716, Jul. 2005b.
Goudos, S. K. and J. N., Sahalos, “Microwave absorber optimal design using multi-objective particle swarm optimization,” Microwave and Optical technology letters, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1553–1558, Aug. 2006.
Gunel, T., “Synthesis of a novel composite right/left-handed nonreciprocal and nonsymmetric transmission line radial stub,” Applied Electronics, AE 2009, pp. 119–122, Sep. 2009.
Gunel, T., “Dual-frequency transmission line impedance matching sections,” International Conference on Applied Electronics 2011, pp. 1–4, Sep. 2011.
Ivsic, B., T., Komljenovic, and Z., Sipus, “Time and frequency domain analysis of uniaxial multilayer cylinders used for invisible cloak realization,” Proceedings of conference on ICECom 2010, pp. 1–5, Sep. 2010.
Ivsic, B., T., Komljenovic, and Z., Sipus, “Performance of uniaxial multilayer cylinders and spheres used for invisible cloak realization,” Proceedings of 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propgation (EUCAP), pp. 1092–1096, Apr. 2011.
Jafargholi, A. and M., Kamyab, “Pattern optimization in an UWB spiral array antenna,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 11, pp. 137–151, 2010.
Jiang, Z., J. A., Bossard, and D. H., Werner, “Low loss dual polarized matched zero index metamaterials for microwave applications,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jun. 2009a.
Jiang, Z., J. A., Bossard and D. H., Werner, “Low loss RF modified fishnet metamaterials with optimized negative, zero and unity refractive index behavior,” Proceedings of IEEE on Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jun. 2009b.
Jiang, Z. H., J. A., Bossard, X., Wang and D. H., Werner, “Genetic algorithm synthesis of impedance-matched infrared ZIMs with wide FOV using a generalized inversion algorithm,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jul. 2010a.
Jiang, Z. H., Q., Wu, X., Wang and D. H., Werner, “Flexible wide-angle polarization-insensitive mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jul. 2010b.
Jiang, Z. H., S., Yun, F., Toor, D. H., Werner and T. S., Mayer, “Experimental demonstration of a conformal optical metamaterial absorber,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1812–1815, 2011.
Jin, N., and Y. R., Samii, “Particle swarm optimization of miniaturized quadrature reflection phase structure for low-profile antenna applications,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 255–258, Jul. 2005.
Kahlout, Y. E., and G., Kiziltas, “Optimally designed microstructures of electromagnetic materials via inverse homogenization,” Proceedings of IEEE on Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jun. 2009.
Kern, D. J., and D. H., Werner, “A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic bandgap absorbers,” Microwave and Optical technology letters, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 61–64, Dec. 2003a.
Kern, D. J., and D. H., Werner, “The synthesis of metamaterial ferrites for RF applications using electromagnetic bandgap structures,” Proceedings on IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2003, vol. 1, pp. 497–500, Jun. 2003b.
Kern, D. J., D. H., Werner, M. J., Wilhelm and K. H., Church, “Genetically engineered multiband high-impedance frequency selective surfaces,” Microwave and Optical technology letters, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 400–403, Sep. 2003c.
Kern, D. H., D. H., Werner and M., Lisovich, “Metaferrites using electromagnetic bandgap structures to synthesize metamaterial ferrites,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1382–1389, Apr. 2005.
Kim, D., and J., Yeo, “Dual-band long range passive RFID tag antenna using an AMC ground plane,” Journal of Latex Class Files, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–8, Jan. 2007.
Kim, T. H., M., Swaminathan, A., Engin and B. J., Yang, “Electromagnetic band gap synthesis using genetic algorithms for mixed signal applications,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 13–25, Feb. 2009.
Kollatou, T. M., A. I., Dimitriadis, N. V., Kantartzis and C. S., Antonopoulos, “A bandwidth-enhanced, ultra-thin, wide-angle metamaterial absorber for EMC applications,” Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, pp. 686–689, Sep. 2011.
Kossiavas, C., and J. L., Dubard, “Synthesis of new artificial magnetic conductors for wideband ultra compact antennas,” The Second European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1–6, Nov. 2007.
Kossiavas, C., A., Zeitler, G., Clementi, C., Migliaccio, R., Staraj and G.|Kossiavas, “X-band circularly polarized antenna gain enhancement with metamaterials,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1911–1915, Aug. 2011.
Kumar, P., and A. K., Singh, “Phase only pattern synthesis for antenna array using genetic algorithm for radar application,” International Journal of Radio and Space Physics, vol.42, pp. 259–264, 2013.
Kwon, D. H. and D. H., Werner, “Low-index metamaterial designs in the visible spectrum,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 9267–9272, Jul. 2007a.
Kwon, D. H, L., Li, J. A., Bossard, M. G., Bray, and D. H., Werner, “Zero index metamaterials with checkerboard structure,” Electronics Letters, vol. 43, no. 6, Mar. 2007c.
Kwon, D. H., P. L., Werner, and D. H., Werner, “Optical planar chiral metamaterial designs for strong circular dichroism and polarization rotation,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no.16, pp. 11802–11807, Aug. 2008.
Liang, T., L., Li, J. A., Bossard, D. H., Werner, and T. S., Mayer, “Reconfigurable ultra-thin EBG absorbers using conducting polymers,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation International Symposium, vol. 2B, pp. 204–207, Jul. 2005.
Lim, S. and H., Ling, “Comparing electrically small folded conical and spherical helix antennas based on a genetic algorithm optimization,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 23, pp. 1585–1593, 2009.
Liu, L., S., Matitsine, R. F., Huang, and C. B., Tang, “Electromagnetic smart screen with extended absorption band at microwave frequency,” Metamaterials 5, pp. 36–41, 2011.
McCulloch, W. S., and W., Pitts, “A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity,” Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, vol. 5, pp. 115–133, 1943.
Micheli, D., R., Pastore, C., Apollo, M., Marchetti, G., Gradoni, V. M., Primiani, and F., Moglie, “Broadband electromagnetic absorbers using carbon nanostructure-based composites,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 2633–2646, Oct. 2011.
Mumcu, G., M., Valerio, K., Sertel and J. L., Volakis, “Applications of the finite element method to designing composite metamaterials,” International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, 2007, pp. 818–821, Sep. 2007.
Moser, H. O., L. K., Jian, H. S., Chen, M., Bahou, S. M. P., Kalaiselvi, S., Virasawmy, S. M., Maniam, X. X., Cheng, S. P., Heussler, S. B., Mahmood, and B. I., Wu, “All-metal self-supported THz metamaterial the meta foil,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 26, pp. 23914– 23919, 2009.
Moser, H. O., L. K., Jian, H. S., Chen, M., Bahou, S. M. P., Kalaiselvi, S., Virasawmy, S. M., Maniam, X. X., Cheng, S. P., Heussler, S. B., Mahmood, and B. I., Wu, “All-metal self-supported THz metamaterial the meta foil,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 26, pp. 23914– 23919, 2009.
Ni, X., G. V., Naik, A. V., Kildishev, Y., Barnakov, A., Boltasseva, and V. M., Shalaev, “Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surfaces on electric and magnetic dipole emission transitions,” Applied Physics B Lasers and Optics, vol. 103, pp. 553–558, 2011.
Oraizi, H. and A., Abdolali, “Combination of MLS, GA & CG for the reduction of RCS of multilayered cylindrical structures composed of dispersive metamaterials,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 3, pp. 227–253, 2008.
Oraizi, H., A., Abdolali, and N., Vaseghi, “Application of double zero metamaterials as radar absorbing materials for the reduction of radar cross section,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 101, pp. 323–337, 2010.
Pattanayak, S., B., Choudhury, and A., Patnaik, “Characterization of planar transmission lines using ANN,” Silver Jublee conference on Communication and VLSI Design, CommV- 2009, Oct. 08-10, Vellore, India.
Pradeep, A., S., Mridula, and P., Mohanan, “Design of an edge-coupled dual-ring split-ring resonator,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 45–54, Aug. 2011.
Qiu,, M., M., Yan, and W., Yan, “Metamaterials for space applications,” Department of Microelectronics and Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, pp. 1–16, Jul. 2008.
Radovanovic, J., V., Milanovic, D., Indjin, Z., Ikonic, and P., Harrison, “Charge carrier transport in quantum cascade lasers in strong magnetic field,” Acta Physica Polonica A, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 99–102, 2011.
Scarborough, C. P., Q., Wu, D. H., Werner, E., Lier, B. G., Martin, and R. K., Shaw, “A square dual polarization metahorn design,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation International Symposium, pp. 1065–1068, 2011.
Shen, X., T. J., Cui, J., Zhao, H. F., Ma, W. X., Jiang, and H., Li, “Polarization-independent wideangle triple-band metamaterial absorber,” Optics Express, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 9401–9407, Apr. 2011.
Subramanian, M. S. S., K. V., Siddharth, S. N., Abhinav, V. V., Arthi, K. S., Praveen, R., Jayavarshini, and G. A. S., Sundaram, “Design of dual log-spiral metamaterial resonator for x-band applications,” International Conference on Computing, Communication and Applications, 2012, pp. 1–6, Feb. 2012.
Tavallaee, A. A. and Y. R., Samii, “A novel strategy for broadband and miniaturized EBG designs hybrid MTL theory and PSO algorithm,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 161–164, Jun. 2007.
Tonn, D. A. and R., Bansal, “Design of a metamaterial-based linear insulated antenna using a genetic algorithm,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 39–49, Jan. 2009.
Viani, F., M., Salucci, F., Robol, G., Oliveri, and A., Massa, “Design of a UHF RFID/GPS fractal antenna for logistics management,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 26, pp. 480–492, 2012.
Vidyalakshmi, M. R. and S., Raghavan, “Comparison of optimization techniques for square split ring resonator,” International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 281–286, Sep. 2010.
Wang, Z., Z., Zhang, S., Qin, L., Wang, and X., Wang, “Theoretical study on wave-absorption properties of a structure with left and right handed materials,” Materials and Design, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1777–17779, Oct. 2008.
Wang, X. and D. H., Werner, “Multiband ultra-thin electromagnetic band-gap and doublesided wideband absorbers based on resistive frequency selective surfaces,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, APSURSI, 09, pp. 1–4, Jun. 2009.
Weikai, X., L., Shutian, and D., Yangzhang, “Design of structural left-handed material based on topology optimization,” Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 282–286, Apr. 2010.
Werner, D. H., D. J., Kern, and M. G., Bray, “Advances in EBG design concepts based on planar FSS structures,” Proceedings of the Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference 2005 (invited talk), pp. 259–262, Apr. 2005.
Werner, D. H., Z., Bayraktar, F., Namin, T. G., Spence, M. D., Gregory, P. L., Werner, and E. A., Semouchkina, “A novel miniature wideband stacked-patch antenna design using matched impedance magneto-dielectric substrates,” Metamaterials, pp. 373–375, 2009.
Xin-yuan, L., F. J., Huil, Z., Kuang, H., Jun, and W., Qun, “A compact wideband planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) loaded with metamaterial,” Proceedings in IEEE Cross Strait Quad- Regional Radio Science and Wireless Technology Conference, pp. 549–551, Jul. 2011.
Xu, S., X., Cheng, S., Xi, R., Zhang, H. O., Moser, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, and H., Chen, “Low scattering broadband cylindrical invisibility cloak in free space,” arXiv:1108.1204v2 [physics.class- ph], pp. 1–17, Aug. 2011.
Yaman, F. and A. E., Yilmaz, “Impacts of genetic algorithm parameters on the solution performance for the uniform circular antenna array pattern synthesis problem,” Journal of Applied Research and Technology, vol. 8, no.3, pp. 378–394, Dec. 2010.
Yu, Z., Y., Feng, X., Xu, J., Zhao, and T., Jiang, “Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 44, pp. 185102(1)–185102(6), 2011.
Zhao, Y. X., F., Chen, H. Y., Chen, N., Li, Q., Shen, and L. M., Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Electronics Letters, vol. 22, pp. 95–108, 2011.