Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: July 2016

5 - PSO for Radar Absorbers

Summary

As the name suggests, absorbers are devices that absorb electromagnetic radiation incident on them. Absorbers are hence used in applications where minimum reflection is desired such as construction of anechoic chambers, stealth aircraft, etc. Absorbers are also used to enhance the performance of detectors in various imaging systems like terahertz spectroscopy. Absorbers generally comprise of layers of different material placed one behind the other. Due to the nature of its construction, absorbers are extremely band specific. The selection of the material parameters and thickness of these layers determines the frequency and bandwidth of operation. This selection process is complex and time consuming as the designer must focus on the combination of material as well as its thickness simultaneously.

In this chapter, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the absorbers in a time efficient manner. First, the implementation of PSO for optimising conventional microwave absorbers is discussed. Following this, PSO based optimization of a metamaterial terahertz absorber for biomedical applications is presented.

Introduction

An electromagnetic absorber is a structure that ideally absorbs all the incident electromagnetic radiation without any transmission or reflection. This is achieved by selecting materials of specific dimensions. Often, designs employ the arrangement of multiple layers of varying dimensions in order to achieve maximum absorption. At the same time, applications in stealth technology imposes another constraint on the design namely that of thickness. These two design parameters conflict each other and the designer is forced to arrive at a trade-off between the two. As mentioned previously, this task is time-consuming. As a result, researchers have turned towards soft-computing in order to design optimized RAM structures.

Abundant literature is available for implementation of genetic algorithm and micro-genetic algorithm for RAM optimization. Chakravarty et al. [Chakravarty et al., 2001] used the same in order to design an FSS based broadband microwave absorber. The work also shows that implementation of micro-genetic algorithm over genetic algorithm considerably speeds up the computation time. The algorithm was designed to simultaneously select the best materials and their thicknesses as well as vary the structural parameters of the FSS for optimized performance.

A novel idea for the fabrication of ultrathin absorbers using electromagnetic band gap materials was presented by Kern et al. [Kern et al., 2003]. The technique involved replacing previously known FSS-resistive sheet designs with a lossy, high impedance FSS layer.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Soft Computing in Electromagnetics
  • Online ISBN: 9781316402924
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316402924
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Baena, J. D., J., Bonache, F., Martin, R. M., Silero, F., Falcone, T., Lopetagi, M. A. G., Laso, J., Garcia-Garcia, I., Gil, M. F., Portilo, and M., Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split ring resonators and complementary split ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 53, pp. 1451–1461, Apr. 2005.
Bayraktar, Z., X., Wang, and D. H., Werner, “Thin composite matched impedance magneto-dielectric metamaterial absorbers,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jul. 2010.
Bilotti, F., A., Toscano, and L., Vegni, “Design of spiral and multiple split-ring resonators for the realization of miniaturized metamaterial samples,” IEEE transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 2258–2267, Aug. 2007.
Chakravarty, S., R., Mittra, and N. R., Williams, “On the application of the microgenetic algorithm to the design of broad-band microwave absorbers comprising frequencyselective surfaces embedded in multilayered dielectric media,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 49, pp. 1050–1059, Jun. 2001.
Chamaani, S., S. A., Mirtaheri, M., Teshnehlab, and M. A., Shooredeli, “Modified multi-objective particle swarm optimization for electromagnetic absorber design,” Proceedings of Asia Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, 5p., Dec. 2007.
Choudhury, B., S., Bisoyi, and R. M., Jha, “Emerging trends in soft computing for metamaterial design and optimization,” Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 201–228, 2012.
Cui, S. and D. S., Weile, “Application of a parallel particle swarm optimization scheme to the design of electromagnetic absorbers,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, pp. 3614–3624, Nov. 2005.
Dib, N., M., Asi, and A., Sabbah, “On the optimal design of multilayer microwave absorbers,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 13, pp. 171–185, 2010.
Fitzgerald, A. J. F., V. P., Wallace, M., Jimenez-Linan, L., Bobrow, R. J., Pye, A. D., Purushotham, and D. D., Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology, vol. 239, no. 2, pp. 533–540, May 2006.
Goudos, S. K. and J. N., Sahalos, “Microwave absorber optimal design using multi-objective particle swarm optimization,” Microwave and Optical technology letters, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1553–1558, Aug. 2006.
Jiang, Z. H., Q. Wu, X., Wang, and D. H., Werner, “Flexible wide-angle polarization-insensitive mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1–4, Jul. 2010.
Jiang, Z. H., S., Yun, F., Toor, D. H., Werner, and T. S., Mayer, “Experimental demonstration of a conformal optical metamaterial absorber,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 1812–1815, 2011.
Jin, N. and Y. R., Samii, “Advances in particle swarm optimization for antenna designs: real number, binary, single objective and multiobjective implementations,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 556–567, Mar. 2007.
Kearney, B. T., Enhancing microbolometer performance at terahertz frequencies with metamaterial absorbers, Doctorate of Philosophy dissertation, 69 p., Naval Postgraduate School, 2013.
Kennedy, J., and R., Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, pp. 1942–1948, 1995.
Kern, D. J., and D. H., Werner, “A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic bandgap absorbers,” Microwave Optical Technology Letters, vol. 38, pp. 61–64, Jul. 2003.
Kollatou, T. M., A. I., Dimitriadis, N. V., Kantartzis, and C. S., Antonopoulos, “A bandwidthenhanced, ultra-thin, wide-angle metamaterial absorber for EMC applications,” Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, pp. 686–689, Sep. 2011.
Landy, N. I., C. M., Bingham, T., Tyler, N., Jokerst, D. R., Smith, and W. J., Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Physical Review B, vol. 79, pp. 125104(1)–125104(6), 2009.
Landy, N. I., S., Sajuyigbe, J. J., Mock, D. R., Smith, and W. J., Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 100, pp. 207402(1)–207402(4), May 2008.
Liu, H., L., Zhang, Y., Gao, Y., Shen, and D., Shi, “Electromagnetic wave absorber optimal design based on improved particle swarm optimization,” Proceedings of EMC'09, pp. 797–800, Dec. 2009.
Liu, L., S., Matitsine, R. F., Huang, and C. B., Tang, “Electromagnetic smart screen with extended absorption band at microwave frequency,” Metamaterials 5, pp. 36–41, 2011.
Liang, T., L., Li, J. A., Bossard, D. H., Werner, and T. S., Mayer, “Reconfigurable ultra-thin EBG absorbers using conducting polymers,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation International Symposium, vol. 2B, pp. 204–207, Jul. 2005.
Michielssen, E., J. M., Sajer, S., Ranjithan, and R., Mittra, “Design of lightweight, broad-band microwave absorbers using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 41, pp. 1024–1031, Jun. 1993.
Micheli, D., R., Pastore, C., Apollo, M., Marchetti, G., Gradoni, V. M., Primiani, and F., Moglie, “Broadband electromagnetic absorbers using carbon nanostructure-based composites,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 2633–2646, Oct. 2011.
Parsopoulos, K. E. and M. N., Vrahatis, “Recent approaches to global optimization problems through Particle Swarm Optimization,” Natural Computing, vol. 1, pp. 235–306, 2002.
Pradeep, A., S., Mridula, and P., Mohanan, “Design of an edge-coupled dual-ring split ring resonator,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 45–54, Aug. 2011.
Robinson, J., Y. R., Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 397–407, 2004.
Siegel, P. H. “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 52, no. 2, pp., 2438–2447, Oct. 2004.
Smith, D. R., J. B., Pendry, and M. C. K., Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science, vol. 305, pp. 788–792, Aug. 2004.
Smith, D. R., S., Schultz, P., Markoscanon, and C. M., Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Physical Review B, vol. 65, pp. 195104 (1)–195104 (5), Apr. 2002.
Vinoy, K. J., and R. M., Jha, Radar Absorbing Materials from Theory to Design and Characterization. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, ISBN 0-7923-9753-3, 1996.
Wallace, V. P., D. A., Arnone, R. M., Woodward, and R. J., Pye, “Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging,” Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference, pp. 2333–2334, Oct. 2002.
Wang, X., and D. H., Werner, “Multiband ultra-thin electromagnetic band-gap and doublesided wideband absorbers based on resistive frequency selective surfaces,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, APSURSI '09, pp. 1–4, Jun. 2009.
Wang, Z., Z., Zhang, S., Qin, L., Wang, and X., Wang, “Theoretical study on wave-absorption properties of a structure with left and right handed materials,” Materials and Design, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1777–17779, Oct. 2008.
Weile, D. S., E., Michielssen, and D. E., Goldberg, “Genetic algorithm design of pareto optimal broadband microwave absorbers,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 38, pp. 518–524, Aug. 1996.
Wen, Q. Y., H. W., Zhang, Y. S., Xie, Q. H., Yang, and Y. L., Liu, “Dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95, pp. 241111(1)–241111(1), 2009.