Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: July 2016

4 - Bacterial Foraging Optimization For Metamaterial Antennas


The increasing demand for wireless capabilities in modern systems has ushered in the development of compact, high performance antennas. Typically, engineers involved in the design of systems for aerospace applications prefer the use of microstrip, conformal antennas for reduction of drag. However, traditional microstrip antennas have low performance characteristics. Research has shown that the inclusion of metamaterial layers in antenna design can significantly improve its performance. Therefore, the design of metamaterial resonating at the same frequency as the antenna under consideration is crucial to the development of high performance antenna systems. This in fact becomes a time consuming procedure as it requires a systematic variation of structural parameters of the metamaterial while simultaneously observing its performance. In this chapter, an attempt has been made to optimize the procedure for metamaterial design by using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO). This soft computing technique will reduce the time taken for obtaining optimized structural parameters and enable rapid design of high performance antenna systems.


The usage of a metamaterial layer in an antenna results in a system that shows higher performance—gain enhancement and multi-band operation, and better capability of compact design by reduction of mutual coupling, in the case of antenna arrays. This has led to the application of such systems in wireless communications, especially in the aerospace domain [Lafmajani and Rezaei, 2011]. These systems are often realized by loading a microstrip antenna with a metamaterial as shown in Fig. 4.1.

As mentioned earlier, the performance of such systems depends on the design of the metamaterial—best performance is observed when the resonant frequency of the metamaterial matches with that of the antenna. Achieving this design objective is a time-consuming task that requires simulation by changing structural parameters iteratively. Efforts are being made to decrease the time involved in obtaining optimized structural parameters using various soft computing techniques such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, etc.

Genetic algorithm (GA) was used by Kim and Yeo [Kim and Yeo, 2007] to design an AMC (artificial magnetic conductor) for a dual band, passive RFID tag antenna. The algorithm was used to optimize the lumped circuit elements in the equivalent circuit of the AMC. The resultant antenna resonated in the 869.5–869.7 MHz and 910–914 MHz bands, thereby conforming to European and Korean UHF standards, respectively.

Araujo,, H. X., D. S. E., Barbin, and L. C., Kretly, “Design of UHF Quasi-Yagi antenna with metamaterial structures for RFID applications,” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, IEEE, pp. 8–11, Nov. 2011.
Bengin,, V. C., V., Radonic, and B., Jokanovic, “Fractal geometries of complementary split-ring resonators,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 56, no. 10, Oct. 2008.
Bilotti,, F., A., Toscano, and L., Vegni, “Design of spiral and multiple split-ring resonators for the realization of miniaturized metamaterial samples,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 2258–2267, Aug. 2007.
Chen,, P. Y., C. H., Chen, H., Wang, J. H., Tsai, and W., X. Ni, “Synthesis design of artificial magnetic metamaterials using a genetic algorithm,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no.17, pp. 12806–12818, Aug. 2008.
Choudhury,, B., O. P., Acharya, and A., Patnaik, “Bacteria foraging optimisation in antenna engineering: An application to array fault finding,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 141–148, Mar. 2013.
Cui,, G., Y., Liu, and S., Gong, “A novel fractal patch antenna with low RCS,” Journal of Electromagnetics Waves and Application, vol. 21, no. 15, pp. 2403–2411, 2007.
Datta,, T., I. S., Mishra, B. B., Mangaraj, and S., Imtiaj, “Improved adaptive bacteria foraging algorithm in optimisation of antenna array for faster convergence,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research C, vol. 1, pp. 143–157, 2008.
Ekmekci,, E., K., Topalli, T., Akin, and G., Turhan-Sayan, “A tunable multi-band metamaterial design using micro-split SRR structures,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 18, pp. 16046–16058, Aug. 2009.
Fletcher,, P. N., M., Dean, and A. R., Nix, “Mutual coupling in multi-element array antennas and its influence on MlMO channel capacity,” Electronic Letters, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 342–344, Feb. 2003.
Gollapudi,, S. V. R., S., S. S., Pattnaik, O. P., Bajapai, S., Devi, K. M., Bakwad, and P. K., Pradyumna, “Intelligent bacterial foraging optimisation technique to calculate resonant frequency of RMA,” International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, vol. 4, pp. 67–75, Mar. 2009.
Huang,, J. T., J. H., Shiao, and J. M., Wu, “A miniaturized Hilbert inverted-F antenna for wireless sensor network applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 3100–3103, Sep. 2010.
Jin,, N. and Y. R., Samii, “Particle swarm optimisation of miniaturized quadrature reflection phase structure for low-profile antenna applications,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 255–258, Jul. 2005.
Ju,, J., D., Kim, W. J., Lee, and J. I., Choi, “Wideband high-gain antenna using metamaterial superstrate with the zero refractive index,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1973–1976, Aug. 2009.
Kim,, D. and J., Yeo, “Dual-band long range passive RFID tag antenna using an AMC ground plane,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2620–2626, June 2007.
Kossiavas,, C., A., Zeitler, G., Clementi, C., Migliaccio, R., Staraj, and G., Kossiavas, “X-band circularly polarized antenna gain enhancement with metamaterials,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1911–1915, Aug. 2011.
Kossiavas,, C. and J. L., Dubard, “Synthesis of new artificial magnetic conductors for wideband ultra compact antennas,” The Second European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1–6, Nov. 2007.
Lafmajani,, I. A. and P., Rezaei, “Miniaturized rectangular patch antenna loaded with spiral/ wires metamaterial,” European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 121–130, 2011.
Mandelbrot,, B. B., Les, Objects Fractals – Forme, Hasard et Diemnsions, 4th Ed., Champs Flammarion, Paris, France, ISBN 2-08-081301, 1995. Translation in English Fractals. Form, Chance and Dimension, W.H. Freeman & Co Springer, Netherlands, ISBN: 0716704730, 1977.
McVay,, J., N., Engheta, and A., Hoorfar, “High impedance metamaterial surfaces using Hilbertcurve inclusions,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 130–132, Mar. 2004.
Nur,, T. E., S. K., Ray, D., Paul, and T., Mollick, “Design of fractal antenna for ultra-wideband applications,” International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 66–74, 2011.
Palandoken,, M., and H., Henke, “Fractal negative-epsilon metamaterial,” Antenna Technology (iWAT) IEEE, pp. 1–4, Mar. 2010.
Rajo-Iglesias,, E., O., Quevedo-Teruel, and L., Inclan-Sanchez, “Mutual coupling reduction in patch antenna arrays by using a planar EBG structure and a multilayer dielectric substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1648–1655, June 2008.
Samii,, Y. R., “Metamaterials in antenna applications: Classifications, designs and applications,” Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology, Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials, pp. 1–4, Mar. 2006.
Shiju,, R. M. and N., Venkateswaran, “ Optimisation of linear array antenna pattern synthesis using bacterial foraging algorithm,” Proceedings of International Conference on Recent Advances in Computing and Software Systems, pp. 130–134, Apr. 2012.
Suganthi,, S., S., Raghavan, and D., Kumar, “Miniature fractal antenna design and simulation for Wireless Applications,” International Conference on IEEE Recent Advances in Intelligent Computational Systems (RAICS2011) Trivandrum, pp. 51, Sep. 2011.
Thakare,, Y. B. and Rajkumar, “Design of fractal patch antenna for size and radar cross-section reduction,” IET Microwaves Antennas Propagation, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 175–181, 2010.
Tonn,, D. A. and R., Bansal, “Design of a metamaterial-based linear insulated antenna using a genetic algorithm,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 39–49, Jan. 2009.
Werner,, D. H., Z., Bayraktar, F., Namin, T. G., Spence, M. D., Gregory, P. L., Werner, and
E. A., Semouchkina, “A novel miniature wideband stacked-patch antenna design using matched impedance magneto-dielectric substrates,” Metamaterials, pp. 373–375, 2009.
Werner,, D. H., R. L., Haupt, and P. L., Werner, “Fractal antenna engineering: The theory and design of fractal antenna arrays,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 37–58, 1999.
Yousefi, L., and O. M., Ramahi, “Miniaturized wideband antenna using engineered magnetic materials with multi-mesonator inclusions,” IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation Society, 2007.