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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 December 2019

Sander van der Leeuw
Affiliation:
Arizona State University
Type
Chapter
Information
Social Sustainability, Past and Future
Undoing Unintended Consequences for the Earth's Survival
, pp. 493 - 516
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Index

abstract representations of concrete systems, 88
Académie Royale des Sciences, 36
accelerations
interactions between, 340
non-environmental, 340
action
narrative theory of, 227
activation network, 189
shape or topology, 186
spreading, 186
activation networks, 448
activation over relaxation, 186
adaptability, 302
adaptation, 20
adaptive capacity, 135
adaptive changes create other risks, 177
adolescence, 125
advertising, 378
drives changes, 368
meets mass-production, 363
affordances, 84, 446
agency
role of, 107
aggregation, 296
statistical, 93
aggregations, 139
aging, 309, 318
agriculture, 68
agriculture depends on drainage, 162
plantation, 176
AI (Artificial Intelligence)
degree of alignment, 450
general cross-task, 381
narrow task specific, 381
alignment, 140141, 270
degree of, 70
of disciplines, 61
educational, 22
social, 22
of societies’ values, 369
alliance structures
unstable, 280
all knowledge is incomplete, 115
alternatives, 65, 131
future, 64
alternative scenarios
multiple, 178
analogue approach relating past and present, 81
Anthropocene, 266, 336
anthropogenic, 26, 68
action, 73
anthropology economic
formalist, 374
anticipate, 12, 80, 360
anticipation, 97, 99
a “place”out of a “space”
humans create, 347
approach
additive, 134
extended evolution, 354
flow structure, 145
generative, 221
positivist, 217
reductive, 134
trial-and-error, 220
archaeology, xiii, 45, 56, 124
ARCHAEOMEDES, 32, 72, 100, 177
architectures
modular, 96
Arthur, 98, 221, 227, 261, 413, 420
artifact making
emergent stabilization, 229
artifact making reconstruction, 229
artifacts
as information-processing tools, 157, 259
inform substance and substantiate information, 342
took over much information processing, 259
artificial intelligence, 451
Atlan machine learning, 59, 356, 380, 433
focus on training, 382
narrow and general, 381
predicts suicidal tendencies, 387
use of information external to humans, 382383
assessment models
integrated, 90
assimilation
stepwise, 140
asymmetrical trees
garbling and loss of signal, 196
attitude, III, 38
fatalist, 72
attractor
aperiodic, 113
limit-cycle, 111
point-, 111
strange- or chaotic, 113
torus-, 112
attractors
low-dimensional strange, 113
attributions, 226
invention as generation of, 226
Augé, 347
authority
central hierachical, 193
supraregional, 175
autocatalytic, 145, 155, 281
reaction, 146
automation, 381, 451
machine learning in, 380
and outsourcing require education, 324
people replaced by, 309
from production to distribution society, 382
autonomy, 381
limited, 194
machine, 381
back-casting, 85, 98
Bacon, 35
balance of power, 450451
barriers
administrative, 62
in hierarchies, 205
to information flow, 352
to innovation, 231
to interdisciplinarity, 54
to transdisciplinarity, 58
basic hierarchies
create, 131
basic sequence
rotating around vertical axis, 254
battle against water
drainage ditches, 158
Beckert, 97
Imagined Futures, 395
bee’s eye view, 56
behavior
average, 60
collective, 106
cyclical of economy, 219
of distributed systems, 208
economic, ecological, and social, 63
future, 80
idiosyncratic, 107
individual, 106
near-chaotic, 16
no long-term predictions of, 111
non-equilibrium, 106
of spreading activation net, 187
stable, 210
behavioral
skeletons, 261
behaviors
diverse, 60
Bénard convection, 270
bias
in category formation, 59
neutralized, 147
none, 147
toward dissimilarity, 147
toward similarity, 147
bifurcation
Hopf, 281
points, 74
second
separation hierarchical and distributed communication, 268
third
preurban smouldering, 269
bifurcations
and dampenings, 209
period-doubling, 282
render chaos transient, 200
big bang
financial, 324
big data, 11
algorithm-based analysis, 380
capability to automate, 379
cheaper sensors, 351
cloud memory, 351
concentration of information, 378
concentration of power, 379
customized advertising, 378
detailed analysis of patterns, 378
enhanced resolution, 379
increased processing capacity, 351
mobilization of relevant voters, 378
novel approaches, 405
revolution, 451
socially (de)constructive uses, 380
big men, 190, 267
biodiversity
loss of, 15
biosocial nature
of humans, 124
birth and death rates
different parts of the world, 309
birth of world system
commerce and banking spread, 291
continental information gathering networks, 292
heterarchical structures, 291
heyday of city power, 292
increasing information-processing capacity, 292
industrial expansion, 292
rural emigration to towns, 292
from rural to urban, 291
rural–urban interaction increase, 292
trading houses, 292
voyages to other continents, 292
birth rate, 309
crude, 307
Black Death, 33, 74, 290, 296297
black soils, 68
blade tools, 127
bonds, 169
to fund water infrastructure, 169
bootstrapping, 222, 224
drivers, 138
process, 122
Borges, 109
bottom-up
top-down vs., 421
boundaries
planetary, 93
boundary
between signal and noise, 450
conditions, 8283
phenomena taking over, 270
bourgeoisie, 42
brain
biological capacity of, 142
to body weight ratio, 125
short-term working memory, 58
brain capacity
learning to exploit, 124
short-term working memory, 58
BRICS countries
rise of, 330
buffer, 302
burden
sharing, 94
business
community, 19
control handed over, 391
driven, 22
encapsulated by, 12
butterfly
effect, 111, 301
capability
cognitive, 49
to enhance dimensionality, 179
capacity
cognitive, 124
capital
human and natural
overexploitation, 359
capitalism
increased competition, 363
capitalist dynamics
role of constitutive fictions, 395
career structures, 61, 408, 436
carrying capacity, 134
Cartesian, 34
categories
open and closed, 232
categories to observations
relating, 232
categorization, 147
categorize, 131
category
definition, 98
category formation, 27, 147
causal chains
to explain the present, 178
cells, 103, 142, 204
Bénard convection, 103
technology, 103
organized around central concept, 103, 222
central axis
rotating vessel around, 249
centuries, 8
eighteenth and nineteenth, 39
eleventh and twelfth, 290
nineteenth and twentieth, 36
seventh to eleventh, 270
thirteenth and fourteenth, 291
chaîne opératoire, 229
challenges
environmental, 10, 444
societal, 20, 135
sustainability, 305
chance origins
improbability of, 40
change
design for, 27
global, 15
heredity linked to, 40
second order, 73
change and stability, 448
change is hard, 356
changes
anthropogenic, 67
second order, 17, 26
state, 103
structural, 331
changing identity
challenge of, 59
channel
capacity, 155, 193
channel
capacity
drops below or exceeds, 184
channel capacity
sufficient, 269
channels
multiple alternative, 185
chaos, 146
deterministic, 110
enhancing resilience, 108
potential of, 340
promotes flexibility and diversity, 108
responsible for enhancing resilience, 108
true, 72
chaotic, 111
chaotic oscillation
causes bifurcation
and dampening, 209
chiefdoms
unstable transitional organizations, 189
chimpanzee
STWM, 125
chip, 127
choice
has central role, 231
choices
determined emotionally, 59
circular economy, 27
climate change, 1011, 49, 175
mitigate, 94
clocks, 349350
atomic, 349
clusters, 110
hierarchy of, 110
small, 188
urban systems in, 189
coarse-graining, 197, 201
codesign
of models, 94
of research questions, 94
coevolutionary transitions
depend on temporal rhythms, 264
coevolution of human cognition
very long-term, 121
coexist
predictability and unpredictability, 105
cognition
coevolution of, 447
universal interface between humans and environment, 123
of a wider range of scales, 134
cognitive capacity
and infant growth, 126
cognitive dimensions
reduced number, 184
cognitive spheres
certainty sphere, 233
possibility sphere, 233
problem sphere, 233
coherence, 153
dissolution of nation-states, 365
internal, 194
self-referential, 217
Cold War, 365
collaboration, 175
emergence of, 159
between stakeholders, 58
transdisciplinary, 58
collapse, 72, 141, 274275
structural, 72
collective action
in water management, 160
collective behavior
unpredictable, 105
colonial, 296
colonial empires
dismantling of, 300
colonial powers
western in China, 348
colonies
business and government working together, 298
commodities
overdependency on, 316
commodity production
intrinsic rate, 281
Commons
Tragedy of the, 175
communication
common actualization of meaning, 48
contributing to migration, 310
increased dependency on, 142
multichannel, 182
self-referential, 25
stress, 137
syntactic aspect of, 151
written
transcends space and time, 185
communication channels
limited capacity, 151
longer, 184
communication, collaboration, competition
anchored within value space, 354
communities
disciplinary, 22
early farming, 265
gated, 372
globalization destroys, 374
mutual dependency, 368
The New World
value space of communities, 439
of scholars and scientists, 41
scientific and non-scientific, 49
specialized, 137
urban
designing for change, 401
competence networks, 226
competencies
five transdisciplinary, 63
key, 63
competition
and cooperation, 199
reduced by innovation, 202
shifts to economy, 366
Complex Adaptive Systems, 100, 102, 105
Adaptive, 444
complexity
characterization of, 104
Earth system vs. human perception, 333
embrace, 405
high degree of, 275
increasing, 77
information diffusion capacity, 196
reduced
of hierarchical self-organizing systems, 202
complex systems, 80, 100, 102, 105
adaptive, III, 444
behaviors, 83
resilience in, 107
self-organizing, 104
structure, 193
compulsive sequences, 221
computer
exceed human information processing capacity, 433
games, 31, 85, 368, 451
models, 85
processing power, 344
simulation, 86
reliability, 89
computing
high performance, 379
power
increasing model complexity, 98
Comtat, 82, 177
conceive objects
as three-dimensional, 131
conception of objects
closed categories, 234
partonomy, 234
sequence, 234
topology, 234
conceptual models
beyond, 90
conditions
of enhancement, 109
extant, 96
favoring risk taking, 223
initial, 73
of natural selection, 40
operational, 208
configuration
divine, 33
societal, 300
spatiotemporal, 145
conflict
arbitrage, 139, 365
increases in, 184
intergroup, 138
intrasocietal, 450
low incidence of, 182
Congress of Vienna, 364
connectedness, 70
is information, 70
connectivity
gradual improvements
discontinuous effect, 276
rapid increase in, 351
conscious
knowledge
limited by the unknown, 231
consequences
for health
of wealth differentials, 322
unanticipated, 85
unexpected, 99
unforeseen and unwanted, 86
unintended, 10, 12, 96, 176, 300
conservation, 71
law of, 24, 123
principle, 445
constraint
communication as, 137
cultural, 248
disciplinary, 51
energy, 138, 142, 296
external, 452
hierarchy as, 184
on hierarchy capacity, 196
intellectual, 61
internal, 452
constraints
communication and energy as, 139
energy and resources, 142
construction problems
control of shape, 247
control speed and rhythm, 248
ensure access, 248
maintain fixed position, 248
range of shapes required, 248
vessel collapses or deformation, 248
consumerism, 352
contact
face-to-face, 182
contingencies, 83
contingent structurations
history as, 108
continuity, 188
institutional, 422
control
central, 198
loss of control over information, 391, 450
no government, 451
no individual in, 185
controller
central, 208
controlling
ecological dynamic, 68
cooperation
reduces group stability, 191
cooptation, 36
corn production
in N. America, 74
correct wealth discrepancies, 452
coupled systems
hierarchies and market systems, 195
creation
cultural context of, 229
between mind and matter, 232
creative choices
not random or unlimited, 235
creativity
role of, 98
crises of the twentieth century
abolition of gold standard, 300
big bang, 301
collapse of the USSR, 301
dust bowl, 300
emergent fields of tension, 299
Great Depression, 300
restructuring of the developed world, 300
revolution of rising expectations in ex-colonies, 301
shift toward consumerism, 300
subsuming regional risks under global ones, 301
World War I., 299
World War II, 300
crisis, 72
accumulation of unintended consequences, 386
societal, 25
temporary information-processing insufficiency, 334
cross-scale dynamics
in modeling tools, 94
crowdsourcing, 66
cultivation
requires drainage, 159
cultural
constructs, 10
Culture
Nature as subcategory of, 52
current tipping point
one of three most consequential in history, 339
curricula, 42
cybernetics, 101
cyberwarfare, 347
cyclical lows
not coinciding, 176
Daly, 411
argument value-based, 412
back-casting from new ideas, 414
critiques role of science and technology, 413
energy- and matter-related arguments, 412
need for dematerialization, 414
no-growth economics, 414
political economics of scarcity, 412
replace more is better with enough is best, 412
science contributed to conundrum, 413
steady state economics, 413
technological adaptation, 414
Dark Ages
high entropy, 288
little long-distance trade, 289
loss of knowledge, 289
Darwinian model, 40
debt level
high, 317
debt system
is fiduciary, 316
decision-making, 98
anticipation can flip negatively, 396
based on imagined futures, 395
confidence in imagined future, 396
decisions
constrained by social networks, 259
decolonization
cut information flow, 298
separates business and government, 298
dedicated authority
water-, 162
defined channel
of communication, 151
delta, 158
dematerialization
of our value systems, 11
democracies
from enabling to controlling, 391
democracy
alternative truths, 371
and consumerism, 370
declining political parties, 371
distinguishing fiction and reality, 372
fracturing alignment, 371
hybrid, 371
hybrid regime, 378
information bubbles, 372
institutional challenges, 371
participate actively, 391
populist organizations, 371
and sustainability, 370
think-out-of-the-box, 391
demographic tendencies
projected, 306
Demographic Transition Theory, 308
demography
elephant in the room, 413
inviolability of human life, 414
denominator
common, 359
lowest common, 352
Descartes, 35
designing for change, 452
Desmond Tutu
let us pray, 391
destruction and creation
cascades of, 224
deterministic and stochastic processes
interplay between, 108
developing countries
computer literacy, 377
ICT important after 2000, 376
ICT lagging, 377
ICT potential underexploited, 377
insufficient ability to use ICT, 377
investment lagging, 377
poverty reduction, 377
use of Internet, 377
development
vs. mechanics, 39
development pathways
alternative, 93
development proxies
demography, 288
density and extent of transport, 288
innovativeness, 288
spatial extent, 288
trade flows, 288
wealth accumulation, 288
differences between cultures
becoming source of friction, 352
differential payoffs
increase success, 200
digital revolution
accelerated existing dynamics, 363
Dilthey, 37
dimensionality
curse of, 26
difference between perception and action, 333
increases in, 114
dimensions
enhance the number of, 178
fractal, 113
of reality
removed, 369
directedness
aligned, 226
mutual, 226
disaggregation, 35, 77
disciplinary communities, 50
need for fusion, 305
reinforced, 60
disciplines, 41
discontinuity, 274
history of, 107
disintegration
edge of, 122
dissipative flow structure, 214
dissipative flow structures, 446
distinction
markets and market societies, 373
distinction between information and noise
blurring or disappearing, 353
distributed processing
longdistance corridors, 269
distributed systems
allocation of finite resources, 197
cooperation and competition, 197
environment and payoff, 199
imperfect knowledge, suboptimal behavior, 198
independence of participants, 197
knowledge slow and incomplete, 197
power-law of learning, 197
satisfice, 198
distribution economy
criteria for policies, 383
politics over economics, 383
diversification
economic, 136
DIVERSITAS, 18
diversity
enhances stability, 209
domestic and international dynamics
interdependency, 366
dominance of individual centers
unstable, 278
Doppler effect, 116
downscale, 93
dualism
between abstract and concrete, 35
great wall of, 33, 74
reason and experience, 35
Dupuy, 44
dynamics
at multiple scales, 94
second order, 264
Earth system, 16
Earth System Science Partnership, 19
ecology
definition, 40
human, 41
economic
growth
and population growth, 309
models
dynamic equilibrium, 360
vulnerability of LDCs, 319
economic and political web
transnational, 364
economic anthropology
substantivist, 373
economics
behavioral, 99
complex systems thinking, 99
emphasis on continuity, 360
evolutionary thinking, 99
macro-, 60
separate from politics, 373
value-driven behavior, 373
economy
prestige goods, 268
from production to distribution, 383
ecosystem, 41
edges, 110
education
differentiates earning capacity, 319
education systems
discipline-based and -focused, 22
egalitarian processing
group too large for, 183
elections
non-participation, 390
empires, 139
Empiricism, 3435
encephalization
quotient, 125
energy
efficiency improvement, 312
infinitesimal additional cost, 351
mastery of, 339
rapid increase of use, 311
renewable, 314
stranded assets, 312
engagement
stakeholder, 65
entities
administrative in Holland, 159
entrepreneurship
US decline of, 320
entropy
dissipates, 146
Shannonian relative, 145
statistical–mechanical, 145
environment, 40
as non-organism, 40
perspective, 20
environmental dynamics
slow change, 264
environmental risk
control, 135
epistemological
differences
between disciplines, 60
epistemologies, 22
e-residency
Estonian, 348
ethno-archaeology, 247
European expansion and retraction, 288
European Union, 173
evaluate choices made
against options not chosen, 228
events
unforeseen, 106
Evernden, 32
evolution
extended, 230
ontogenetic vs. phylogenetic, 40
evolutionary
drive, 108
many pathways, 283
evolutionary approach
relating past and present, 81
evolving structure
merges functions and simplifies, 357
ex-ante, 84
and ex-post, 178
ex-ante perspective, 443
exchange and trade, 136
ex-colonies
gain independence, 329
executive manufacuring functions
tools, techniques to instantiate conceptions, 234
existence
emergence over, 104
expansion
keeps trouble away, 154
explanation, 55
proximate, 24
ultimate, 24
explanation and prediction
are asymmetrical, 115
exploitation, 70
explosion
innovation, 132
extended evolution, 448
factoids, 353
facts
status of, 216
farmers
moved to towns, 163
feedback
cognitive, 155
feedforward
reversal, 131
loops, 74
negative, 101
perception, cognition, learning, 146
positive, 101
feedforward, 9798
final shape
determined by tools available, 254
finance
productive vs. speculative, 314
first stirrings
Hanseatic League, 289
new (feudal) social structure, 289
new spatial structure, 289
peasants provide surplus, 289
protection for peasants, 289
twelfth-century Renaissance, 289
flood of 1953, 173
flows
as dynamic structures, 103
dissipative, 103
flow structures
around towns, 138
dissipative, 103
fluctuations
aperiodic, 110
focus
on contexts and relationships, 102
focus on Information Theory, 443
Fondaco, 348
footprints, 142
forecasting and backcasting, 85
foreign lands
past and future as, 81
fourth bifurcation
city states, 270
framework
static allocation, 60
free market
creation of governments, 373
disembedded financial logic, 373
From Being to Becoming, 102
fuel
peat as, 163
functions
new cognitive, 134
funds for repairs
towns loan, 169
fusion
intellectual, 23
future
ontologically uncertain, 85, 393
thinking about, 11, 79
future driver
exchange between present and imagined futures, 395
Future Earth, 19
futures
desirable, 84, 97
plausible, 84
futuring, 96
gatherer-hunter-fisher societies, 190
General Systems Theory, 41
generative potential
assessing, 226
theory of, 227
Geosphere-Biosphere
Program, 18
global economic interdependence, 366
globalization, 329
cheap transportation, 375
cost of moving people, 375
dimensionality of other cultures, 302
diversity buffers against hyper-connectedness, 302
expansion of markets, 375
explosion of unanticipated consequences, 302
is not new, 297
local growth of industry, 375
outsourcing, 375
reduced dimensionality of value spaces worldwide, 302
reduces dimensionality, 358
separation of production and consumption, 375
shrinking value space, 358
telecontrol, 376
transformations in, 375
undermines diversity in values, 302
value chain revolution, 375
globalized world system
more accident-prone, 342
Global Systems Science’, 302
governance
international, 397
governments
used by, 12
grain prices
increase in, 165
great acceleration, 444
speeded up by information processing, 343
great men, 190, 267
Greco-Roman culture
around the Mediterranean, 140
green growth, 11
bottom-up, 420
distribution economy, 420
economy of opportunity, 420
enlarge our global value space, 421
global environmental footprint, 412
global governance impossible, 422
ill defined, 411
interpretation of, 410
is growth necessary?, 411
less work, more creativity, 419
local autonomy, 420
multipolar world, 422
opportunity for change, 411
power of new technologies, 415
reduce differences in wealth and wellbeing, 411
reduce humans’ environmental reduce impact, 411
reevaluation, reduction, and relocalization, 421
role of free market ideology, 413
role of progress, 411
small communities, 422
small-scale agriculture, 421
statistical approach ignores detail, 422
strengthening bottom-up
awareness, 423
greenhouse gas emissions
ignore ultimate causes of unsustainability, 304
group meetings
periodic, 267
group size
highly variable, 183
limited, 182
growth
density-dependent, 108
growth of structure
causes loss of dimensionality, 357
Gunderson & Holling, 70
Haarlemmermeer, 170
habitus, 106
Haeckel, 40
Harvard model, 41
Helbing, 106, 423
distributed networks take over, 423
Heraclitus of Ephesus, 100
hermeneutic
circle, 37
heterarchical systems
adaptability, 202
advantage, 203
efficiency, 202
large
sluggish adaptation, 271
reduction of error-making, 201
stability, 202
heterarchies, 195, 200
hierarchical, 71
hierarchies, 193
diffusion time limit, 196
emergence
statistically probable, 191
emergence of, 266
multilevel, 194
optimizing resources, 194
hierarchization
bottom up, 201
hierarchy
adaptability, 197
adaptable and adapted, 197
asymmetrical, 207
fixed-point attractor, 267
growing and strengthening, 268
overall complexity, 196
reduced adaptiveness, 268
symmetry and diffusion speed, 196
tangled, 43
vertically asymmetrical, 257
historical myopia, 360
history
natural, 10
and Natural History, 39
not inevitable, 297
Hogg, 197
holistic approach, 57
to the future, 81
holistic perspective, 444
Holland
emerged from interaction between people and water, 175
Hollandse Maatschappij van Wetenschappen, 36
Hoogheemraadschap, 162
hotspots
regional players compete, 366
Huberman, 197
human
dynamic
faster change, 264
information processing, 122
learning
autocatalytic reaction, 146
societies
information processing, 124
human agency
absence of, 34
human beings
dual nature, 32
organize, 24
human brain, 36, 43
biological evolution of, 125
growth of, 124
as natural phenomenon, 30
human capability
to innovate, 135
human cognition and organization
constrain information processing, 344
Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, 18
humanity
is active, 28
is passive, 28
human–machine teaming, 381
human-produced commodities
knowledge determinant, 149
humans
eating their future, 310
human wellbeing
reduction in dimensionality of, 330
hyper-coherent, 67
hypermodernity
anthropology of, 347
ICT
individuation, 368
role of, 367
ICT acceleration
must it run its course?, 403
power concentration, 402
wide societal adaptation, 403
ICT revolution, 12
Alpha-Go approach, 405
architecture, 404
artificial intelligence development, 423
assisted self-organization, 426
barriers to managing society, 425
Big Brother society, 424
causing unemployment, 413
changes in perception, 383
changing societal dynamics, 347
collection of microdata, 385
collective control, 403
collective science, 384
combinatoric complexity greater than ICT capacity, 426
complexification, 384
computational thinking, 404
computers control society, 423
computing power always insufficient, 426
context, 362
continues existing trends, 364
coordination capacity, 423
decreasing cost of moving information, 375
democracy, 370
desirability adapted to system dynamics, 426
disconnect technology-society, 390
explosion of small companies, 386
facilitating globalization, 367
focus on relationships, 384
free market development, 423
human-machine interaction, 403
increasing dimensionality, 405
information society thinking, 404
instability of hyper-coherent systems, 427
learning for the future, 405
limits to cooperation, 428
management of politics, 386
massive data gathering, 406
modeling, 384
network approaches, 384
overcoming cognitive limitations, 404
(over)simplification, 385
predictive policing, 424
problem-based, change-focused tools, 405
science overtaken?, 385
serious games, 405
simplification, 384
slowing it down, 403
society uncontrollable, 426
statics to dynamics, 384
statistical basis of insurance, 386
steering economy, 386
synthesis 2.0 tools, 404
transparency in science, 384
we’re all connected, 387
what is the role of ICT?, 426
wise king cannot control society, 424
ideas
outlive objects, 217
ideas behind technology
skeleton of society’s choices, 261
immaterial domain
part of technology, 215
immigration
and xenophobia, 309
imperfect matches
between past and present, 82
income inequality
rising in the USA, 324
increase in knowledge
but loss of control, 334
individualism, 70
individuals
independence from context, 394
individuals and groups
align values, 355
industrial revolution, 42
changing status of colonies, 295
Europe mass producer, 294
improved political control, 295
multipolar world, 295
new technologies, 295
plentiful (fossil) energy, 294
social movements, 295
society dependent on innovation, 296
industry
-driven, 22
infomercials, 368
information
control of, 184
disembedding of, 342
everyone source for everyone, 369
links ideal and real realms, 152
is shared, 123
as potential meaning, 148
reaches everyone instantly, 352
as reduction of uncertainty, 151
sharing of, 24
information brokers, 269
information diffusion
speed of, 195
information diversity
increase, 344
information flow
volume processed, 186
information loss
outside context, 152
information pool
heterogeneous, 184
heterogenous, 183
homogeneous, 181
inhomogeneities in, 267
information processing
acceleration of, 340
capacity
increased density, 135
clusters grow indefinitely, 188
collective, 133, 142
digital, 343
disembedding of, 340
distributed, 192, 207
efficiency, 194
electronic, 11
feedback loop, 343
heterarchical and directional, 271
information as flow, 150
expanding stable clusters, 187
knowledge as stock, 150
long distance activation, 188
no control, 352
organization of, 11
replaced energy as the main constraint, 341
short-lived finite clusters, 187
temporally stable
finite clusters, 187
information-processing landscape
spatial clumpiness, 189
information society, 445
information sources
multiplication, 369
information-theoretical approaches
limitations, 151
informed
everyone partly, 184
infrastructure maintenance
reductions in, 317
initial conditions
of the present, 67
sensitivity to, 111
innovation
acceleration of, 45, 50
as ex novo investment, 219
in business, 42
cascade, 139
cost of, 45
directed to sustainability, 415
increasingly costly, 322
in industry, 42
introduction of novely in society, 215
requires energy for implementation, 320
requires ex-ante perspective, 215
role of
in society and economy, 219
societies depend on, 154
innovations
appear as clusters, 219
new, 137
innovative culture
how to acquire, 228
instability
and discontinuity, 105
fundamental, 107
local, 113
intellectual fusion, 57
absence of, 56
interaction
between niche and perception, 235
interactive, 19
interdisciplinary, 53
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 23, 97
International Energy Agency, 312
Internet
of Things, 45
invariant elements
determine tradition, 254
invention
creation of novelty, 215
determined by context, 220
improve understanding, 392
interaction between ideas and things, 216
invention and innovation, 447
inventor
studies options for actions ex-ante, 218
thinks possibilities, probabilities, 218
inversion society-economy, 449
investigate
choices made and not made, 244
investment
in environment, 136
private, 169
Iron Age, 45, 272
European, 68
issues
epistemological, 83
real-world, 65
John Seely Brown, 430
Jonas, 33
judgment
constrained, 147
Kennemerland, 160
knowing
self-referentially construed, 52
knowledge
formalized categorizations, 148
not specialized, 182
societal coherence, 150
through critical observation, 34
through identification, 34
knowledge and information
interaction between, 148
Krause, 247
lakes
drained, 165
Lamarck, 40
land
reclamation, 170
surface below water level, 162
tax, 164
landscapes
disturbance dependent, 68
Lane, 45
Lane and Maxfield
the innovator’s perspective, 225
last seventy years
balance of power shifts, 299
extraction-to-waste economy, 299
multipolar and information-flow structure emerging, 299
Latouche, 419
learn how to learn, 24
learning
group-, 133
machine
of large datasets, 381
problem- and project based, 65
student-centered, self-directed, and collaborative, 65
lemniscate, 70
lenders of last resort, 317
Leroi-Gourhan, 25, 220
levees
natural, 158
level of abstraction, 153
Lewis, 32
life expectancy
differences, 307
life sciences
assume long-term irreversibility, 38
Limits to Growth, 86
lineages and chiefdoms
segmentary, 191
Little Ice Age, 68
long-distance distributed communications
emergence of, 270
long term, 26
long-term evolutions
endogenous and exogenous, 69
long-term perspective, 444
long-term societal dynamics
independent of matter/energy constraints, 150
long-term study of invention and innovation, 443
LonWorks, 45
lowest common denominator, 56
Luhmann, 48
machine learning, 451
fuzzy set approach, 380
macroscopic order
new, 106
maladaptations, 267
Mandelbrot sets, 113
manufacture
invariant elements, 254
staged or chunked, 240
variable elements, 254
manufacturing
dimensions involved, 126
sequences inverted, 134
manufacturing tradition
Negros Oriental, Philippines, 249
marketing
enabled creation of demand, 341
markets
shaped by governments, 324
market systems, 193
are non-optimizing, 194
equal access to partial information, 193
flexible and diverse, 194
no central control, 193
marsh, 158
mass marketing, 363
mass-production, 363
material and energetic constraints
temporary, 150
material aspects of technology
seen as facts, 216
material conditions
articulate with inventor’s perception, 230
materials
new, 134
materials and artifacts
relational systemic outlook on, 229
material wealth
growing differentials in, 322
mathematical model
dynamic, 86
mathematics of discontinuous change
need for, 360
matter
mastery of, 339
primordial state of, 39
matter, energy and information
not exchanged in the same way, 149
Maxfield, 45
means of communication
improvements in, 137
mechanism
regulatory, 258
mechanisms
self-reinforcing, 109
mechanization, 363
media
enabling escape, 367
memory
loss of, 152
metadata
extending, 90
Michoacan, Mexico, 255
middle classes
squeeze on, 324
migration
challenges, 310
changing regional demographies, 309
milieu
perspective, 20
mobile societies
do not invest, 265
uncertainty, no risk, 265
modeling
agent-based, 179
component-based, 96
safe operating spaces, 93
model of transitions, 448
models
agent-based, 114
dynamic equilibrium, 80
evaluate theories, 89
kinds of, 90
position in argument, 96
process, 88
and questions, 90
support, 88
modern world
changing roles of government and business, 298
molding
invariant elements, 257
pottery, 255
variations, 257
money
dominance of, 45
monism
materialistic, 36, 43
Moore’s law, 344
multidimensional communal value sets
populism and defence of, 330
multidisciplinary, 53
multinational corporations
the size of nations, 364
multinationals
growth of, 341
multiple attractors
coexistence of, 108
multi-scalarity, 113
narratives
allow backing into the future, 226
Natura
is ambiguous, 32
natural environment
disturbance-dependent, 264
naturalization of Man, 36
nature, 10
appropriation of, 158
objectification of, 32
network
amplification, 116
networks
heterarchical, 186
processes occur in, 110
prone to transformation or collapse, 109
network size and stability
very large fluctuations, 188
news cycle
twenty-four hour, 368
new solutions
create challenges, 357
grafted on existing structures, 356
Newtonian physics, 37
The New World
anti-disciplinary approaches, 440
capabilities determined by networks, 438
change in risk calculus, 434
change is the norm, 434
collective information processing, 429
compasses and maps, 431
computer
games, 437
crowd know more than individuals, 438
dimensionality and potential, 439
diversity and ability, 437
emergence and authority, 428
emergent democracy, 429
entities and patterns, 437
exploration and exploitation, 432
failures and learning opportunities, 436
freeing animal spirits 432
a fundamentally new information-processing structure, 435
Heraclitan approach, 433
intellectual property rights?, 438
Kuhn’s essential tension, 435
learning and teaching, 433, 436
learning by doing, 436
machine and human co-processing, 433
need-based innovation, 430
power over and power to, 429
Practice and theory, 436
pull and push, 430
pull-over-push, 437
real life patterns are complex, 440
the role of disobedience, 435
safety and risk, 433
stability rather than change as the challenge, 434
Systems and objects, 439
vision and plan, 431
nexus
cognitive, 35
NGOs
major international, 366
niche
combines possibility and problem spaces, 237
generalizable external model, 237
niche construction, 228, 230
nineteenth-century international relations
sovereignty and balance of power, 365
nodes, 110
noise, 147
nominal debt
global, 316
non-communicable diseases
increases in, 319
nonoptimal strategies
persistence in distributed systems, 202
nouns and verbs
role of, 109
novelties
product of group in context, 219
novelty
emergence of, 12
not perceived without stability, 217
objectification, 36
objectivity
in the study of nature, 34
objectivity or neutrality
scientific, 48
observations
overdetermined by past experience, 217
Occam’s Razor, 114
ontological uncertainty
allows and limits inventions, 225
ontology to ontogeny
moving from, 229
open systems
societies as, 155
open water
threatens land, 164
operating space
safe, 15
operation
multiple modes of, 110
order and disorder
relationship between, 104
order through fluctuation, 106
organization perspective, 374
organizations
(proto-)urban, 185
oscillations
aperiodic, 107
Ostrom, 10
other participants
no-one knows all, 184
out of the box, 97
parsimony
rule of, 114
Participatory Anthropic Principle, 49
partnerships
ad hoc, 169
partonomies, 131
pasture
agricultural land reverts to, 163
Patent Office
United States, 47
path dependency, 74
pathways
development, 93
pattern recognition, 147
Pax Americana
favors multinationals, 298
peat, 158
tax on, 165
peer polity interaction, 270
peer review, 31, 36, 61
pension and healthcare systems
challenge for, 319
people
live partly in fantasy world, 368
people immobilized
by indecision, 353
perception
dimensions of
select or suppress, 147
percolation
phenomenon, 122
percolation perspective, 446
period
colonial, 74
industrial, 74
precolonial, 74
perspective
cyclical, 33
dissipative flow, 301
linear, 33
organization, 110
systemic and evolutionary, 82
perspectives
environment and milieu, 27
phase space, 111
phase transitions, 105
phenomena
dead, ahistorical, 37
poly-interpretable, 217
phenomena and ideas
relative lifespans of, 217
phenomenology
invention and innovation, 227
physics
mechanistic, 33
planetary boundaries
societal, 306
planetary boundary
societal, 324
ICT acceleration, 402
wealth discrepancy, 326
plantations
in East Indies, 172
plausible and desirable futures, 452
Polanyi, 373
political entities
indigenous, 140
political organization, 159
possibility space
multiple domains of attraction, 108
potential, 70
is energy, 70
pottery-making, 237
power
predictive, 80
principle
precautionary, 27
printing, 342
proactive, 20
problem formulation
indeterminacy in, 21
problems
multidimensional, 58
wicked, 22, 58, 102
wicked or hairy, 54
problems of construction
constrain techniques, 247
processes
reversible, cyclical, or repeatable, 37
processing
partial control, 183
under partial control, 446
universal control, 446
without central control, 184, 446
without
central control, 184186
Processing
under universal control, 181
processing of information
semi-independent machine, 343
processing strategy
divide and rule, 201
pipe-lining, 201
production economy
wage differentials, 382
productivity
increase not rewarded, 325
increasing emphasis on, 359
profits through growth ideology
driver since Industrial Revolution, 320
promotion and tenure, 31
properties
emergent, 93
proto-urban centers
emergence of, 269
pumps
steam, 173
quasi-periodic, 113
Rationalism, 35
raw materials
choice of, 234
reactive, 20
reality from conception
distinguish, 131
reality shows, 368
real life and fantasy
distance between, 369
reason
conform to experience, 35
rebuilding cities
autonomy, 401
circular economy, 401
designing
multiple scenarios, 402
different business
models, 401
energy-information balance, 399
ICT favors distributed settlement, 400
ICT undermines need for cities, 400
integrating top-down and bottom-up, 401
longevity of infrastructure, 399
long time horizon, 402
societal risks increased, 400
urban planning, 401
vulnerability, 400
rebuilding communities, 452
building resilience, 398
chaos, 397
codependency of individuals, 398
collective creativity, 398
contribution of IT, 397
grassroots initiatives, 397
humility of scientists, 399
multidimensional value spaces, 397
organic agriculture, 398
rebuilding trust, 399
revitalization, 398
transition towns, 397
recombinant innovations
increase in, 351
reductionist, 12
redundancy
potential, 352
reengaging, 452
reestablished stability
after World War II, 365
regulation
social, 137
relationship
change and stability, 217
invert between data and interpretations, 258
society–environment
reciprocal, 135
subject–object, 115
relationship society–environment
reciprocal, 135
release, 72
Renaissance, 33
emergence of bourgeoisie, 291
era of opportunity, 290
Italian, 290
long distance trade, 291
population and wealth aggregation, 290
reevaluation of religion, etc., 290
urban and rural population growth, 290
urban trading centers in Low Counties, 291
reorganization, 72
institutional, 72
reproduction
as identical recreation, 40
research
institutional contexts of, 48
validation, 22
research diversity
reduction of, 62
reset
relation society–environment, 334
resets
nature of
shift toward society, 335
resilience
community, 70
Resilience Alliance, 10
resources
integral part of society, 216
scarce
allocation of, 61
unavailable, 330
retransform water
into land, 169
return on invested capital
decrease in US, 320
reversal
economy and technology, 261
Rhine, 158
Rijnland, 158, 160
rising expectations
revolution of, 324
risk barriers
planetary, 306
risk spectrum
shift in, 177
shifts, 26
Rockström, 15
Roggema, 402
role as scientists, 453
role of scientists
acknowledge limits of science, 408
adopt CAS, 407
anticipation, 407
are we experts?, 407
behave as citizens, 407
humility, 407
intellectual leaders, 408
links with government and industry, 406
listen more, talk less, 406
loss of trust, 406
role of scientific facts, 408
social and political engagement, 406
too far from public, 406
transparent relationship with society, 406
Royal Society, 36
rural dynamics
governed by environment, 264
rural land
urban control, 169
safe operating space, 306
Saijo, 391
sanctuaries
liminally placed, 269
savings and investments
decrease in, 319
scaffolding structures, 226
theory of, 227
scales
interaction spatial and temporal, 176
scaling
allometric, 46, 139, 327
scenario
building, 97
Schumpeter, 219
science
cognitive, 9899
cognitive and social, 49
is conditional, 49
critical attitude to, 47
history of, 32
institutionalization of, 50
multidimensional, 50
societal context of, 44
trust in, 31
science losing trust, 444
sciences
mistrust of, 47
natural
partnership with industry, 46
scientific ethic
Mertonian, 47
scientist
explains results of actions ex-post, 218
scientists
productivity of, 61
scientists must engage, 453
SDGs
adopt progress ideology, 417
against
western liberal capitalism, 417
end poverty and hunger, 416
global mandate, 418
globalization and countermovements, 418
no one left behind, 417
peaceful, just and inclusive societies, 416
prosperous and fulfilling lives for all, 416
protect the planet from degradation, 416
risks of the project, 417
top-down direction and bottom-up
innovation, 419
search engines, 351
search time
reduction, 137
second order change, 445
sedentary societies
humans engage with environment, 265
invest, 265
reduced range of resources, 265
sequences of action
remember and reproduce, 131
stretching and chunking, 134
shaping technology
collective knowledge, 231
conscious knowledge (know that), 231
tacit knowledge (know-how), 231
shift
from government-funded fundamental to industry-funded applied research, 47
shift from exploiting to exploring, 449
short hierarchies
domain-specific, 267
short-term working memory, 125, 445
shrinking dimensionality
reducing innovation?, 360
signal, 146
signal and noise
distinction between, 353
signal-to-noise ratio
stronger, 184
similarity, dissimilarity
not absolutes, 147
social stresses
increasing, 137
size of information flow
related to time perception, 350
slow and rapid dynamics
interaction between, 280
slow dynamics
importance of, 69
small face-to-face groups
fission frequent, 191
social beings
humans are, 149
social dislocation, 373
social interaction
holistic basis reduced, 359
social networks, 351
social science
researching societal dynamics, 305
societal coherence, 355
dependent on innovation, 214
societal collapse
scientific theory of, 332
societal dynamics
interactions between, 331
societal structure
transitions in, 180
societal systems
are open, 145
genesis of, 145
societies
egalitarian, 182
small-scale, 182
value spaces, 355
societies’ capability
to absorb change, 346
society
self-organizing communications system, 48
society’s focus
shift from stability to change, 320
society’s interaction with the material world
artifacts determine, 260
society’s perspective
shift from past to future, 320
socioenvironmental dynamics, 10
second order, 10
socioenvironmental systems
integrated, 102
software evolution
algorithmic, 344
solutions
create unforeseen challenges, 48
solutions and challenges
interaction between, 122
space and time
changing relationship with, 347
specialized knowledge, 184
spectacularization
of experience, 367369
spectacularization of experience, 451
speculative capital
mobility of, 315
spillovers, 221
stability
global, 113
needs to be explained, 217
organizational, 194
research device, 116
stages of invention
critical revision, 220
insight, 220
perception of a problem, 220
setting the stage, 220
stakeholders
from civil society, 58
state of our planet, 72
states and empires, 192
Steffen, 15, 305
stochastic information webs, 269
stone tools
shaping, 126
three-dimensional conceptualization of, 127
stories
just-so, 82
strategies
error-making, 108
strategy
multi-resource, 134
structure
flow is the, 103
hierarchical, 183
scaffolding, 23
structuring
spontaneous, 106
study of invention
combines inside- and outside perspective, 218
STWM
modern human, 125
subject and referent, 27
comparing, 147
subjectivity
of observer recognized, 115
subsistence strategies
different, 135
sustainability, 9
pillars of, 24
a societal challenge, 306
sustainability conundrum
societal, not environmental, 443
Sustainable Development Goals, 415
swarm planning, 402
understanding
passes through human cognition, 51
system behavior
long-term, 103
systems
Complex Adaptive, 443
education, 22
homeostatic, 101
morphogenetic, 101
open, 146
open or closed, 101
tangled hierarchy, 229
technical systems
neither societal nor environmental, 157
technique
Levallois, 131
techniques anchored
at minimally three levels, 233
technological imbalances, 221
technological innovation, 444
technological tradition
articulated between ideal and real realms, 218
coevolution between material conditions and cultural knowledge, 230
technologies
capturing unknown phenomena, 222
information-processing role of, 157
mindful and full of intent, 231
new solutions within, 222
novel, 223
recombination of existing ones, 222
technology
construct to capture phenomena, 221
mediates between mind and matter, 213
new domains of, 223
part of multilevel recursive structure, 222
shapes economy, 225
of a society, 224
ways to do things, 215
technology and economics
interface of, 98
techno-sphere, 230
temporal continuity od ideas, 447
temporal intervals
subdivision of, 350
temporal overlaps
cause problems, 176
tendencies
fissionary, 184
tendency
in invention sequences, 220
territorialiy
in constant redefinition, 270
territorial states
colonies under military control, 293
growing wealth gap, 293
hybrid systems, 293
improvement of the road systems., 293
independence, 293
territorial integration, 292
Treaty of Westphalia, 293
territories
reliance on
undermined, 347
smaller, 135
The World in 2050, 97
theories
dynamic
formalization, 87
overdetermined by past experiences, 356
underdetermined by observations, 59, 356
Thermodynamics
Second Law of, 116
thinking
critical, 65
overdetermined by the past, 26
path-dependent, 26
underdetermined by observations, 26
thinking and managing
long-term strategic to short term tactical, 360
threats and institutions
bootstrapped to create The Netherlands, 176
time-bomb
or crisis, 177
time delays
introduce oscillations, 198
time management
reducing unit size, 350
time perception
relative, 116
societal management of, 349
subjective and individual, 349
tipping point, 11, 27
tipping points, 107, 448
ultimate endogenous causes, 332
topologies
new, 134
towns, 137
trade
long distance, 163
longer distance, 138
trade barriers
protectionism and national security, 315
trade goods
industrial production of, 163
trading centers
specialized periodic, 269
trajectories
future, 84
transactions
legal coverage
organization instead of territory, 348
transdisciplinarity, 12, 57
transdisciplinary, 17, 53
transformation
structural, 103
transformations
in information processing structures, 180
long-term, 78
transition
first organizational, 265
transition toward globalized society
elites vs. others, 330
transmission of information
electrical, 342
treasure
conquered, 141
Treaty of Westphalia, 364
tribes, 191
trust
scientists regain, 48
truths or realities
there are none, 48
turbulence, 113
turves, 163
ultimate causes, 445
ultradiffusion, 192
uncertainty
ontological, 102
slows down investments, 316
understanding
vs. knowledge, 37
underwater peat exploitation
limited, 169
undisciplined, 53
unexpected consequences
accumulation of, 50, 332
crisis of, 10
unintended consequences, 449
accumulation of, 77, 342
universe
inanimate, 33
unlimited cheap energy
lifted constraint on innovation, 363
upscale, 93
urban dynamics
governed by humans, 264
urbanites
buy land, 165
urbanization
affected by I, 329
changes in governance structure, 327
due to enhanced information processing, 327
expansion of, 163
high institutional vulnerability, 327
major stresses, 329
rapid increase of, 326
rising transport costs with climate change, 327
and rural depopulation, 329
urbanization trend
business as usual?, 329
urban mode of life
gradual strengthening, 288
US
tax system
biased toward rich, 325
USA, Russia, and China
readjustments, 366
use personal opinions
to elaborate alternative truths, 353
Usher, 219
US military
globally dominant, 366
value
social creation of, 374
values
determined by socioenvironmental networks, 354
and identities, 355
instantiations of information processing structures