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A Social History of England, 900–1200
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Book description

The years between 900 and 1200 saw transformative social change in Europe, including the creation of extensive town-dwelling populations and the proliferation of feudalised elites and bureaucratic monarchies. In England these developments were complicated and accelerated by repeated episodes of invasion, migration and changes of regime. In this book, scholars from disciplines including history, archaeology and literature reflect on the major trends which shaped English society in these years of transition and select key themes which encapsulate the period. The authors explore the landscape of England, its mineral wealth, its towns and rural life, the health, behaviour and obligations of its inhabitants, patterns of spiritual and intellectual life and the polyglot nature of its population and culture. What emerges is an insight into the complexity, diversity and richness of this formative period of English history.


‘This is an imaginatively-conceived volume that cuts across conventional chronological divisions to offer new insights into the English medieval society and culture. No other volume offers so comprehensive an analysis of all aspects of life in Anglo-Saxon and Norman England. It should be an essential purchase for students and scholars working on England in the central Middle Ages.’

Sarah Foot - Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History, University of Oxford

‘This is a ground-breaking collection that combines intellectual, political and cultural history with archaeological, literary, ecocritical and environmental scholarship in an unprecedented fashion. The result is innovative and interdisciplinary in the very best way - rich in insights, lucid, learned, and original.’

Paul J. E. Kershaw - University of Virginia

‘This fresh and interesting volume has broadened the normal range of selection for a social history to include such excellent literary scholars as Andy Orchard and Elaine Treharne, matching them with archaeologists and the incomparable Oliver Rackham. It will inspire the young to pursue a speciality from one or other of the chapters and one or two readers might even ponder the volume as a whole and go on to transcend specialities and produce a great social history of the complex kind we so singularly lack.’

Paul R. Hyams - Cornell University

‘This collection of thirty essays by field leaders, expertly edited by Julia Crick and Elisabeth van Houts, is … very welcome and has much to offer medieval history. Going far beyond considerations of government, and taking in change alongside continuity, it makes important contributions … excellent surveys and overviews, accessible to students and non-specialists, reinforcing and enlightening to veterans.’

Alex Burghart Source: The Times Literary Supplement

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Further reading
Land use and people
Audouy, M. and Chapman, A., Raunds: The Origins and Growth of a Midland Village ad 450–1500 (Oxford, 2009).
Blair, J., ‘Hall and chamber: English domestic planning 1000–1250’, in Meirion-Jones, G. and Jones, M., eds., Manorial Domestic Buildings in England and Northern France (London, 1993), pp. 1–21.
Booth, P., Dodd, A., Robinson, M. and Smith, A., The Thames through Time: The Archaeology of the Gravel Terraces of the Upper and Middle Thames. The Early Historical Period: ad 1–1000, Oxford Archaeology Thames Valley Landscapes Monographs, 27 (Oxford, 2007).
Creighton, O. and Liddiard, R., ‘Fighting yesterday's battle: beyond war or status in castle studies’, Medieval Archaeology, 52 (2008), 161–9.
Cunliffe, B., Excavations at Portchester Castle, vol. ii, Saxon, Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 33 (London, 1976).
Dyer, C., Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850–1520 (London and New Haven, 2002).
Fairbrother, J. R., Faccombe Netherton: Excavations of a Saxon and Medieval Manorial Complex, 2 vols., British Museum Occasional Papers, 74 (London, 1990).
Faith, R., The English Peasantry and the Growth of Lordship (London, 1997).
Fleming, R., ‘Lords and labour’, in Davies, Wendy, ed., From the Vikings to the Normans. The Short Oxford History of the British Isles, (Oxford, 2003), pp. 107–38.
Fleming, R., ‘The new wealth, the new rich, and the new political style in late Anglo-Saxon England’, Anglo-Norman Studies, 23 (2000 (2001)), 1–22.
Fowler, P., Farming in the First Millennium ad: British Agriculture between Julius Caesar and William the Conqueror (Cambridge, 2002).
Gardiner, M. F., ‘Implements and utensils in Gerefa, and the organization of seigneurial farmsteads in the High Middle Ages’, Medieval Archaeology, 50 (2006), 260–7.
Gardiner, M. F., ‘Late Saxon settlement’, in Hamerow, H., Crawford, S. and Hinton, D., eds., A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Archaeology (Oxford University Press, 2011).
Gardiner, M. F., ‘The origins and persistence of manor houses in England’, in Gardiner, M. F. and Rippon, S., eds., Medieval Landscapes (Macclesfield, 2007), pp. 170–82.
Hamerow, H., Early Medieval Settlements: The Archaeology of Rural Communities in North-West Europe 400–900 (Oxford, 2002).
Hardy, A., Charles, B. M. and Williams, R. J., Death and Taxes: The Archaeology of a Middle Saxon Estate Centre at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire (Oxford, 2007).
Hey, G., Yarnton: Saxon and Medieval Settlement and Landscape, Thames Valley Landscapes Monograph, 20 (2004).
Jones, R. and Page, M., Medieval Villages in an English Landscape: Beginnings and Ends (Macclesfield, 2006).
Lewis, C., Mitchell-Fox, P. and Dyer, C., Village, Hamlet and Field: Changing Medieval Settlements in Central England (Manchester, 1997), pp. 77–118.
Loveluck, C., Rural Settlement, Lifestyles and Social Change in the Later First Millennium ad: Anglo-Saxon Flixborough in Its Wider Context, Excavations at Flixborough, 4 (oxford, 2007).
Oosthuizen, S., ‘New light on the origins of open-field farming’, Medieval Archaeology, 49 (2005), 165–93.
Rippon, S., Beyond the Medieval Village: The Diversification of Landscape Character in Southern Britain (Oxford, 2008), pp. 61–105.
Rippon, S., Fyfe, R. M. and Brown, A. G., ‘Beyond villages and open fields: the origins and development of a historic landscape characterised by dispersed settlement in south-west England’, Medieval Archaeology, 50 (2006), 31–51.
Williams, A., ‘A bell-house and a burh-geat: lordly residences in England before the Norman Conquest’, in Harper-Bill, C. and Harvey, R., eds., Medieval Knighthood, 4 (1992), pp. 221–40.
Williams, P. and Newman, R., Market Lavington, Wiltshire: An Anglo-Saxon Cemetery and Settlement, Wessex Archaeology Reports, 19 (Salisbury, 2006).
Williamson, T., Shaping Medieval Landscapes: Settlement, Society, Environment (Macclesfield, 2003).
Water and land
Barber, L. and Priestley-Bell, G., Medieval Adaptation, Settlement and Economy of a Coastal Wetland. The Evidence from around Lydd, Romney Marsh, Kent (Oxford, 2008).
Blair, J., ed., Waterways and Canal Building in Medieval England (Oxford, 2007).
Clarke, C., Literary Landscapes and the Idea of England, 700–1400 (Woodbridge, 2006).
Crowson, A., T. Lane, K. Penn and Trimble, D., Anglo-Saxon Settlement on the Siltland of Eastern England (Sleaford, 2005).
Gardiner, M., ‘The transformation of marshlands in Anglo-Norman England’, ANS 29 (2006 (2007)), 35–50.
Gardiner, M., ‘The wider context’, in Barber, L. and Priestley-Bell, G., Medieval Adaptation, Settlement and Economy of a Coastal Wetland. The Evidence from around Lydd, Romney Marsh, Kent (Oxford, 2008), pp. 297–304.
Long, A., S. Hipkin, and H. Clarke, , Romney Marsh: Coastal and Landscape Change through the Ages (Oxford, 2002).
Rippon, S., ‘Landscape change during the “long eighth century” in southern England’, in Higham, N. J. and M. J. Ryan, eds., The Landscape Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge, 2010), pp. 39–64.
Rippon, S., ‘“Making the most of a bad situation”? Glastonbury Abbey, Meare, and the medieval exploitation of wetland resources in the Somerset Levels’, Medieval Archaeology, 48 (2004), 91–130.
Rippon, S., The Transformation of Coastal Wetlands: Exploitation and Management of Marshland Landscapes in North West Europe during the Roman and Medieval Periods (London, 2000).
Forest and upland
Atherden, M., Upland Britain. A Natural History (Manchester, 1992).
Cox, J. C., The Royal Forests of England (London, 1905).
Rackham, O., ‘The Abbey woods’, in Gransden, A., ed. Bury St Edmunds. Medieval Art, Architecture, Archaeology and Economy (London, 1998), pp. 139–60, plates xxxiii–xxxiv.
Rackham, O., Ancient Woodland. Its History, Vegetation and Uses in England, 2nd edn (Dalbeattie, 2003).
Rackham, O., The History of the Countryside (London, 1986), esp. ch. 5, ‘Woodland’, ch. 6, ‘Wood-Pasture’ and ch. 14, ‘Moorland’.
Rackham, O., The Last Forest. The Story of Hatfield Forest (London, 1989).
Wager, S. J., Woods, Wolds and Groves. The Woodland of Medieval Warwickshire, British Archaeological Reports, British Series, 269 (Oxford, 1998).
Mineral resources
Hooke, D., The Anglo-Saxon landscape: The Kingdom of the Hwicce (Manchester, 1985).
Loveluck, C., ‘Wealth, waste and conspicuous consumption: Flixborough and its importance for Middle and Late Saxon rural settlement studies’, in Hamerow, H. and MacGregor, A., eds., Image and Power in the Archaeology of Early Medieval Britain (Oxford, 2001), pp. 78–130.
Metcalf, D.M., ‘Regions around the North Sea with a monetised economy in the pre-Viking and Viking ages’, in Graham-Campbell, J. and Williams, G., eds., Silver Economy in the Viking Age (Walnut Creek, CA, 2007), pp. 1–11.
Parsons, D., ed., Stone: Quarrying and Building in England ad 43–1525 (Chichester, 1990).
Spufford, P., Money and Its Uses in Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1988).
Health and disease
Cameron, M. L., Anglo Saxon Medicine (Cambridge, 1993).
Hagen, A., A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food Processing and Consumption (Pinner, 1994).
Hagen, A., A Second Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food and Drink: Production and Distribution (Hockwold-cum-Wilton, 1995).
Pearson, K. L., ‘Nutrition and the early-medieval diet’, Speculum, 72 (1997), 1–32.
Rawcliffe, C., Leprosy in Medieval England (Woodbridge, 2006).
Roberts, C. and Cox, M., Health and Disease in Britain from Prehistory to the Present Day (Stroud, 2003), chs. 4–5.
Roberts, C. and Manchester, K., The Archaeology of Disease, 2nd edn (Stroud, 1995).
Authority and community
Abels, R., Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England (Berkeley, CA, 1988).
Baxter, S., The Earls of Mercia: Lordship and Power in Late Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 2007).
Campbell, J., ‘Some agents and agencies of the late Anglo-Saxon state’, in Holt, J. C., ed. Domesday Studies (Woodbridge, 1987) pp. 201–18.
Faith, Rosamond, The English Peasantry and the Growth of Lordship, Studies in the Early History of Britain (London, 1997).
Fell, C., Women in Anglo-Saxon England and the Impact of 1066 (London, 1984).
Fleming, R., Britain after Rome, c. 400–1050 (London, 2010).
Fleming, R., Kings and Lords in Conquest England (Cambridge, 1991).
Hadley, D. M., The Northern Danelaw: Its Social Structure, c. 800–1100 (London, 2000).
Helmholz, R. H., The Oxford History of the Laws of England, vol. i, Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction from 597 to the 1640s (Oxford, 2004), chs. 1 and 2.
Hudson, J., The Formation of the English Common Law: Law and Society in England from the Norman Conquest to Magna Carta (London, 1996).
Hyams, P., Kings, Lords and Peasants in Medieval England: The Common Law of Villeinage in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (Oxford, 1980).
Hyams, P., Rancor and Reconciliation in Medieval England (Ithaca, NY, 2003).
Keynes, Simon, ‘Crime and punishment in the reign of King Æthelred the Unready’, in Wood, I. N. and Lund, N., eds., People and Places in Northern Europe, 500–1600: Studies Presented to Peter Hayes Sawyer (Woodbridge, 1991), pp. 67–81.
Keynes, Simon, The Diplomas of King Æthelred the ‘Unready’, 978–1016 (Cambridge, 1980).
McCarthy, C., Marriage in Medieval England: Law, Literature and Practice (Woodbridge, 2004).
Reynolds, A., Late Anglo-Saxon England: Life and Landscape (Stroud, 1999).
Rollason, D., Northumbria, 500–1100: Creation and Destruction of a Kingdom (Cambridge, 2003).
Stafford, P., ‘Women and the Norman Conquest’, TRHS 6th ser., 4 (1994), 221–49.
Thomas, H., The English and the Normans: Ethnic Hostility, Assimilation, and Identity, 1066–c. 1220 (Oxford, 2003).
White, G. J., Restoration and Reform, 1153–1165: Recovery from Civil War in England (Cambridge, 2000).
Williams, A, The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1995).
Wormald, P., ‘Engla Lond: the making of an allegiance’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 7 (1994), 1–24.
Wormald, P., ‘Lordship and justice in the early English kingdom: Oswaldslow revisited’, in Davies, W. and Fouracre, P., eds., Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 114–36.
Lordship and labour
Aston, T. H., ‘The origins of the manor in England’, TRHS 5th ser., 8 (1958), 59–83; repr. with an important postscript in Aston, T. H., Cross, P. R., Dyer, C. and Thirsk, J., eds., Social Relations and Ideas: Essays in Honour of R. H. Hilton (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 1–43.
Bartlett, R., England under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225 (Oxford, 2000), pp. 202–330.
Crouch, D., The Birth of Nobility: Constructing Aristocracy in England and France, 900–1300 (London, 2005).
Dyer, C., Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850–1520 (London, 2002).
Green, J., The Aristocracy of Norman England (Cambridge, 1997).
Maitland, F. W., Domesday Book and Beyond: Three Essays in the Early History of England, new edn with foreword by Holt, J. C. (Cambridge, 1987).
Miller, E. and Hatcher, J., Medieval England: Rural Society and Economic Change, 1086–1348 (London, 1978).
Poly, J.-P. and Bournazel, E., La mutation féodale, xe–xiie siècles, 2nd edn (Paris, 1991), trans. Higgitt, C. as The Feudal Transformation (New York, 1991).
Williams, A., The World before Domesday (London, 2008).
Order and justice
Williams, A., English Lawsuits from William I to Richard I, ed. Caenegem, R. C., 2 vols., Selden Society, 106, 107 (London, 1990–1).
Fleming, R., Domesday Book and the Law (Cambridge, 1998).
MacQueen, H. L., Common Law and Feudal Society in Medieval Scotland (Edinburgh, 1993).
O'Brien, B. R., God's Peace and King's Peace: The Laws of Edward the Confessor (Philadelphia, 1999).
Reynolds, A., Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs (Oxford, 2009).
Wormald, P., Legal Culture in the Medieval West. Law as Text, Image, and Experience (London, 1999).
Wormald, P., The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century, vol. i, Legislation and Its Limits (Oxford, 1999).
War and violence
Barker, J., The Tournament in England, 1100–1400 (Woodbridge, 1986).
Bartlett, R.J., The Making of Europe (Harmondsworth, 1993).
Bisson, T., The Crisis of the Twelfth Century (Princeton, 2009).
Kaeuper, R., Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe (Oxford, 1999).
Keen, M., Chivalry (New Haven, 1984).
Lawson, M. K., The Battle of Hastings 1066 (Stroud, 2002).
Prestwich, J., The Place of War in English History, 1066–1214 (Woodbridge, 2004).
Strickland, M. J., War and Chivalry: The Conduct and Perception of War in England and Normandy, 1066–1217 (Cambridge, 1996).
Family, marriage, kinship
Bauduin, P., ‘Désigner les parents: le champ de la parenté dans l'oeuvre des premiers chroniqueurs normands’, ANS 24 (2001), 71–84.
Crick, J., ‘Women, posthumous benefaction and family strategy in pre-conquest England’, Journal of British Studies, 38 (1999), 399–422.
Green, J., The Aristocracy of Norman England (Cambridge, 1997).
Holt, J., Presidential addresses to the Royal Historical Society: Feudal society and the family in early medieval England: i. ‘The revolution of 1066’, TRHS 5th ser., 32 (1982), 193–212; ii. ‘Notions of patrimony’, TRHS 5th ser., 33 (1983), 193–220; iii. ‘Patronage and politics’, TRHS 5th ser., 34 (1984), 1–25; iv. ‘The heiress and the alien’, TRHS 5th ser., 35 (1985), 1–28.
Johns, S., Noblewomen, Aristocracy and Power in the Twelfth-Century Anglo-Norman Realm (Manchester, 2003).
Moore, J. S., ‘The Anglo-Norman family: size and structure’, ANS 14 (1991 (1992)), 153–96.
Stafford, P., ‘La mutation familiale: a suitable case for caution’, in Hill, J. and Swan, M., eds., The Community, the Family and the Saint: Patterns of Power in Early Medieval Europe. Selected Proceedings of the International Medieval Congress, University of Leeds, 4–7 July 1994, 10–13 July 1995, International Medieval Research, 4 (Turnhout, 1998), pp. 103–25.
Wareham, , A., ‘The transformation of kinship and the family in late Anglo-Saxon England’, Early Medieval Europe, 10 (2001), 375–99.
Poor and powerless
Dyer, C. and Schofield, P. R., ‘Recent work on the agrarian history of medieval Britain’, in Alfonso, I., ed., The Rural History of Medieval European Societies, The Medieval Countryside, 1 (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 21–55.
Harvey, P. D. A., ‘Rectitudines singularum personarum and Gerefa’, EHR, 108 (1993), 1–22.
Kemble, J. M., The Saxons in England: A History of the English Commonwealth till the End of the Norman Conquest, new edn, rev. Birch, Walter de Gray, 2 vols. (London, 1876), ii, pp. 497–517 (ch. 11, ‘The poor’).
Rawcliffe, C., Leprosy in Medieval England (Woodbridge, 2006).
Towns and their hinterlands
Beresford, M. W., New Towns of the Middle Ages: Town Plantation in England, Wales and Gascony (London, 1967; repr. Stroud, 1988).
Blair, J., The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 2005).
Britnell, R. H., The Commercialisation of English Society, 1000–1500, 2nd edn (Manchester, 1996).
Darby, H. C., The Domesday Geography of England (Cambridge, 1977).
Davies, W., ed., From the Vikings to the Normans, Short Oxford History of the British Isles (Oxford, 2003).
Dyer, C., Everyday Life in Medieval England (London, 2000).
Dyer, C., Making a Living in the Middle Ages, the People of Britain 850–1520 (Yale, 2002).
Gerrard, C. and Aston, M., The Shapwick Project, Somerset, a Rural Landscape Explored (Leeds, 2007).
Giles, K. and Dyer, C., eds., Town and Country in the Middle Ages, Contrasts, Contacts and Interconnections 1100–1500, Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph, 22 (Leeds, 2005).
Griffiths, D., Philpott, R. A. and Egan, G., Meols: The Archaeology of the North Wirral Coast (Oxford, 2007).
Hall, R. A., ed., Aspects of Anglo-Scandinavian York (York, 2004).
Hill, D. and Rumble, A. R., The Defence of Wessex: The Burghal Hidage and Anglo-Saxon Fortifications (Manchester, 1996).
Hoskins, W. G., The Making of the English Landscape (London, 1955).
Jones, R. and Page, M., Medieval Villages in an English Landscape: Beginnings and Ends (Macclesfield, 2006).
Lewis, C., Mitchell-Fox, P. and Dyer, C., Village, Hamlet and Field: Changing Medieval Settlements in Central England (Macclesfield, 1997, 2001).
Palliser, D. M., ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. i, 600–1540 (Cambridge, 2000).
Rippon, S., Beyond the Medieval Village (Oxford, 2008).
Roberts, B. K., and Wrathmell, S., An Atlas of Rural Settlement in England (London, 2000).
Thomas, H. M., The English and the Normans: Ethnic Hostility, Assimilation and Identity 1066–c. 1220 (Oxford, 2003).
Williamson, T., Shaping Medieval Landscapes: Settlement, Society, Environment (Macclesfield, 2003).
Commerce and markets
Britnell, R. H., ‘English markets and royal administration before 1200’, EcHR 2nd ser., 31 (1978), 183–96.
Haslam, J., Anglo-Saxon Towns in Southern England (Chichester, 1984).
Jones, S. R. H., ‘Transaction costs, institutional change, and the emergence of a market economy in later Anglo-Saxon England’, EcHR, 46 (1993), 658–78.
Maddicott, J. R., ‘Trade, industry and the wealth of King Alfred’, P&P, 123 (1989), 3–51.
Metcalf, D. M., An Atlas of Anglo-Saxon and Norman Coin Finds, 973–1086 (London, 1998).
Sawyer, P. H., ‘Early fairs and markets in England and Scandinavia’, in Anderson, B. L. and Latham, A. J. H., eds., The Market in History (London, 1986), pp. 59–77.
Sawyer, P. H., ‘The wealth of England in the eleventh century’, TRHS 5th ser., 15 (1965), 145–64.
Urban planning
Baker, N. and Holt, R., Urban Growth and the Medieval Church: Gloucester and Worcester (Aldershot, 2004).
Barley, M. W., ed., The Plans and Topography of Medieval Towns in England and Wales, CBA Research Report, 14 (London, 1976).
Barrow, J., ‘Churches, education and literacy in towns 600–1300’, in Palliser, D. M., ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. i, 600–1540 (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 127–52.
Bassett, S., ‘The middle and late Anglo-Saxon defences of western Mercian towns’, in Crawford, S. and Hamerow, H., eds., Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History, 15 (Oxford, 2008), pp. 180–239.
Brooks, N., ‘The administrative background to the Burghal Hidage’ in Brooks, , Communities and Warfare 700–1400 (Aldershot, 2000), pp. 114–37.
Crummy, P., ‘The system of measurement used in town planning from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries’, in Hawkes, S. C., Brown, D. and Campbell, J., eds., Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History, British Archaeological Reports, British Series, 72 (Oxford, 1979), pp. 149–64.
Fleming, R., ‘Rural élites and urban communities in late-Saxon England’, P&P, 141 (1993), 3–37.
Hinton, D., ‘The large towns 600–1300’, in Palliser, D. M., ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. i, 600–1540 (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 217–43.
Palliser, D. M., Slater, T. R. and Dennison, E. P., ‘The topography of towns 600–1300’, in Palliser, D. M., ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. i, 600–1540 (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 153–86.
Slater, T. R., ‘Benedictine town planning in medieval England: evidence from St Albans’, in Slater, T. R. and Rosser, G., eds., The Church in the Medieval Town (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 155–76.
Urban populations and associations
Bateson, M., ‘The Law of Breteuil’, EHR, 15 (1900), 305–6.
Biddle, M., ed., Winchester in the Early Middle Ages: An Edition and Discussion of the Winton Domesday (Oxford, 1976).
Campbell, J., ‘Power and authority 600–1300’, in Palliser, D. M., ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. i, 600–1540 (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 51–78.
Holt, R., ‘Society and population 600–1300’ in Palliser, ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. i, pp. 79–104.
Hutcheson, A., ‘The French borough’, Current Archaeology, 170 (2000), 64–68.
Keene, D., ‘English urban guilds, c. 900–1300: the purposes and politics of association’, in Gadd, I., ed., Guilds and Association in Europe, 900–1900 (London, 2006), pp. 3–26.
Kowaleski, M., ed., Medieval Towns: A Reader (Peterborough, Ont., 2006).
Palliser, D. M., Towns and Local Communities in Medieval and Early Modern England (Aldershot, 2006).
Reynolds, S., ‘English towns of the eleventh century in a European context’, in Johanek, P., ed., Die Stadt im 11. Jahrhundert (Münster, 1995), pp. 1–12.
Reynolds, S., An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns (Oxford, 1977).
Reynolds, S., Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe, 900–1300 (Oxford, 1984).
Reynolds, S., ed. Kieft, C., Elenchus fontium historiae urbanae, vol. ii, Great Britain and Ireland (Leiden, 1988).
Rosser, G., ‘The essence of medieval urban communities: the vill of Westminster’, TRHS 5th ser., 34 (1984), 91–112.
Shaw, D. G., ‘Social networks and the foundations of oligarchy in medieval towns’, Urban History, 32 (2005), 200–22.
Wilcox, J., ‘The St. Brice's Day massacre and Archbishop Wulfstan’, in Wolfthal, D., ed., Peace and Negotiation: Strategies for Coexistence in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 4 (Turnhout, 2000), pp. 79–92.
Invasion and migration
Abrams, L., ‘King Edgar and the men of the Danelaw’, in Scragg, D., ed., Edgar, King of the English 959–975. New Interpretations (Woodbridge, 2008), pp. 171–91.
Abrams, L. and Parsons, D., ‘Place-names and the history of Scandinavian settlement in England’, in Hines, J., Lane, A. and Redknap, M., eds., Land, Sea and Home (London, 2004), pp. 379–431.
Barrow, G. W. S., The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History. The Ford Lectures Delivered in the University of Oxford in Hilary Term 1977 (Oxford, 1980).
Bisson, T. N., ‘The lure of Stephen's England: tenserie, Flemings and a crisis of circumstance,’ in Dalton, P. and White, G. J., eds., King Stephen's Reign 1135–1154 (Woodbridge, 2008), pp. 171–81.
Crick, J., ‘The Irish in England from Cnut to John: speculations on a linguistic interface’, in Tyler, E., ed., Conceptualizing Multilingualism, 800–1250 (Turnhout, in press).
Hadley, D. M. and Richards, J. D., eds., Cultures in Contact. Scandinavian Settlement in England in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (Turnhout, 2000).
Innes, M., ‘Danelaw identities: ethnicity, regionalism and political allegiance’, in Hadley, and Richards, , eds., Cultures in Contact, pp. 65–88.
Jayakuma, S., ‘Some reflections on the “foreign policies” of Edgar the “Peaceable”’, Haskins Society Journal, 10 (2001), 17–37.
Lawson, M. K., Cnut. The Danes in England in the Early Eleventh Century (Harlow, 1993).
Lewis, C. P., ‘The Norman settlement of Herefordshire under William I’, ANS 7 (1984 (1985)), 195–213.
Oksanen, E., ‘Anglo-Flemish treaties and Flemish soldiers in England c. 1101–1163’, in France, J., ed., Mercenaries and Paid Men: The Mercenary Identity in the Middle Ages. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the University of Wales, Swansea, 7th–9th July 2005 (Leiden, 2008), pp. 261–73.
Postles, D., ‘Migration and mobility in a less mature economy: English internal migration c. 1200–1350’, Social History, 25 (2000), 285–99.
Roesdahl, E., ‘Denmark–England in the eleventh century: the growing archaeological evidence for contacts across the North Sea’, in Lund, N., ed., Seksogtyvende tvæfaglige vikingesymposium Københavns Universitet 2007 (Aarhus, 2007), pp. 7–31.
Rumble, A., ed., The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway (Leicester, 1994).
Thomas, H. M., The English and the Normans. Ethnic Hostility, Assimilation and Identity, 1066–c. 1220 (Oxford, 2003).
Houts, E., ‘The Flemish contribution to biographical writing in England in the eleventh century’, in Bates, D., Crick, J. and Hamilton, S., eds., Writing Medieval Biography, 750–1250. Essays in Honour of Professor Frank Barlow (Woodbridge, 2006), pp. 111–27.
Houts, E., ‘The vocabulary of exile and outlawry in the North Sea area around the first millennium’, in Napran, L. and Houts, E., eds., Exile in the Middle Ages. Selected Proceedings from the International Medieval Congress, University of Leeds, 8–11 July 2002, International Medieval Research, 14 (Turnhout, 2004), pp. 13–28.
Williams, A., The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1995).
Ethnicity and acculturation
Barrett, J., ‘What caused the Viking Age?’, Antiquity, 82 (2008), 671–85.
Foot, S., ‘The making of Angelcynn: English identity before the Norman Conquest’, TRHS 6th ser., 6 (1996), 25–49.
Frank, R., ‘King Cnut in the verse of his skalds’, in Rumble, A., ed., The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway (Leicester, 1994), pp. 106–24.
Geary, P., ‘Ethnic identity as a situational construct in the early Middle Ages’, Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 113 (1983), 15–26.
Hadley, D. M., The Vikings in England. Settlement, Society and Culture (Manchester, 2006).
Kershaw, P., ‘The Alfred–Guthrum treaty: scripting accommodation and interaction in Viking Age England’, in Hadley, D. M. and Richards, J. D., eds., Cultures in Contact. Scandinavian Settlement in England in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (Turnhout, 2000), pp. 43–64.
Lawson, M. K., ‘Archbishop Wulfstan and the homiletic element in the laws of Ethelred II and Cnut’, in Rumble, A., ed., The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway (Leicester, 1994), pp. 141–64.
Reynolds, S., ‘What do we mean by “Anglo-Saxon” and “Anglo-Saxons”?’, Journal of British Studies, 24 (1985), 395–414.
Thomas, G. ‘Anglo-Scandinavian metalwork from the Danelaw: exploring social and cultural interaction’, in Hadley, D. M. and Richards, J. D., eds., Cultures in Contact. Scandinavian Settlement in England in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (Turnhout, 2000), pp. 237–55.
Townend, M., Language and History in Viking-Age England. Linguistic Relations between Speakers of Old Norse and Old English (Turnhout, 2002).
Whitelock, D., ‘The dealings of the kings of England with Northumbria in the tenth and eleventh centuries’, in Clemoes, P., ed., The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in Some Aspects of Their History Presented to Bruce Dickins (London, 1959), pp. 70–88.
Clark, C., ‘Women's names in post-conquest England: observations and speculations’, Speculum, 53 (1978), 223–51, repr. in Words, Names and History. Selected Writings by Cecily Clark, ed. Jackson, P. (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 117–43.
Keats-Rohan, K., Domesday People. A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents, 1066–1166, vol. i, Domesday Book (Woodbridge, 1999).
Searle, E., ‘Women and the legitimization of succession at the Norman conquest’, Proceedings of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 1980 (Woodbridge, 1981), pp. 159–70, 226–9.
Stafford, P., ‘Women and the Norman Conquest’, TRHS 6th ser., 4 (1994), 221–49.
Thomas, , H. M., The English and the Normans: Ethnic Hostility, Assimilation and Identity, 1066–c. 1220 (Oxford, 2003), pp. 138–60.
Houts, E., ‘Intermarriage in eleventh-century England’, in Crouch, D. and Thompson, K., eds., Normandy and Its Neighbours, 900–1250. Essays Presented to David Bates (Turnhout, 2010), forthcoming.
Williams, A., ‘“Cockles amongst the wheat”: Danes and English in the western Midlands in the first half of the eleventh century’, Midland History, 11 (1986), 1–22.
The Jews
Dobson, R. B., The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of March 1190, Borthwick Papers, 45 (York, 1974).
Jacobs, J., ed., The Jews of Angevin England (New York, 1893; repr. New York, 1977).
Mundill, R. R., ‘The medieval Anglo-Jewish community: organization and royal control’, in Cluse, C., Haverkamp, A. and Yuval, J., eds., Jüdische Gemeinden und ihr christlicher Kontext in kulturräumlich vergleichender Betrachtung von der Spätantike bis zum 18. Jahrhundert (Hannover, 2003), pp. 267–81.
Richardson, H. G., The English Jewry under Angevin Kings (London, 1960).
Skinner, P., ed., Jews in Medieval Britain (Woodbridge, 2003).
Stacey, R. C., ‘Jewish lending and the medieval economy’, in Britnell, R. H. and Campbell, B. M. S., eds., A Commercialising Economy. England 1086 to c. 1300 (Manchester, 1995), pp. 78–92.
Stacey, R. C., ‘Jews and Christians in twelfth-century England: some dynamics of a changing relationship’, in Signer, M. A. and Engen, J., eds., Jews and Christians in Twelfth-Century Europe (Notre Dame, 2001), pp. 340–54.
Religion and belief
Backhouse, J., The Golden Age of Anglo-Saxon Art, 966–1066 (London, 1984).
Barlow, F., The English Church, 1000–1066. A History of the Later Anglo-Saxon Church (London, 1963).
Barlow, F., The English Church, 1066–1154 (London, 1979).
Bartlett, R., Gerald of Wales, 1146–1223 (Oxford, 1982).
Biller, P., ‘Popular religion in the central and later Middle Ages’, in Bentley, M., ed., Companion to Historiography (London, 1997), pp. 221–46.
Blair, J., The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 2005).
Blair, J. and Sharpe, R., eds., Pastoral Care before the Parish (Leicester, 1992).
Brett, M., The English Church under Henry I (Oxford, 1975).
Brooke, C. N. L. and Brooke, R., Popular Religion in the Middle Ages. Western Europe 1000–1300 (London, 1984).
Brown, A., Church and Society in England, 1000–1500 (Basingstoke, 2003).
Burton, J., The Monastic and Religous Orders in England, c. 1000–1300 (Cambridge, 1994).
Colvin, H., ‘The origins of chantries’, JMH, 26 (2000), 163–73.
Cownie, E., Religious Patronage in Anglo-Norman England 1066–1135 (London, 1993).
Crouch, D., ‘The culture of death in the Anglo-Norman world’, in Warren Hollister, C., ed., Anglo-Norman Political Culture and the Twelfth-Century Renaissance: Proceedings of the Borchard Conference on Anglo-Norman History 1995 (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 172–7.
Finucane, R. C., Miracles and Pilgrims: Popular Beliefs in Medieval England (London, 1977).
Foot, S., Veiled Women, 2 vols. (Aldershot, 2000).
Harper-Bill, C., ‘The piety of the Anglo-Norman knightly class’, Proceedings of the Battle Conference of Anglo-Norman Studies, 2 (1979), 63–77.
Harper-Bill, C., ‘Searching for salvation in Anglo-Norman East Anglia’, in Harper-Bill, C., Rawcliffe, C. and Wilson, R. G., eds., East Anglia's History. Studies in Honour of Norman Scarfe (Woodbridge, 2002), pp. 19–40.
Kieckhefer, R., Magic in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1989).
Goff, J., The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Goldhammer, A. (London, 1984).
McGatch, M., Preaching and Theology in Anglo-Saxon England: Aelfric and Wulfstan (Toronto, 1977).
Murray, A., ‘Confession before 1215’, TRHS 6th series, 3 (1993), 51–81.
Ridyard, S., The Royal Saints of Anglo-Saxon England: A Study of West Saxon and East Anglian Cults (Cambridge, 1988).
Rollason, D., Saints and Relics in Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1989).
Rubin, M., Corpus Christi. The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge, 1991).
Southern, R. W., St Anselm. A Portrait in a Landscape (Cambridge, 1990).
Thompson, S., Women Religious. The Founding of English Nunneries after the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1991).
Thompson, V., Dying and Death in Later Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon Studies, 4 (Woodbridge, 2004).
Tinti, F., ed., Pastoral Care in Late Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge, 2005).
Rites of passage and pastoral care
Bedingfield, M. B., The Dramatic Liturgy of Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon Studies, 1 (Woodbridge, 2002).
Greenfield, K., ‘Changing emphases in English vernacular homiletic literature, 1060–1225’, JMH, 7 (1981), 283–97.
Lucy, S. and Reynolds, A., eds., Burial in Early Medieval England and Wales (London, 2002).
Lynch, J. H., Godparents and Kinship in Early Medieval Europe (Princeton, NJ, 1986).
Paxton, F. S., ‘Birth and death’, in Noble, T. F. X. and Smith, J. M. H., eds., The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. iii, Early Medieval Christianities c. 600–c. 1100 (Cambridge, 2008), pp. 383–98.
Paxton, F. S., Christianizing Death. The Creation of a Ritual Process in Early Medieval Europe (Ithaca, NY, 1990).
Pfaff, R. W., ed., The Liturgical Books of Anglo-Saxon England, Old English Newsletter Subsidia, 23 (Kalamazoo, MI, 1995).
Spinks, B. D., Early and Medieval Rituals and Theologies of Baptism: From the New Testament to the Council of Trent (Aldershot, 2006).
Stocker, D. and Everson, P., Summoning St Michael. Early Romanesque Towers in Lincolnshire (Oxford, 2006).
Tanner, N. P. and Watson, S., ‘Least of the laity: the minimum requirements of a medieval Christian’, JMH, 32 (2006), 395–423.
Thompson, V., Dying and Death in Later Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon Studies, 4 (Woodbridge, 2004).
Warner, P., ‘Shared churchyards, freemen church-builders and the development of parishes in eleventh-century East Anglia’, Landscape History, 8 (1986), 39–52.
Zadora-Rio, E., ‘The making of churchyards and parish territories in the early medieval landscape of France and England in the 7th–12th centuries: a reconsideration’, Medieval Archaeology, 47 (2003), 1–19.
Saints and cults
Crook, J., The Architectural Setting of the Cult of Saints in the Early Christian West c. 300–c. 1200 (Oxford, 2000).
Foreville, R., Thomas Becket dans la tradition historique et hagiographique (London, 1981).
Hayward, P. A., ‘Gregory the Great as “apostle of the English” in post-Conquest Canterbury’, JEH, 55 (2004), 19–57.
Hayward, P. A., ‘The Miracula inuentionis beate Mylburge uirginis attributed to “Ato, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia”’, EHR, 114 (1999), 543–73.
Hayward, P. A., The Politics of Sanctity in Anglo-Norman England (Oxford, in press).
Hollis, S., ed., Writing the Wilton Women: Goscelin's Liber confortatorius and the Legend of Edith (Turnhout, 2004).
Kemp, B. R., ‘The hand of St James at Reading Abbey’, Reading Medieval Studies, 16 (1990), 77–96.
Ridyard, S. J., The Royal Saints of Anglo-Saxon England: A Study of West Saxon and East Anglian Cults (Cambridge, 1988).
Rollason, D. W., Saints and Relics of Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1989).
Webb, D., Pilgrimage in Medieval England (London, 2000).
Wilson, S. E., The Life and After-Life of St John of Beverley: The Evolution of the Cult of an Anglo-Saxon Saint (Aldershot, 2006).
Yarrow, S., Saints and Their Communities: Miracle Stories in Twelfth-Century England (Oxford, 2005).
Public spectacle
Bailey, T., The Processions of Sarum and the Western Church (Toronto, 1971).
Biddle, M., ‘Seasonal festivals and residence: Winchester, Westminster and Gloucester in the tenth to twelfth centuries’, ANS 8 (1985 (1986)), 51–72.
Coss, P. and Keen, M., eds., Heraldry, Pageantry and Social Display in Medieval England (Woodbridge, 2002).
Cowdrey, H. E. J., ‘The Anglo-Norman Laudes regiae’, Viator, 12 (1981), 37–78.
Malone, C. M., Façade as Spectacle: Ritual and Ideology at Wells Cathedral (Boston, MA, and Leiden, 2004).
Nelson, J. L., ‘Inauguration rituals’, in Sawyer, P. H. and Wood, I. N., eds., Early Medieval Kingship (Leeds, 1977), pp. 50–71.
Nelson, J. L., ‘The rites of the conqueror’, ANS 4 (1981 (1982)), 117–32.
Nelson, J. L., ‘Ritual and reality in the early medieval ordines’, in Baker, D., ed., The Materials, Sources and Methods of Ecclesiastical History, Studies in Church History 11 (Oxford, 1975), pp. 41–51.
Rollason, D. W., Two Anglo-Saxon Rituals. The Dedication of a Church and the Judicial Ordeal, Vaughan Papers, 33, Fifth Brixworth Lecture, 1987 (Brixworth, 1988).
Sharpe, R., ‘The setting of St Augustine's translation, 1091’, in Eales, R. and Sharpe, R., eds., Canterbury and the Norman Conquest. Churches, Saints and Scholars 1066–1109 (London and Rio Grande, OH, 1995), pp. 1–13.
Textual communities (Latin)
Burnett, C., The Introduction of Arabic Learning into England, The Panizzi Lectures, 1996 (London, 1997).
Harper, J., The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the Tenth to the Eighteenth Century: A Historical Introduction and Guide for Students and Musicians (Oxford, 1991).
Keynes, S., ed., The Liber Vitae of the New Minster and Hyde Abbey Winchester: British Library Stowe 944 together with Leaves from British Library Cotton Vespasian A. viii and British Library Cotton Titus D. xxvii, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, 26 (Copenhagen, 1996).
Lapidge, M., ‘Anglo-Latin literature’, in Greenfield, S. B. and Calder, D. G., eds., A New Critical History of Old English Literature (New York, 1986), pp. 5–37; repr. in M. Lapidge, ed., Anglo-Latin Literature, 600–899 (London, 1996), pp. 1–35.
Lapidge, M. and Winterbottom, M., eds. and trans., Wulfstan of Winchester, The Life of St Æthelwold, OMT (Oxford, 1991).
Leedham-Green, E. and Webber, T., eds., The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland, vol. i, To 1640 (Cambridge, 2006), chs. 3–4.
Southern, R. W., ‘The place of England in the twelfth-century renaissance’, in Southern Medieval Humanism and Other Studies (Oxford, 1970), pp. 158–80.
Thomson, R. M., ‘England and the twelfth-century renaissance’, P&P, 101 (1983), 3–21.
Textual communities (vernacular)
Clanchy, M. T., From Memory to Written Record: England 1066 to 1307 (2nd edn, Oxford, 1993).
Conner, P., Anglo-Saxon Exeter. A Tenth-Century Cultural History (Woodbridge, 1993).
Conner, P., ‘Parish guilds and the production of Old English literature in the public sphere’, in Blanton, V. and Scheck, H., eds. (Inter)Texts: Studies in Early Insular Culture Presented to Paul E. Szarmach (Tempe, AZ, 2007), pp. 257–73.
Dean, R. J. with Bolton, M. B. M., Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts, Anglo-Norman Texts Society Occasional Publications, 3 (London, 1999).
Ker, N., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford, 1957; repr. 1991 with supplement).
O'Donnell, D., ed., Cædmon's Hymn: A Multi-Media Study, Edition and Archive (Woodbridge, 2005).
Owen-Crocker, G., ed., Working with Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (Exeter, 2009).
Townend, M., ‘Skaldic praise-poetry at the court of Cnut’, ASE, 30 (2001), 145–79.
Townend, M., ed., Wulfstan, Archbishop of York: The Proceedings of the Second Alcuin Conference (Turnhout, 2004).
Treharne, E., ‘The life of English in the mid-twelfth century: Ralph D'Escures's Homily on the Virgin Mary’, in Kennedy, R. and Meecham-Jones, S., eds., Writers of the Reign of Henry II. Twelve Essays (New York, 2006), pp. 169–86.
Treharne, E., ‘Producing a library in Late Anglo-Saxon England: Exeter 1050–1072’, Review of English Studies, 54 (2003), 155–72.
Webber, T., Scribes and Scholars at Salisbury Cathedral, c. 1075–1125 (Oxford, 1992).
Learning and training
Banniard, , Michel, Viva voce: communication écrite et communication orale du IVe au IXe siècle en Occident latin (Paris, 1992).
Clanchy, M. T., Abelard: A Medieval Life (Oxford, 1997).
Clanchy, M. T., From Memory to Written Record: England, 1066–1307 (London, 1979; 2nd edn, Oxford, 1993).
Crick, J., ‘English vernacular script’, in Gameson, R., ed., The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, vol. i (Cambridge, in press), pp. 00–00.
Cubitt, C., ‘“As the lawbook teaches”: reeves, lawbooks and urban life in the anonymous Old English legend of the seven sleepers’, EHR, 124 (2009), 1021–49.
Gillingham, J., ‘Some observations on social mobility in England between the Norman Conquest and the early thirteenth century’, in Gillingham, , in his The English in the Twelfth Century: Imperialism, National Identity and Political Values (Woodbridge, 2000), pp. 259–76.
Gneuss, H., ‘The origin of Standard Old English and Æthelwold's school at Winchester’, ASE, 1 (1972), 63–83.
Godden, M., ‘King Alfred's Preface and the teaching of Latin in Anglo-Saxon England’, EHR, 117 (2002), 596–604.
Gretsch, M., The Intellectual Foundations of the English Benedictine Reform (Cambridge, 1999).
Gretsch, M., ‘Winchester vocabulary and Standard Old English: the vernacular in late Anglo-Saxon England’, Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, 83 (2001), 41–87.
Gullick, M., ‘Professional scribes in eleventh- and twelfth-century England’, in Beal, P. and Griffiths, J., eds., English Manuscript Studies 1100–1700, 7 (London, 1998), pp. 1–24.
Gwara, S., ed., and Porter, D., trans., Anglo-Saxon Conversations: The Colloquies of Ælfric Bata (Woodbridge, 1997).
Hudson, J., ‘L’écrit, les archives et le droit en Angleterre (IXe–XIIe siècle)', Revue historique, 315 (2006), 3–35.
Keynes, S., ‘The Fonthill Letter’, in Korhammer, M., with Reichl, K. and Sauer, H., eds., Words, Texts and Manuscripts: Studies in Anglo-Saxon Culture Presented to Helmut Gneuss on the Occasion of His Sixty-Fifth Birthday (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 53–97.
Lapidge, M., Anglo-Latin Literature, 900–1066 (London and Rio Grande, OH, 1993).
Lapidge, M., The Anglo-Saxon Library (Oxford, 2006).
Lendinara, P., ‘Instructional manuscripts in England: the tenth- and eleventh-century codices and the early Norman ones’, in P. Lendinara, L. Lazzari and D'Aronco, M. A., eds., Form and Content of Instruction in Anglo-Saxon England in the Light of Contemporary Manuscript Evidence (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 59–113.
Lendinara, P., ‘The world of Anglo-Saxon learning’, in Godden, M. and Lapidge, M., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 264–81.
Orme, N., From Childhood to Chivalry: The Education of the English Kings and Aristocracy 1066–1530 (London, 1984).
Rector, G., ‘The Romanz psalter in England and northern France in the twelfth century: production, mise-en-page, and circulation’, Journal of the Early Book Society (in press).
Reynolds, S., Medieval Reading: Grammar, Rhetoric and the Classical Text (Cambridge, 1996).
Scragg, D., Handlist of Scribes (Woodbridge, in press; see also
Southern, R. W., ‘From schools to University’, in Catto, J. I., ed., The History of the University of Oxford, vol. i, The Early Oxford Schools (Oxford, 1984), pp. 1–36.
Thomson, R. M., England and the Twelfth-Century Renaissance (Aldershot, 1998).
Webber, T., ‘Monastic and cathedral book collections in the late eleventh and twelfth centuries’, in Leedham-Green, E. and Webber, T., eds., The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland, vol. i, To 1650 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 109–25.
Wilcox, J., ‘The dissemination of Wulfstan's homilies: the Wulfstan tradition in eleventh-century vernacular preaching’, in Hicks, C., ed., England in the Eleventh Century. Proceedings of the 1990 Harlaxton Symposium (Stamford, 1992), pp. 199–217.
Wormald, P., ‘The uses of literacy in Anglo-Saxon England and its neighbours’, TRHS 5th ser., 27 (1977), 95–114.
Information and its retrieval
Geary, P. J., Phantoms of Remembrance: Memory and Oblivion at the End of the First Millennium (Princeton, 1994).
Keynes, S., ‘Royal government and the written word in late Anglo-Saxon England’, in McKitterick, R., ed., The Uses of Literacy in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 226–57.
O'Brien, B., ‘Forgery and the literacy of the early common law’, Albion, 27 (1995), 1–18.
Vincent, N. ‘Why 1199? Bureaucracy and enrolment under John and his contemporaries’, in Jobson, A., ed., English Government in the Thirteenth Century (Woodbridge, 2004), pp. 17–48.
Wormald, C. P., ‘Charters, law and the settlement of disputes in Anglo-Saxon England’, in Davies, W., and Fouracre, P., eds., The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 149–68.
Esoteric knowledge
Anlezark, D., ed. and trans., The Old English Dialogues of Solomon and Saturn, Anglo-Saxon Texts, 7 (Cambridge, 2009).
Burnett, C., Adelard of Bath: An English Scientist and Arabist of the Early Twelfth Century (London, 1987).
Gneuss, H., Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts. A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ, 2001).
Hall, A., Elves in Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge, 2007).
Liuzza, R. M., ‘Anglo-Saxon prognostics in context: a survey and handlist of manuscripts’, ASE, 30 (2001), 180–230.
Orchard, A., ‘Enigma Variations: the Anglo-Saxon riddle-tradition’, in O'Keeffe, K. O'Brien and Orchard, A., eds., Latin Learning and English Lore: Studies in Anglo-Saxon Literature for Michael Lapidge, 2 vols. (Toronto, 2005), i, 284–304.
Orchard, A., Pride and Prodigies: Studies in the Monsters of the ‘Beowulf’ Manuscript, rev. edn (Toronto, 2003).
Page, R. I., ‘Anglo Saxon runes and magic’, Journal of the Archaeological Association, 27 (1964), 14–31.
Rigg, A. G., A History of Anglo-Latin Literature 1066–1422 (Cambridge, 1992).
Scarfe Beckett, K., Anglo-Saxon Perceptions of the Islamic World, Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 33 (Cambridge, 2003).
Storms, G., Anglo-Saxon Magic (The Hague, 1948).
Medical practice and theory
Amundsen, D. W., Medicine, Society and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds (Baltimore and London, 1996).
Arsdall, A., Medieval Herbal Remedies: The Old English Herbarium and Anglo-Saxon Medicine (London and New York, 2002).
Cameron, M. L., Anglo Saxon Medicine (Cambridge, 1993).
Conrad, L. I., Neve, M., Nutton, V., Porter, R. and Wear, A., The Western Medical Tradition (Cambridge, 1995).
Dendle, P. and Touwaide, A., eds., Health and Healing from the Medieval Garden (Woodbridge, 2008).
Getz, F., Medicine in the English Middle Ages (Princeton, 1998).
Meaney, A., ‘The practice of medicine in England about the year 1000’, Social History of Medicine, 13 (2000), 221–37.
Wallis, F., ‘The experience of the book’, in Bates, D., ed., Knowledge and the Scholarly Medical Traditions (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 101–26.
Bate, K., ed., Three Latin Comedies (Toronto, 1976).
Bayless, M., ‘Humour and the comic in Anglo-Saxon England’, in Hordis, S. and Hardwick, P., eds., English Medieval Comedy (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 13–30.
Map, W., De nugis curialium: Courtiers' Trifles, ed. and trans. James, M. R., rev. Brooke, C. N. L. and Mynors, R. A. B., OMT (Oxford, 1983).
Mozley, J. H., trans., A Mirror for Fools: The Book of Burnel the Ass (Oxford, 1961).
Mozley, J. H., Speculum Stultorum, ed. Mozley, J. H. and Raymo, R. R. (Berkeley, CA, 1960).
Ziolkowski, J., ed., The Cambridge Songs (Carmina Cantabrigiensia) (New York and Tempe, AZ, 1994).