1. . Handbuch fur Artze und Studierende. Berlin: Hirschwald, 1877.
2. , , , et al. Prevalence of potential risk factors for stroke assessed by transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography: the SPARC study. Stroke prevention: assessment of risk in a community. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74: 862–9.
3. , , , et al. Femoral injection of echo contrast medium may increase the sensitivity of testing for a patent foramen ovale. Neurology 1998; 50: 1423–8.
4. , , , et al. Power m-mode transcranial Doppler for diagnosis of patent foramen ovale and assessing transcatheter closure. J Neuroimaging 2004; 14: 342–9.
5. , , , et al. The need to quantify right-to-left shunt in acute ischemic stroke: a case-control study. Stroke 1998; 29: 1322–8.
6. , . Detection of right-to-left shunt with ultrasound contrast agent and transcranial Doppler sonography. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000; 10: 490–6.
7. , , , et al. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of a patent foramen ovale in stroke patients. Stroke 1993; 24: 1020–4.
8. , . Interatrial communications, stroke, and migraine headache. Appl Neurol 2005; 1: 22–36.
9. , , , et al. Incidence and size of patent foramen ovale during the first 10 decades of life: an autopsy study of 965 normal hearts. Mayo Clin Proc 1984; 59: 17–20.
10. , , , et al. The incidence of patent foramen ovale in 1,000 consecutive patients. A contrast transesophageal echocardiography study. Chest 1995; 107: 1504–9.
11. . Patent foramen ovale: an anatomical study. Apropos of 500 consecutive autopsies. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 1994; 87: 15–21.
12. , , , et al. Prevalence of right-to-left atrial shunting in a healthy population: detection by Valsalva maneuver contrast echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1984; 53: 1478–80.
13. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale in young stroke patients. Lancet 1988; 2: 11–12.
14. , , , et al. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale in patients with stroke. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 1148–52.
15. . , , et al. Atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale as risk factors for cryptogenic stroke in patients less than 55 years of age. A study using transesophageal echocardiography. Stroke 1993; 24: 1865–73.
16. , , . Interatrial septal abnormalities and stroke: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Neurology 2000; 55: 1172–9.
17. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale: a review of associated conditions and the impact of physiological size. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38: 613–23.
18. , , , et al. Infarcts of undetermined cause: the NINCDS Stroke Data Bank. Ann Neurol 1989; 25: 382–90.
19. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke in older patients. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 2262–8.
20. , , , et al. Population-based study of the relationship between patent foramen ovale and cerebrovascular ischemic events. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81: 602–8.
21. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 1519–20.
22. , . Strokes: natural history, pathology and surgical treatment. Vol. 4. In: , ed. Major Problems in Neurology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1975.
23. , , , et al. Trapped thrombus in a patent foramen ovale. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 45: 90–2.
24. , , , et al. Increased pelvic vein thrombi in cryptogenic stroke: results of the paradoxical emboli from large veins in ischemic stroke (PELVIS) study. Stroke 2004; 35: 46–50.
25. , , , et al. Significant association of atrial vulnerability with atrial septal abnormalities in young patients with ischemic stroke of unknown cause. Stroke 2000; 31: 398–403.
26. , , , et al. Inherited thrombophilic disorders in young adults with ischemic stroke and patent foramen ovale. Stroke 2003; 34: 28–33.
27. , , , et al. Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutation may predispose to paradoxical embolism in subjects with patent foramen ovale. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2003; 14: 261–8.
28. , , , et al. Prothrombin G20210A mutation, but not factor V Leiden, is a risk factor in patients with persistent foramen ovale and otherwise unexplained cerebral ischemia. Cerebrovasc Dis 2003; 16: 83–7.
29. , , . Patent foramen ovale and decompression sickness in divers. Lancet 1989; 1: 513–14.
30. , , , et al. Risk of decompression illness among 230 divers in relation to the presence and size of patent foramen ovale. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 1014–20.
31. , , , et al. Cerebral white-matter lesions in asymptomatic military divers. Aviat Space Environ Med 2009; 80: 2–4.
32. , , , et al. Brain MRI signal abnormalities and right-to-left shunting in asymptomatic military divers. Aviat Space Environ Med 2010; 81: 1008–12.
33. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale closure in recreational divers: effect on decompression illness and ischaemic brain lesions during long-term follow-up. Heart 2011; 97: 1932–7.
34. , , . Patent foramen ovale, stroke, and cardiovascular disease in migraine. Curr Opin Neurol 2007; 20: 310–19.
35. , , . Brain white matter lesions in migraine: what’s the meaning?Neurol Sci 2011; 32: S37–40.
36. , , , et al. Migraine intervention with STARFlex technology (MIST) trial: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of patent foramen ovale closure with STARFlex septal repair implant to resolve refractory migraine headache. Circulation 2008; 117: 1397–404.
37. , , , et al. An increased frequency of patent foramen ovale in patients with transient global amnesia: analysis of 53 consecutive patients. Arch Neurol 1996; 53: 504–8.
38. , , , et al. Transcranial Doppler detection of cerebral fat emboli and relation to paradoxical embolism: a pilot study. Circulation 2011; 123: 1947–52.
39. , , , et al. Normal angiogram in acute coronary syndromes: the underestimated role of alternative substrates of myocardial ischemia. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2004; 20: 471–5.
40. , , , et al. Peripheral ischemia caused by paradoxical embolization: an underestimated problem?Mt Sinai J Med 2005; 72: 200–6.
41. , , , et al. Acute myocardial infarction in a child: possible pathogenic role of patent foramen ovale associated with heritable thrombophilia. Pediatrics 2004; 114: e255–8.
42. , , , et al. Open foramen ovale in patients with arterial vascular occlusions of the retina and optic nerve. Ophthalmologe 1997; 94: 871–6.
43. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale is an important predictor of adverse outcome in patients with major pulmonary embolism. Circulation 1998; 97: 1946–51.
44. , , . Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction and patent foramen ovale causing profound cyanosis. Heart 2004; 90: e31.
45. , , , et al. Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome combined with multiple congenital heart anomalies. Intern Med 2005; 44: 453–7.
46. , , , et al. Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with platypnea-orthodeoxia: results of a multicentric French registry. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2005; 28: 164–8.
47. , , , et al. Increased prevalence of patent foramen ovale in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1999; 12: 99–102.
48. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale and high-altitude pulmonary edema. JAMA 2006; 296: 2954–8.
49. , , , et al. Patent foramen ovale with atrial septal aneurysm may contribute to white matter lesions in stroke patients. Cerebrovasc Dis 2010; 30: 15–22.
50. , , , et al. Association of right-to-left shunt with frontal white matter lesions in T2-weighted MR imaging of stroke patients. Neuroradiology 2009; 51: 299–304.
51. . Sleep apnea: a major public health problem. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 1271–3.
52. , , . Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease. JAMA 2003; 290: 1906–14.
53. , . Sympathetic nerve activity in obstructive sleep apnea. Acta Physiol Scand 2003; 177: 385–90.
54. , , , et al. Effects of sleep-disordered breathing on cerebrovascular regulation: a population-based study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 182: 1445–52.
55. , , , et al. Impaired cerebral autoregulation in obstructive sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol 2008; 105: 1852–7.
56. . Sleep-disordered breathing and cerebrovascular disease: a mechanistic approach. Neurol Clin 2005; 23: 1059–75.
57. , . Snoring and cerebral infarction. Lancet 1985; 2: 1325–6.
58. , , , et al. Snoring as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in men. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294: 16–19.
59. , , , et al. Snoring and risk of stroke and ischemic heart disease in a 70 year old population. A 6-year follow up study. Int J Epidemiol 1994; 23: 1159–64.
60. , , , et al. Snoring and risk of cardiovascular disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 35: 308–13.
61. , , , et al. Habitual snoring as a risk factor for acute vascular disease. Eur Respir J 1993; 6: 1357–61.
62. , , , et al. Habitual snoring as a risk factor for brain infarction. Acta Neurol Scand 1995; 92: 63–8.
63. , , , et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 19–25.
64. , . Sleep apnea in acute cerebrovascular diseases: final report on 128 patients. Sleep 1999; 22: 217–23.
65. , , , et al. Time course of sleep-related breathing disorders in first-ever stroke or transient ischemic attack. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161: 375–80.
66. , , , et al. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for stroke and death. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 2034–41.
67. , , , et al. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale and its contribution to hypoxemia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 1998; 113: 91–6.
68. , , , et al. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea: a transcranial Doppler ultrasound study. Sleep Med 2003; 4: 219–23.
69. , , , et al. Obstructive sleep apnea can be provocative for right-to-left shunting through a patent foramen ovale. Sleep 2002; 25: 856–62.
70. , , , et al. The influence of patent foramen ovale on oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep. Eur Respir J 2007; 29: 149–55.
71. , , . Improvement in sleep apnea associated with closure of a patent foramen ovale. J Clin Sleep Med 2007; 3: 295–6.
72. , . CPAP suppression of awake right-to-left shunting through patent foramen ovale in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea. Thorax 2005; 60: 880–1.
73. , , , et al. Left ventricular function in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome before and after treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Respiration 2000; 67: 367–71.
74. , , , et al. Pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J 1995; 8: 537–41.
75. , , , et al. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 2483–7.
76. , , , et al. Pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Chest 1989; 96: 729–37.
77. , , , et al. Cerebrovascular events on awakening, patent foramen ovale and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Neurol Sci 2008 ; 268: 193–4.
78. , , , et al. Cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale: clinical clues to paradoxical embolism. J Neurol Sci 2008; 275: 121–7.
79. , , , et al. Causal role of sleep apneas and patent foramen ovale in wake-up stroke. Neurology 2011; 76: A170.
80. , , , et al. Closure or medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 991–9.