Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: June 2012

References

Aarssen, L. W. (2005). Why don't bigger plants have proportionately bigger seeds? Oikos, 111, 199–207.
Aarssen, L. W. & Jordan, , C. Y. (2001). Between-species patterns of covariation in plant size, seed size and fecundity in monocarpic herbs. Ecoscience, 8, 471–7.
Abramsky, Z. (1983). Experiments on seed preparation by rodents and ants in the Israeli desert. Oecologia, 57, 328–32.
Abu-Awwad, A. M. (1997). Water infiltration and redistribution within soils affected by a surface crust. Journal of Arid Environments, 37, 231–42.
Achard, P., Cheng, H., Grauwe, L.et al. (2006). Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Science, 311, 91–4.
Ackerly, D. D. (2000). Taxon sampling, correlated evolution, and independent contrasts. Evolution, 54, 1480–92.
Ackerman, J., Sabat, A., & Zimmerman, J. K. (1996). Seedling establishment in an epiphytic orchid: an experimental study of seed limitation. Oecologia, 106, 192–8.
Adamec, L. (1997). Mineral nutrition of carnivorous plants: a review. Botanical Review, 63, 273–99.
Adamec, L. (2000). Rootless aquatic plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa: physiological polarity, mineral nutrition, and importance of carnivory. Biologia Plantarum, 43, 113–19.
Adamec, L. (2002). Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake. New Phytologist, 155, 89–100.
Adamik, K. J. & Brauns, F. E. (1957). Ailanthus glanulosa (tree of heaven) as a pulpwood: part II. Tappi, 40, 522–7.
Adams, W. W. & Martin, C. E. (1986). Morphological changes accompanying the transition from juvenile (atmospheric) to adult (tank) forms in the Mexican epiphyte Tillandsia deppeana (Bromeliaceae). American Journal of Botany, 73, 1207–14.
Adams, W. W. III., Zarter, C. R., Ebbert, V., & Demmig-Adams, B. (2004). Photoprotective strategies of overwintering evergreens. BioScience, 54, 41–9.
Adriaensen, K., Lelie, D., Laere, A., Vangronsveld, J., & Colpaert, J. V. (2004). A zinc-adapted fungus protects pines from zinc stress. New Phytologist, 161, 549–55.
Agrawal, A. A., Conner, J. K., & Stinchcombe, J. R. (2004). Evolution of plant resistance and tolerance to frost damage. Ecology Letters, 7, 1199–1208.
Ågren, J. (1989). Seed size and number in Rubus chamaemorus: between-habitat variation, and effects of defoliation and supplemental pollination. Journal of Ecology, 77, 1080–92.
Aguiar, M. R. & Sala, O. E. (1997). Seed distribution constrains the dynamics of the Patagonian steppe. Ecology, 78, 93–100.
Aguiar, M. R. & Sala, O. E. (1998). Interactions among grasses, shrubs, and herbivores in Patagonian grass-shrub steppes. Ecología Austral, 8, 201–10.
Agyeman, V. K., Swaine, M. D., & Thompson, J. (1999). Responses of tropical forest tree seedlings to irradiance and the derivation of a light response index. Journal of Ecology, 87, 815–27.
Aide, T. M. & Cavalier, J. (1994). Barriers to lowland tropical forest restoration in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Restoration Ecology, 4, 219–29.
Aide, T. M., Zimmerman, J. K., Herrera, L., Rosario, M., & Serrano, M. (1995). Forest recovery in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management, 77, 77–86.
Aiken, S. G. (1986). The distinct morphology and germination of two species of wild rice (Zizania, Poaceae). Canadian Field-Naturalist, 100, 237–40.
Aizen, M. A. & Feinsinger, P. (1994). Forest fragmentation, pollination and plant reproduction in a Chaco dry forest. Ecology, 75, 330–51.
, M. A. & Woodcock, H. (1996). Effects of acorn size on seedling survival and growth in Quercus rubra following simulated spring freeze. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74, 308–14.
Akasaka, M. & Tsuyuzaki, S. (2005). Tree seedling performance in microhabitats along an elevational gradient on Mount Koma, Japan. Journal of Vegetation Science, 16, 647–54.
Akiyama, K., Matsuzaki, K., & Hayashi, H. (2005). Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature, 435, 824–7.
Alberdi, M. & Corcuera, L. J. (1991). Cold-acclimation in plants. Phytochemistry, 30, 3177–84.
Alberdi, M. & Rios, D. (1983). Frost resistance of Embothrium coccineum Forst. and Gevuina avellana Mol. during development and aging. Acta Oecologia (Oecologia Plantarum), 4, 3–9.
Albert, V. A. (1999). Shoot apical meristems and floral patterning: an evolutionary perspective. Trends in Plant Sciences, 4, 84–6.
Albert, V. A., Williams, S. E., & Chase, M. W. (1992). Carnivorous plants, phylogeny and structural evolution. Nature, 257, 1491–5.
Albrecht, C., Geurts, R., & Bisseling, T. (1999). Legume nodulation and mycorrhizae formation: two extremes in host specificity meet. EMBO Journal, 18, 281–8.
Alexander, I., Ahmad, N., & Lee, S. S. (1992). The role of mycorrhizas in the regeneration of some Malaysian forest trees. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 335, 379–88.
Alexander, I. J. & Lee, S. S. (2005). Mycorrhizas and ecosystem processes in tropical rain forest, implications for diversity. In Biotic Interactions in the Tropics, ed. Burslem, D. F. R. P., Pinard, M. A., & Hartley, S. E.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 165–203.
Al-Hamdani, S. & Francko, D. A. (1992). Effect of light and temperature on photosynthesis elongation rate and chlorophyll content of Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. seedlings. Aquatic Botany, 44, 51–8.
Allcock, K. G. (2002). Effects of phosphorus on growth and competitive interactions of native and introduced species found in White Box woodlands. Austral Ecology, 27, 638–46.
Allen, A., Chambers, J. L., & Pezeshki, S. R. (1997). Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance. Wetlands, 17, 310–20.
Allen, E. B. & Allen, M. F. (1984). Competition between plants of different successional stages: mycorrhizae as regulators. Canadian Journal of Botany, 62, 2625–9.
Allen, M. F. (1991). The Ecology of Mycorrhizae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Allen, M. F., Allen, E. B., & Friese, C. F. (1989). Responses of the non-mycotrophic plant Salsola kali to invasion by VA mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist, 111, 45–9.
Allen, M. F., Allen, E. B., & Gomez-Pompa, A. (2005). Effects of mycorrhizae and non-target organisms on restoration of a seasonal tropical forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico: factors limiting tree establishment. Restoration Ecology, 13, 325–33.
Allen, M. F., Rincon, E., Allen, E. B., Huante, P., & Dunn, J. J. (1993). Observations of canopy bromeliad roots compared with plants rooted in soils of a seasonal tropical forest, Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico. Mycorrhiza, 4, 27–8.
Allen, M. L., Jasper, D. A., & Zak, J. C. (2002). Micro-organisms. In Handbook of Ecological Restoration, vol. 1, ed. Perrow, M. & Davy, A.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 257–78.
Allen-Diaz, B., Bartolome, J. W., & McClaran, M. P. (1999). California oak savanna. In Savannas, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America, ed. Anderson, R. C., Fralish, J. S., & Baskin, J. M.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 322–39.
Allessio, M. L. (1967). Observations of seedling development in Polygonum bistortoides. American Journal of Botany, 54, 1272–4.
Allison, S. K. & Ehrenfeld, J. G. (1999). The influences of microhabitat variation on seedling recruitment of Chamaecyparis thyoides and Acer rubrum. Wetlands, 19, 383–93.
Almeida-Cortez, J. S. & Shipley, W. (2002). No significant relationship exists between seedling relative growth rate under nutrient limitation and potential tissue toxicity. Functional Ecology, 16, 122–7.
Alvarez-Aquino, C., Williams-Linera, G., & Newton, A. C. (2004). Experimental native tree seedling establishment for the restoration of a Mexican cloud forest. Restoration Ecology, 12, 412–8.
Alvarez-Buylla, E. R. & Martinez-Ramos, M. (1992). Demography and allometry of Cecropia obtusifolia a neotropical pioneer tree, an evaluation of the climax-pioneer paradigm for tropical rain forests. Journal of Ecology, 80, 275–90.
Alvarez-Clare, S. & Kitajima, K. (2007). Physical defense traits enhance seedling survival of neotropical tree species. Functional Ecology, 21, 1044–54.
Alvey, L. & Harberd, N. P. (2005). DELLA proteins: integrators of multiple plant growth regulatory inputs? Physiologia Plantarum, 123, 153–60.
Ampofo, S. T., Moore, K. G., & Lovell, P. H. (1976). Role of cotyledons in 4 Acer species and in Fagus sylvatica during early seedling development. New Phytologist, 76, 31–9.
Anderberg, A. & Anderberg, A. L. (2006). Den Virtuella Floran. Stockholm: Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/).
Anderson, A. B. (1991). Symbiotic and asymbiotic germination and growth of Spiranthes magnicamporum (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana, 6, 183–6.
Andresen, E. & Feer, F. (2005). The role of dung beetles as secondary seed dispersers and their effect on plant regeneration in tropical rainforests. In Seed Fate: Predation, Dispersal and Seedling Establishment, ed. Forget, P.-M., Lambert, J. E., Hulme, P. E., & Wall, S. R. V.. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 331–49.
Andrews, H. N. (1963). Early seed plants. Science, 142, 925–31.
Andrews, H. N. & Pannel, E. (1942). Contributions to our knowledge of American carboniferous flora. II. Lepidocarpon. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 29, 19–28.
Angert, A., Huxman, T., Barron-Gafford, G., Gerst, K., & Venable, D. (2007). Linking growth strategies to long-term population dynamics in a guild of desert annuals. Journal of Ecology, 95, 321–31.
Aniszewski, T., Kupari, M. H., & Leinonen, A. J. (2001). Seed number, seed size and seed diversity in Washington lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.). Annals of Botany, 87, 77–82.
Antos, J. A., Guest, H. J., & Parish, R. (2005). The tree seedling bank in an ancient montane forest: stress tolerators in a productive habitat. Journal of Ecology, 93, 536–43.
Antos, J. A., Parish, R. A., & Conley, K. (2000). Age structure and growth of the tree-seedling bank in subalpine spruce-fir forests of South-central British Columbia. American Midland Naturalist, 143, 342–54.
Aplet, G. H., Laven, R. D., & Smith, F. W. (1988). Patterns of community dynamics in Colorado Engelmann spruce–subalpine fir forests. Ecology, 69, 312–19.
Arai, N. & Kamitani, T. (2005). Seed rain and seedling establishment of the dioecious tree Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae): effects of tree sex and density on invasion into a conifer plantation in central Japan. Canadian Journal of Botany, 83, 1144–50.
Arber, A. (1920). Water Plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arber, A. (1934). Gramineae: A Study of Cereal, Bamboo and Grass. 1965 reprint. Weinheim: J. Cramer.
Arber, E. A. N. & Parkin, J. (1907). On the origin of angiosperms. Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany), 38, 29–80.
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. (2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arditti, J. (1992). Fundamentals of Orchid Biology. New York: Wiley.
Arditti, J. & Ghani, A. K. A. (2000). Numerical and physical properties of orchid seeds and their biological implications. New Phytologist, 145, 367–421.
Argyris, J., Truco, M. J., Ochoa, O.et al. (2005). Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 111, 1364–76.
Arii, K. & Lechowicz, M. J. (2002). The influence of overstory trees and abiotic factors on the sapling community in an old-growth Fagus-Acer forest. Ecoscience, 9, 386–96.
Armstrong, D. P. & Westoby, M. (1993). Seedlings from large seeds tolerate defoliation better: a test using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Ecology, 74, 1092–1100.
Arnebrant, K., Ek, H., Finlay, R. D., & Söderström, B. (1993). Nitrogen translocation between Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. seedlings inoculated with Frankia sp. and Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud seedlings connected by a common ectomycorrhizal mycelium. New Phytologist, 124, 231–42.
Arnold, A. E., Maynard, Z., Gilbert, G. S., Coley, P. D., & Kursar, T. A. (2000). Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Ecology Letters, 3, 267–74.
Ashkannejhad, S. & Horton, T. R. (2006). Ectomycorrhizal ecology under primary succession on the coastal sand dunes: interactions involving Pinus contorta, suilloid fungi and deer. New Phytologist, 169, 345–54.
Ashton, P. M. S., Gamage, S., Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N., & Gunatilleke, C. V. S. (1997). Restoration of a Sri Lankan rainforest: using Caribbean pine Pinus caribaea as a nurse for establishing late-successional tree species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 915–25.
Ashton, P. M. S., Gamage, S., Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N., & Gunatilleke, C. V. S. (1998). Using Caribbean pine to establish a mixed plantation: testing effects of pine canopy removal on plantings of rain forest tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 106, 211–22.
Ashworth, L. & Galetto, L. (2001). Pollinators and reproductive success of the wild cucurbit Cucurbita maxima ssp. andreana (Cucurbitaceae). Plant Biology, 3, 398–404.
Asquith, N. M. & Mejia-Chang, M. (2005). Mammals, edge effects, and the loss of tropical forest diversity. Ecology, 86, 379–90.
Asquith, N. M., Wright, S. J., & Claus, M. J. (1997). Does mammal community composition control recruitment in neotropical forests? Evidence from Panama. Ecology, 78, 941–6.
Aston, H. I. (1977). Aquatic Plants of Australia. Carlton: Melbourne University Press.
Auble, G. T. & Scott, M. L. (1998). Fluvial disturbance patches and cottonwood recruitment along the upper Missouri River, Montana. Wetlands, 18, 546–56.
Auge, H. & Brandl, R. (1997). Seedling recruitment in the invasive clonal shrub, Mahonia aquifolium Pursh (Nutt.). Oecologia, 110, 205–11.
Auge, H., Neuffer, B., Erlinghagen, F., Grupe, R., & Brandl, R. (2001). Demographic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses reveal high levels of genetic diversity in a clonal violet. Molecular Ecology, 10, 1811–19.
Augspurger, C. K. (1983). Seed dispersal of the tropical tree, Platypodium elegans, and the escape of its seedlings from fungal pathogens. Journal of Ecology, 71, 759–71.
Augspurger, C. K. (1984a). Light requirements of neotropical tree seedlings – a comparative study of growth and survival. Journal of Ecology, 72, 777–95.
Augspurger, C. K. (1984b). Seedling survival of tropical tree species: interactions of dispersal distance, light gaps, and pathogens. Ecology, 65, 1705–12.
Augspurger, C. K. & Kelly, C. K. (1984). Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings: experimental studies of the effects of dispersal distance, seedling density, and light conditions. Oecologia, 61, 211–17.
Aukema, J. E. (2003). Vectors, viscin, and Viscaceae: mistletoes as parasites, mutualists, and resources. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 212–19.
Baar, J., Horton, T. R., Kretzer, A. M., & Bruns, T. D. (1999). Mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus muricata from resistant propagules after a stand-replacing wildfire. New Phytologist, 143, 409–18.
Babaev, A. G. (1999). Desert Problems and Desertification in Central Asia: The Researches of the Desert Institute. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Bailey, C. & Scholes, M. (1997). Rhizosheath occurrence in South African grasses. South African Journal of Botany, 63, 484–90.
Bais, H. P. & Ravishankar, G. A. (2002). Role of polyamines in the ontogeny of plants and their biotechnological applications. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 69, 1–34.
Bais, H. P., Vepachedu, R., Gilroy, S., Callaway, R. M., & Vivanco, J. M. (2003). Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion: from molecules and genes to species interactions. Science, 301, 1377–80.
Baker, H. G. (1965). Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In The Genetics of Colonizing Species, ed. Baker, H. G. & Stebbins, G. L.. New York: Academic Press, pp. 147–68.
Baker, H. G. (1972). Seed weight in relation to environmental conditions in California. Ecology, 53, 997–1010.
Bakker, C., Bodegom, P. M., Nelissen, H. J. M., Aerts, R., & Ernst, W. H. O. (2007). Preference of wet dune species for waterlogged conditions can be explained by adaptations and specific recruitment requirements. Aquatic Botany, 86, 37–45.
Baldwin, A., Egnotovich, M., Ford, M., & Platt, W. (2001). Regeneration in fringe mangrove forests damaged by Hurricane Andrew. Plant Ecology, 157, 151–64.
Ball, E. (1956a). Growth of the embryo of Ginkgo biloba under experimental conditions. I. Origin of the first root of the seedling in vitro. American Journal of Botany, 43, 488–95.
Ball, E. (1956b). Growth of the embryo of Ginkgo biloba under experimental conditions. II. Effects of a longitudinal split in the tip of the hypocotyl. American Journal of Botany, 43, 802–10.
Ball, M. C. (1988). Salinity tolerance in the mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina. 1. Water-use in relation to growth, carbon partitioning, and salt balance. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 15, 447–64.
Ball, M. C., Egerton, J. J. G., Leuning, R., Cunningham, R. B., & Dunne, P. (1997). Microclimate above grass adversely affects spring growth of seedling snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora). Plant Cell and Environment, 20, 155–66.
Ball, M. C. & Farquhar, G. D. (1984). Photosynthetic and stomatal responses of two mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina, to long-term salinity and humidity conditions. Plant Physiology, 74, 1–6.
Ball, V. C., Hodges, V. S., & Laughlin, G. P. (1991). Cold-induced photoinhibition limits regeneration of snow gum at tree line. Functional Ecology, 5, 663–8.
Baltzer, J. L. & Thomas, S. L. (2007). Physiological and morphological correlates of whole-plant light compensation point in temperate deciduous tree seedlings. Oecologia, 153, 209–23.
Baraloto, C., Bonal, D., & Goldberg, D. E. (2006). Differential seedling growth response to soil resource availability among nine neotropical tree species. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 22, 487–97.
Baraloto, C. & Forget, P.-M. (2007). Seed size, seedling morphology, and response to deep shade and damage in neotropical rain forest trees. American Journal of Botany, 94, 901–11.
Baraloto, C., Forget, P.-M., & Goldberg, D. E. (2005a). Seed mass, seedling size and neotropical tree seedling establishment. Journal of Ecology, 93, 1156–66.
Baraloto, C., Goldberg, D. E., & Bonal, D. (2005b). Performance trade-offs among tropical tree seedlings in contrasting microhabitats. Ecology, 86, 2461–72.
Baraza, E., Gomez, J., Hodar, J., & Zamora, R. (2004). Herbivory has a greater impact in shade than in sun: response of Quercus pyrenaica seedlings to multi-factorial environmental variation. Canadian Journal of Botany, 82, 357–64.
Baraza, E., Zamora, R., & Hodar, J. A. (2006). Conditional outcomes in plant–herbivore interactions: neighbors matter. Oikos, 113, 148–56.
Barchuk, A. H., Valiente-Banuet, A., & Diaz, M. P. (2005). Effect of shrubs and seasonal variability of rainfall on the establishment of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco in two edaphically contrasting environments. Austral Ecology, 30, 695–705.
Barker, N. G. & Williamson, B. G. (1988). Effects of a winter fire on Sarracenia alata and S. psittacina. American Journal of Botany, 75, 138–43.
Barlow, B. A. (1981). The loranthaceous mistletoes in Australia. In Ecological Biogeography of Australia, ed. Keast, A.. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, pp. 556–74.
Barlow, J. & Peres, C. A. (2004). Ecological responses to El Niño-induced surface fires in central Brazilian Amazonia: management implications for flammable tropical forests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 359, 367–80.
Barrat-Segretain, M.-H. (1996). Germination and colonization dynamics of Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. in a former river channel. Aquatic Botany, 55, 31–8.
Barth, H. J. (1999). Desertification in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments, 43, 399–410.
Barton, L. V. (1961). Seed Preservation and Longevity. New York: Plant Science Monograph Series, Interscience.
Baskin, C. C. & Baskin, J. M. (1998; 2001). Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. San Diego: Academic Press.
Baskin, C. C., Chesson, P. L., & Baskin, J. M. (1993). Annual seed dormancy cycles in two winter annuals. Journal of Ecology, 81, 551–6.
Baskin, C. C., Hawkins, T. S., & Baskin, J. M. (2004). Ecological life cycle of Chaerophyllum procumbens variety shortii (Apiaceae), a winter annual of the North American eastern deciduous forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 131, 126–39.
Baskin, J. M. & Baskin C. C. (1989). Physiology of dormancy and germination in relationship to seed bank ecology. In Ecology of Soil Seed Banks, ed. Leck, M. A., Parker, V. T., & Simpson, R. L.. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 54–66.
Baskin, Y. (1998). Winners and losers in a changing world: global changes may promote invasions and alter the fate of invasive species. BioScience, 48, 788–92.
Bassow, S. L. & Bazzaz, F. A. (1997). Intra- and inter-specific variation in canopy photosynthesis in a mixed deciduous forest. Oecologia, 109, 507–15.
Batanouny, K. H. (2001). Plants in the desert of the Middle East. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
Battaglia, L. L., Foré, S. A., & Sharitz, R. R. (2000). Seedling emergence, survival and size in relation to light and water availability in two bottomland hardwood species. Journal of Ecology, 88, 1041–50.
Batty, A. L., Brundrett, M. C., Dixon, K. W., & Sivasithamparam, K. (2006). New methods to improve symbiotic propagation of temperate terrestrial orchid seedlings from axenic culture to soil. Australian Journal of Botany, 54, 367–74.
Batty, A. L., Dixon, K. W., Brundrett, M., & Sivasithamparam, K. (2001a). Constraints to symbiotic germination of terrestrial orchid seed in a mediterranean bushland. New Phytologist, 152, 511–20.
Batty, A. L., Dixon, K. W., Brundrett, M., & Sivasithamparam, K. (2001b). Long-term storage of mycorrhizal fungi and seed as a tool for the conservation of endangered Western Australian terrestrial orchids. Australian Journal of Botany, 49, 619–28.
Baylis, G. T. S. (1975). The magnolioid mycorrhiza and mycotrophy in root systems derived from it. In Endomycorrhiza, ed. Sanders, F. E., Moss, B., & Tinker, P. B.. London: Academic Press, pp. 378–89.
Baylis, G. T. S. (1980). Mycorrhizas and the spread of beech. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 3, 151–2.
Bazzaz, F. A. (1979). Physiological ecology of plant succession. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 10, 351–71.
Bazzaz, F. A. (1990). Plant–plant interaction in successional environments. In Perspectives on Plant Competition, ed. Grace, J. B. & Tilman, D.. San Diego: Academic Press.
Bazzaz, F. A. (1996). Plants in Changing Environments: Linking Physiological, Population, and Community Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bazzaz, F. A. & Carlson, R. W. (1982). Photosynthetic acclimation to variability in the light environment of early and late successional plants. Oecologia, 54, 313–6.
Beare, P. A. & Zedler, J. B. (1987). Cattail invasion and persistence in a coastal salt-marsh – the role of salinity reduction. Estuaries, 10, 165–70.
Beatley, J. C. (1974). Phenological events and their environmental triggers in Mojave Desert. Ecosystem Ecology, 55, 856–63.
Beckage, B. & Clark, J. S. (2005). Does predation contribute to tree diversity? Oecologia, 143, 458–69.
Beckage, B., Lavine, M., & Clark, J. S. (2005). Survival of tree seedlings across space and time: estimates from long-term count data. Journal of Ecology, 93, 1177–84.
Beentje, H. J. (1993). A new aquatic palm from Madagascar. Principes, 37, 197–202.
Begon, M. (1985). A general theory of life-history variation. In Behavioural Ecology: Ecological Consequences of Adaptive Behaviour, ed. Sibly, M. R. & Smith, R. H.. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 91–8.
Beland, M. & Bergeron, Y. (1993). Ecological factors affecting abundance of advance growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stands of the boreal forest of northwestern Quebec. Forest Chronicles, 69, 561–8.
Bell, A. D. (1991). Plant Form: An Illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant Morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bell, D. T., Plummer, J. A., & Taylor, S. K. (1993). Seed germination ecology in southwestern Western Australia. Botanical Review, 59, 24–73.
Bell, T., Freckleton, R. P., & Lewis, O. T. (2006). Plant pathogens drive density-dependent seedling mortality in a tropical tree. Ecology Letters, 9, 569–74.
Bellingham, P. J., Duncan, R. P., Lee, W. G., & Buxton, R. P. (2004). Seedling growth rate and survival do not predict invasiveness in naturalized woody plants in New Zealand. Oikos, 106, 308–16.
Bellingham, P. J. & Richardson, S. J. (2006). Tree seedling growth and survival over 6 years across different microsites in a temperate rain forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36, 910–8.
Belnap, J., Welter, J. R., Grimm, N. B., Barger, N., & Ludwig, J. A. (2005). Linkages between microbial and hydrologic processes in arid and semiarid watersheds. Ecology, 86, 298–307.
Benítez-Malvido, J. (1998). Impact of forest fragmentation on seedling abundance in a tropical rain forest. Conservation Biology, 12, 380–9.
Benítez-Malvido, J., García-Guzman, G., & Kossman-Ferraz, I. D. (1999). Leaf fungal incidence and herbivory on tree seedlings in tropical forest fragments: an experimental study. Biological Conservation, 91, 143–50.
Benítez–Malvido, J. & Lemus-Albor, A. (2005). The seedling community of tropical rain forests and its interaction with herbivores and pathogens. Biotropica, 37, 301–13.
Bennett, J. R. & Mathews, S. (2006). Phylogeny of the parasitic plant family Orobanchaceae inferred from phytochrome A. American Journal of Botany, 93, 1039–51.
Benson, D. R. & Silvester, W. B. (1993). Biology of Frankia strains, actinomycete symbionts of actinorhizal plants. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 57, 293–319.
Benzing, D. H. (1978). Germination and early establishment of Tillandsia circinnata Schlecht. (Bromeliaceae) on some of its hosts and other supports in South Florida. Selbyana, 5, 95–106.
Benzing, D. H. (1980). The Biology of the Bromeliads. Eureka: Mad River Press.
Benzing, D. H. (1981). The population dynamics of Tillandsia circinnata (Bromeliaceae): cypress crown colonies in southern Florida. Selbyana, 5, 256–63.
Benzing, D. H. (1990). Vascular Epiphytes: General Biology and Related Biota. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Benzing, D. H. (2000). Bromeliaceae: Profile of an Adaptive Radiation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Benzing, D. H., Friedman, W. E., Peterson, G., & Renfrow, A. (1983). Shootless, velamentous roots, and the pre-eminence of Orchidaceae in the epiphytic biotope. American Journal of Botany, 70, 121–33.
Benzing, D. H. & Renfrow, A. (1974). The mineral nutrition of Bromeliaceae. Botanical Gazette, 135, 281–8.
Berardini, T. Z., Bollman, K., Sun, H., & Posthig, R. S. (2001). Regulation of vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis thaliana by cyclophilin 40. Science, 291, 2405–7.
Berbee, M. L. & Taylor, J. W. (1993). Dating of the evolutionary radiations of the true fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71, 1114–27.
Berch, S. M., Allen, T. R., & Berbee, M. L. (2002). Molecular detection, community structure and phylogeny of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil, 244, 55–66.
Berkeley, A., Thomas, A. D., & Dougill, A. J. (2005). Cyanobacterial soil crusts and woody shrub canopies in Kalahari rangelands. African Journal of Ecology, 43, 137–45.
Berndtsson, R., Nodomi, K., Yasuda, H.et al. (1996). Soil water and temperature patterns in an arid desert dune sand. Journal of Hydrology, 185, 221–40.
Bertness, M. D. & Callaway, R. M. (1994). Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9, 191–3.
Bertness, M. D. & Yeh, S. M. (1994). Cooperative and competitive interactions in the recruitment of marsh elders. Ecology, 75, 2416–29.
Berube, D. E. & Myers, J. H. (1982). Suppression of knapweed invasion by crested wheatgrass in the dry interior of British Columbia. Journal of Range Management, 35, 459–61.
Besserer, A., Puech–Pages, V., Kiefer, P.et al. (2006). Strigolactones stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by activating mitochondria. Public Library of Science Biology, 4, 1239–47.
Betz, R. F. (1986). One decade of research in prairie restoration at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) Batavia, Illinois. In Proceedings of the Ninth North American Prairie Conference, ed. Clambey, G. K. & Pemble, R. H.. Moorhead & Fargo: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies, pp. 179–85.
Beukes, P. C. & Cowling, R. M. (2003). Evaluation of restoration techniques for the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. Restoration Ecology, 11, 308–16.
Bever, J. D. (2002). Negative feedback within a mutualism: host specific growth of mycorrhizal fungi reduces plant benefit. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 269, 2595–601.
Bever, J. D. (2003). Soil community feedback and the coexistence of competitors: conceptual frameworks and empirical tests. New Phytologist, 157, 465–73.
Bever, J. D., Schultz, P. A., Pringle, A., & Morton, J. B. (2001). Arbuscular my;corrhizal fungi: more diverse than meets the eye, and the ecological tale of why. BioScience, 51, 923–31.
Bews, J. W. (1927). Studies on the ecological evolution of angiosperms. New Phytologist, 26, 1–21.
Beyrle, H. F., Penningsfeld, F., & Hock, B. (1991). The role of nitrogen concentration in determining the outcome of the interaction between Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó and Rhizoctonia sp. New Phytologist, 117, 665–72.
Beyrle, H. F., Smith, S. E., Peterson, R. L., & Franco, C. M. M. (1995). Colonization of Orchis morio protocorms by a mycorrhizal fungus: effects of nitrogen nutrition and glyphosate in modifying the responses. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73, 1129–40.
Bhaskar, V. (2003). Root Hairs: the ‘Gills’ of Roots: Development, Structure and Functions. Enfield: Science Publishers, Inc.
Bidartondo, M. I. (2005). The evolutionary ecology of myco-heterotrophy. New Phytologist, 167, 335–52.
Bidartondo, M. I. & Bruns, T. D. (2001). Extreme specificity in epiparasitic Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): widespread phylogenetic and geographical structure. Molecular Ecology, 10, 2285–95.
Bidartondo, M. I. & Bruns, T. D. (2002). Fine-level mycorrhizal specificity in the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): specificity for fungal species groups. Molecular Ecology, 11, 557–68.
Bidartondo, M. I. & Bruns, T. D. (2005). On the origins of extreme mycorrhizal specificity in the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): performance trade-offs during seed germination and seedling development. Molecular Ecology, 14, 1549–60.
Bidartondo, M. I., Redecker, D., Hijri, I.et al. (2002). Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature, 419, 389–92.
Biere, A. (1991). Parental effects in Lychnis flos-cuculi. 1. Seed size, germination and seedling performance in a controlled environment. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 4, 447–65.
Bierhorst, D. (1971). Morphology of Vascular Plants. New York: Macmillan.
Birch, C. P. D. (1986). Development of VA mycorrhizal infection in seedlings in semi-natural grassland turf. In First European Symposium on Mycorrhizas, ed. Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. & Gianinazzi, S.. Paris: INRA, pp. 233–9.
Birschwilks, M., Haupt, S., Hofius, D., & Neumann, S. (2006). Transfer of phloem-mobile substances from the host plants to the holoparasite Cuscuta sp. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57, 911–21.
Bischoff, A., Cremieux, L., Smilauerova, M.et al. (2006). Detecting local adaptation in widespread grassland species – the importance of scale and local plant community. Journal of Ecology, 94, 1130–42.
Björkman, E. (1960). Monotropa hypopitys L. – an epiparasite on tree roots. Physiological Plantarum, 13, 308–27.
Björkman, O. & Holmgren, P. (1966). Photosynthetic adaptation to light intensity in plants native to shaded and exposed habitats. Physiologia Plantarum, 19, 854–9.
Black, J. N. (1958). Competition between plants of different initial seed sizes in swards of subterranean cover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) with particular reference to leaf area and the light microclimate. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 9, 299–318.
Blanc, P. (1986). Edification d'arbres par croissance d'établissement de type monocotylédon: l'exemple de Chloranthacae. In Colloque international sur l'arbre 1986. Montpellier: Nautralia Monspeliensia, numéro hors série, pp. 101–23.
Blaudez, D., Jacob, C., Turnau, K.et al. (2000). Differential responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to heavy metals in vitro. Mycological Research, 104, 1366–71.
Blennow, K. & Lindkvist, L. (2000). Models of low temperature and high irradiance and their application to explaining the risk of seedling mortality. Forest Ecology and Management, 135, 289–301.
Bloor, J. M. G. & Grubb, P. J. (2003). Growth and mortality in high and low light: trends among 15 shade-tolerant tropical rain forest tree species. Journal of Ecology, 91, 77–85.
Blossey, B. & Nötzold, R. (1995). Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive nonindigenous plants: a hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 83, 887–9.
Blouin, M., Zuily-Fodil, Y., Pham-Thi, A.-T.et al. (2005). Belowground organism activities affect plant aboveground phenotype, inducing tolerance to parasites. Ecology Letters, 8, 202–8.
Blum, J. D., Klaue, A., Nezat, C. A.et al. (2002). Mycorrhizal weathering of apatite as an important calcium source in base-poor forest ecosystems. Nature, 417, 729–31.
Boddey, R. M., Deoliveira, O. C., Urquiaga, S.et al. (1995). Biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane and rice contribution and prospects for improvement. Plant and Soil, 174, 195–209.
Bodley, J. H. & Benson, F. C. (1980). Stilt-root walking by an Iriarteoid palm in Peruvian Amazon. Biotropica, 12, 67–71.
Boege, K. & Marquis, R. J. (2005). Facing herbivory as you grow up: the ontogeny of resistance in plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20, 441–8.
Boeken, B., Ariza, C., Gutterman, Y., & Zaady, E. (2004). Environmental factors affecting dispersal, germination and distribution of Stipa capensis in the Negev Desert, Israel. Ecological Research, 19, 533–40.
Boeken, B., Lipchin, C., Gutterman, Y., & Rooyen, N. (1998). Annual plant community responses to density of small-scale soil disturbances in the Negev, Israel. Oecologia, 114, 106–17.
Boeken, B. & Orenstein, D. (2001). The effect of plant litter on ecosystem properties in a Mediterranean semi-arid shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science, 12, 825–32.
Boeken, B. & Shachak, M. (1994). Desert plant communities in human-made patches – implications for management. Ecological Applications, 4, 702–16.
Boeken, B. & Shachak, M. (1998a). The dynamics of abundance and incidence of annual plant species during colonization in a desert. Ecography, 21, 63–73.
Boeken, B. & Shachak, M. (1998b). Colonization by annual plants of an experimentally altered desert landscape: source–sink relationships. Journal of Ecology, 86, 804–14.
Boeken, B. & Shachak, M. (2006). Linking community and ecosystem processes: the role of minor species. Ecosystems, 9, 119–27.
Boeken, B., Shachak, M., Gutterman, Y., & Brand, S. (1995). Patchiness and disturbance: plant community responses to porcupine diggings in the central Negev. Ecography, 18, 410–22.
Boerner, R. E. J. & Brinkman, J. A. (1996). Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 123, 309–17.
Böhning-Gaese, K., Gaese, B. H., & Rabemanantsoa, S. B. (1999). Importance of primary and secondary seed dispersal in the Malagasy tree Commiphora guillaumini. Ecology, 80, 821–32.
Bokdam, J. (1977). Seedling morphology of some African Sapotaceae and its taxonomic significance. Mededelingen Lanbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, 77, 1–84.
Bonaccorso, F. J., Glanz, W. E., & Sanford, C. M. (1980). Feeding assemblages of mammals at fruiting Dipteryx panamensis (Papilionaceae) trees in Panama: seed predation, dispersal and parasitism. Revista Biologica Tropical, 28, 61–72.
Bond, G. (1983). Taxonomy and distribution of non-legume nitrogen-fixing systems. In Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Forest Ecosystems: Foundations and Applications, ed. Gordon, J. C. & Wheeler, C. T.. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 55–8.
Bond, W. J. (1989). The tortoise and the hare – ecology of angiosperm dominance and gymnosperm persistence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 36, 227–49.
Bond, W. J., Honig, M., & Maze, K. E. (1999). Seed size and seedling emergence: an allometric relationship and some ecological implications. Oecologia, 120, 132–6.
Bond, W. J. & Keeley, J. E. (2005). Fire as global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20, 387–94.
Bond, W. J. & Wilgen, B. W. (1996). Fire and Plants. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Bonello, P., Bruns, T. D., & Gardes, M. (1998). Genetic structure of a natural population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus pungens. New Phytologist, 138, 533–42.
Bonnis, A. & Lepart, J. (1994). Vertical structure of seed banks and the impact of depth of burial on recruitment in two temporary marshes. Vegetatio, 112, 127–39.
Boon, J. D. (2006). Cephalotus follicularis, Western Australian pitcher plant, Albany pitcher plant (http://www.aqph26.dsl.pipex.com, March 14, 2007).
Booth, M. G. (2004). Mycorrhizal networks mediate overstorey–understorey competition in a temperate forest. Ecology Letters, 7, 538–46.
Borchers, S. L. & Perry, D. A. (1990). Growth and ectomycorrhiza formation of Douglas-fir seedlings grown in soils collected at different distances from pioneering hardwoods in southwest Oregon clear-cuts. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 712–15.
Bormann, F. H. & Likens, G. E. (1979). Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Bornkamm, R., Darius, F., & Prasse, R. (1999). On the life cycle of Stipagrostis scoparia hillocks. Journal of Arid Environments, 42, 177–86.
Bosy, J. L. & Reader, R. J. (1995). Mechanisms underlying the suppression of forb seedling emergence by grass (Poa pratensis) litter. Functional Ecology, 9, 635–9.
Boucher, D. H. (1983). Quercus oleoides (Roble Encino, Oak). In Costa Rican Natural History, ed. Janzen, D. H.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 319–20.
Boulton, A. J. & Brock, M. A. (1999). Australian Freshwater Ecology: Processes and Management. Glen Osmond: Gleneagles Publishing.
Bouwmeester, H. J., Matusova, R., Zhongkui, S., & Beale, M. H. (2003). Secondary metabolite signaling in host–parasitic plant interactions. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6, 358–64.
Bower, F. O. (1935). Primitive Land Plants. London: Macmillan.
Bowers, J. E. & Pierson, E. A. (2001). Implications of seed size for seedling survival in Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae). Southwestern Naturalist, 46, 272–81.
Bowers, J. E., Turner, R. M., & Burgess, T. L. (2004). Temporal and spatial patterns in emergence and early survival of perennial plants in the Sonoran Desert. Plant Ecology, 172, 107–19.
Box, E. O. (1996). Plant functional types and climate at the global scale. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 309–20.
Boyce, C. K. (2005). Patterns of segregation and convergence in the evolution of fern and seed plant leaf morphologies. Paleobiology, 31, 117–40.
Boyd, L. (1932). Monocotylous seedlings: morphological studies in the post-seminal development of the embryo. Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 31, 5–224.
Breckle, S. W. (2002). Walter's Vegetation of the Earth, 4th edn. Berlin: Springer.
Bremer, K. (1985). Summary of green plant phylogeny and classification. Cladistics, 1, 369–85.
Brewer, J. S. (1999a). Short-term effects of fire and competition on growth and plasticity of the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia alata (Sarraceniaceae). American Journal of Botany, 86, 1264–71.
Brewer, J. S. (1999b). Effects of fire, competition, and soil disturbances on regeneration of a carnivorous plant (Drosera capillaris). American Midland Naturalist, 141, 28–42.
Brewer, J. S. (2001). A demographic analysis of fire-stimulated seedling establishment of Sarracenia alata (Sarraceniaceae). American Journal of Botany, 88, 1250–7.
Briede, J. W. & McKell, C. M. (1992). Germination of seven perennial arid land species, subject to soil moisture stress. Journal of Arid Environments, 23, 263–70.
Brighigna, L., Fiordi, A. C., & Palandri, M. R. (1990). Structural comparison between free and anchored roots in Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) species. Caryologia, 43, 27–42.
Brittingham, S. & Walker, L. R. (2000). Facilitation of Yucca brevifolia recruitment by Mojave Desert shrubs. Western North American Naturalist, 60, 374–83.
Brock, M. A. (1998). Are temporary wetlands resilient? Evidence from seed banks of Australian and South African wetlands. In Wetlands for the Future: Contributions from INTECOL's V International Wetlands Conference, ed. McComb, J. & Davis, J. A.. Adelaide: Gleneagles Publishing.
Brockie, R. (1992). A Living New Zealand Forest. Auckland: David Bateman.
Brodribb, T. J., Holbrook, N. M., & Hill, R. S. (2005). Seedling growth in conifers and angiosperms: impacts of contrasting xylem structure. Australian Journal of Botany, 53, 749–55.
Brooks, S. M. & Spencer, T. (1997). Changing soil hydrology due to rain forest logging, an example from Sabah Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Management, 49, 297–310.
Brown, J. & Venable, D. (1986). Evolutionary ecology of seed-bank annuals in temporally varying environments. American Naturalist, 127, 31–47.
Brown, J. S. & Venable, D. L. (1991). Life history evolution of seed-bank annuals in response to seed predation. Evolutionary Ecology, 5, 12–29.
Brown, N. A. C. & Staden, J. (1997). Smoke as a germination cue: a review. Plant Growth Regulation, 22, 115–24.
Brown, N. D. & Whitmore, T. C. (1992). Do dipterocarp seedlings really partition tropical rain forest gaps? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 335, 369–78.
Brown, R. L. & Fridley, J. D. (2003). Control of plant species diversity and community invasibility by species immigration: seed richness versus seed density. Oikos, 102, 15–24.
Brown, W. H. (1935). The Plant Kingdom. Boston: Ginn and Company.
Bruchmann, H. (1898). Über die Prothallien und die Keimpflanzen mehrer europaischer Lycopodien. Gotha: self-published.
Bruchmann, H. (1909). Vom Prothallium der grossen Sporen und von der Keimes-Entwicklung einiger Selaginella-arten. Flora, 99, 12–51.
Bruchmann, H. (1912). Zur Embryologie der Selaginellaceen. Flora, 104, 180–224.
Brudvig, L. A. & Evans, C. W. (2006). Competitive effects of native and exotic shrubs on Quercus alba seedlings. Northeastern Naturalist, 13, 259–68.
Bruelheide, H. (2002). Climatic factors controlling the eastern and altitudinal distribution boundary of Digitalis purpurea L. in Germany. Flora, 197, 475–90.
Brundrett, M., Bougher, N., Dell, B., Grove, T., & Malajczuk, N. (1996). Working with Mycorrhizas in Forestry and Agriculture. Canberra: ACIAR Monograph.
Bryan, G. S. (1920). Early stages in development of the sporophyte of Sphagnum subsecundum. American Journal of Botany, 7, 296–303.
Bryan, G. S. (1952). The cellular proembryo of Zamia and its cap cells. American Journal of Botany, 39, 433–43.
Buddenhagen, C. E. & Ogden, J. (2003). Growth and survival of Dysoxylum spectabile (Meliaceae) seedlings in canopy gaps. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 41, 179–83.
Budelsky, R. & Galatowitsch, S. (2000). Effects of water regime and competition on the establishment of a native sedge in restored wetlands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 971–85.
Budelsky, R. & Galatowitsch, S. (2004). Establishment of Carex stricta Lam. seedlings in experimental wetlands with implications for restoration. Plant Ecology, 175, 91–105.
Budowski, G. (1987). Living fence posts in tropical America, a widespread agroforestry practice. In Agroforestry, Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, ed. Gholz, H. L.. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 169–78.
Buee, M., Rossignol, M., Jauneau, A., Ranjeva, R., & Becard, G. (2000). The pre-symbiotic growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is induced by a branching factor partially purified from plant root exudates. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions, 13, 693–8.
Buell, M. F. (1935). Seed and seedling of Acorus calamus. Botanical Gazette, 96, 758–65.
Bugmann, H. (2001). A review of forest gap models. Climatic Change, 51, 259–305.
Bullock, J. M. (2000). Gaps and seedling colonization. In Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities, 2nd edn., ed. Fenner, M.. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 375–95.
Bullock, S. H. (1991). Herbivory and the demography of the chaparral shrub Ceanothus greggii (Rhamnaceae). Madroño, 38, 63–72.
Bungard, R. A., Press, M. C., & Scholes, J. D. (2000). The influence of nitrogen on rain forest dipterocarp seedlings exposed to a large increase in irradiance. Plant Cell and Environment, 23, 1183–94.
Burger, D. (1972). Seedlings of Some Tropical Trees and Shrubs Mainly of South East Asia. Wageningen: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.
Burgess, L. M., Hild, A. L., & Shaw, N. L. (2005). Capsule treatments to enhance seedling emergence of Gaura neomexicana spp. coloradensis. Restoration Ecology, 13, 8–14.
Burleigh, J. G. & Mathews, S. (2007). Assessing among-locus variation in the inference of seed plant phylogeny. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168, 111–24.
Burrows, C. J. (1993). Vivipary and effects of maternal tissues on germination of some New Zealand seeds. Canterbury Botanical Society, 27, 47–8.
Burrows, C. J. (1995). The germination behaviour of the seeds of the New Zealand species Aristotelia serrata, Coprosma robusta, Cordyline australis, Myrtus obcordata and Schefflera digitata. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 33, 257–64.
Burrows, C. J. (1996). Germination behaviour of the seeds of seven New Zealand vine species. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 34, 93–102.
Burslem, D. F. R. P., Grubb, P. J., & Turner, I. M. (1995). Responses to nutrient addition among shade-tolerant tree seedlings of lowland tropical rain forest in Singapore. Journal of Ecology, 83, 113–22.
Burt, A. (1989). Comparative methods using phyllogenetically independent contrasts. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, 6, 33–53.
Burton, P. J. & Bazzaz, F. A. (1995). Ecophysiological responses of tree seedlings invading different patches of old-field vegetation. Journal of Ecology, 83, 99–112.
Burton, P. J. & Mueller-Dombois, D. (1984). Response of Metrosideros polymorpha seedlings to experimental canopy opening. Ecology, 65, 779–91.
Burt-Smith, G. S., Grime, J. P., & Tilman, D. (2003). Seedling resistance to herbivory as a predictor of relative abundance in a synthesised prairie community. Oikos, 101, 345–53.
Buschmann, H., Keller, M., Porret, N., Dietz, H., & Edwards, P. J. (2005). The effect of slug grazing on vegetation development and plant species diversity in an experimental grassland. Functional Ecology, 19, 291–8.
Byers, D. L., Platenkamp, G. A. J., & Shaw, R. G. (1997). Variation in seed characters in Nemophila menziesii – evidence of a genetic basis for maternal effect. Evolution, 51, 1445–56.
Cabin, R. J., Weller, S. G., Lorence, D. H.et al. (2002). Effects of light, alien grass, and native species additions on Hawaiian dry forest restoration. Ecological Applications, 12, 1595–1610.
Cairney, J. W. G. & Alexander, I. J. (1992). A study of ageing of spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] ectomycorrhizas. III. Phosphate absorption and transfer in ageing Picea sitchensis/Tylospora fibrillosa (Burt.) Donk ectomycorrhizas. New Phytologist, 122, 159–64.
Callaway, R. M. (1995). Positive interactions among plants. Botanical Review, 61, 306–49.
Callaway, R. M. (1997). Positive interactions in plant communities and the individualistic-continuum concept. Oecologia, 112, 143–9.
Callaway, R. M. & Aschehoug., E. T. (2000). Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for invasion. Science, 290, 521–3.
Callaway, R. M., Brooker, R. W., Choler, P.et al. (2002). Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress. Nature, 417, 844–8.
Callaway, R. M. & Davis, F. W. (1998). Recruitment of Quercus agrifolia in central California: the importance of shrub-dominated patches. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 647–56.
Callaway, R. M., Lucia, E. H., Moore, D., Nowak, R., & Schlesinger, W. H. (1996). Competition and facilitation: contrasting effects of Artemisia tridentata on desert vs. montane pines. Ecology, 77, 2130–41.
Callaway, R. M. & Walker, L. R. (1997). Competition and facilitation: a synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. Ecology, 78, 1958–65.
Cameron, G. N. & Spencer, S. R. (1989). Rapid leaf decay and nutrient release in a Chinese tallow forest. Oecologia, 80, 222–8.
Campbell, E. J. F. & Newbery, D. M. C. (1993). Ecological relationships between lianas and trees in lowland rain forest in Sabah, East Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 9, 469–90.
Campbell, E. O. (1928). The Structure and Development of Mosses and Ferns, 3rd edn. New York: Macmillan.
Campbell, R. S. (1929). Vegetative succession in the Prosopis sand dunes of southern New Mexico. Ecology, 10, 392–8.
Canham, C. D. (1988). Growth and canopy architecture of shade-tolerant trees: response to canopy gaps. Ecology, 69, 786–95.
Canham, C. D., Berkovwitz, A. R., Kelly, V. R.et al. (1996). Biomass allocation and multiple resource limitation in tree seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26, 1521–30.
Canham, C. D., Kobe, R. K., Latty, E. F., & Chazdon, R. L. (1999). Interspecific and intraspecific variation in tree seedling survival: effects of allocation to roots versus carbohydrate reserves. Oecologia, 121, 1–11.
Caprio, A. C. & Lineback, P. (2002). Pre-twentieth century fire history of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: a review and evaluation of our knowledge. In Fire in California Ecosystems: Integrating Ecology, Prevention and Management, ed. Morales, M. & Morales, T.. Berkeley: Association for Fire Ecology, pp. 180–99.
Carafa, A., Duckett, J. G., & Ligrone, R. (2003). The placenta in Monoclea forsteri Hook. and Treubia lacunosa (Col.) Prosk: insights into placental evolution in liverworts. Annals of Botany, 92, 299–307.
Cardel, Y., Rico-Gray, V., Garcia-Franco, J. G., & Thien, L. B. (1997). Ecological status of Beaucarnea gracilis, an endemic species of the semiarid Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. Conservation Biology, 11, 367–74.
Carlyle, C. N. & Fraser, L. H. (2006). A test of three juvenile plant competitive response strategies. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17, 11–18.
Carnago, C. E. D. & Ferreira, A. W. P. (2005). Genetic control of wheat seedling growth. Scientia Agricola, 62, 325–30.
Carnevale, N. & Montagnini, F. (2002). Facilitating regeneration of secondary forests with the use of mixed and pure plantations of indigenous tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 163, 217–27.
Carrillo-Garcia, A., Bashan, Y., & Bethlenfalvay, G. J. (2000). Resource-island soils and the survival of the giant cactus, cardon, of Baja California Sur. Plant and Soil, 218, 207–14.
Carrillo-Garcia, A., Luz, J. L. L., Bashan, Y., & Bethlenfalvay, G. J. (1999). Nurse plants, mycorrhizae, and plant establishment in a disturbed area of the Sonoran Desert. Restoration Ecology, 7, 321–35.
Casanova, M. & Brock, M. (2004). How do depth, duration, and frequency of flooding influence the establishment of wetland plant communities? Plant Ecology, 147, 237–50.
Casler, M. D. & Undersander, D. J. (2006). Selection for establishment capacity in reed canarygrass. Crop Science, 46, 1277–85.
Casperson, J. P. & Kobe, R. K. (2001). Interspecific variation in sapling mortality in relation to growth and soil moisture. Oikos, 92, 160–8.
Castro, J., Zamora, R., Hodar, J. A., & Gomez, J. M. (2002). Use of shrubs as nurse plants: a new technique for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains. Restoration Ecology, 10, 297–305.
Castro, J., Zamora, R., Hódar, J. A., & Gómez, J. M. (2004a). Seedling establishment of a boreal tree species (Pinus sylvestris) at its southernmost distribution limit: consequences of being in a marginal Mediterranean habitat. Journal of Ecology, 92, 266–77.
Castro, J., Zamora, R., Hodar, J. A., Gomez, J. M., & Gomez-Aparico, L. (2004b). Benefits of using shrubs as nurse plants for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains: a 4-year study. Restoration Ecology, 12, 352–8.
Castro-Diez, P., Puyravaud, J. P., & Cornelissen, J. H. C. (2000). Leaf structure and anatomy as related to leaf mass per area variation in seedlings of a wide range of woody plant species and types. Oecologia, 124, 476–86.
Castro-Diez, P., Puyravaud, J. P., Cornelissen, J. H. C., & Villarsalvador, P. (1998). Stem anatomy and relative growth rate in seedlings of a wide range of woody plant species and types. Oecologia, 116, 57–66.
Caswell, H. (1989). Matrix Population Models. Sunderland: Sinauer.
Caswell, H. (2001). Matrix Population Models, 2nd edn. Sunderland: Sinauer.
Catalán, L., Balzarini, M., Taleisnik, E., Sereno, R., & Karlin, U. (1994). Effects of salinity on germination and seedling growth of Prosopis flexuosa (Dc). Forest Ecology and Management, 63, 347–57.
Catovsky, S. & Bazzaz, F. A. (2002). Nitrogen availability influences regeneration of temperate tree species in the understory seedling bank. Ecological Applications, 12, 1056–70.
Catovsky, S., Kobe, R. K., & Bazzaz, F. A. (2002). Nitrogen-induced changes in seedling regeneration and dynamics of mixed conifer–broad-leaved forests. Ecological Applications, 12, 1611–25.
Cavelier, J., Aide, T. M., Santos, C., Eusse, A. M., & Dupuy, J. M. (1998). The savannizations of moist forests in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Journal of Biogeography, 25, 901–12.
Cázares, E. & Smith, J. E. (1996). Occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla seedlings grown in Oregon Coast Range soils. Mycorrhiza, 6, 65–7.
Cázares, E. & Trappe, J. M. (1994). Spore dispersal of ectomycorrhizal fungi on a glacier forefront by mammal mycophagy. Mycologia, 86, 507–10.
Cerabolini, B., Ceriani, R. M., Caccianiga, M., Andreis, R., & Raimondi, B. (2003). Seed size and shape and persistence in soil: a test on Italian flora from alps to Mediterranean coasts. Seed Science Research, 13, 75–85.
Cervera, J. C., Andrade, J. L., Simá, J. L., & Graham, E. A. (2006). Microhabitats, germination, and establishment for Mammillaria gaumeri (Cactaceae), a rare species from Yucatan. International Journal of Plant Science, 167, 311–19.
Chacon, P. & Armesto, J. J. (2005). Effect of canopy openness on growth, specific leaf area, and survival of tree seedlings in a temperate rainforest of Chiloe Island, Chile. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 43, 71–81.
Chamberlain, C. J. (1919). The Living Cycads. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chamberlain, C. J. (1935). Gymnosperms: Structure and Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chambers, J. C. (1995). Disturbance, life history strategies, and seed fates in alpine herbfield communities. American Journal of Botany, 82, 421–33.
Chambers, J. C., Farleigh, K., Tausch, R. J., et al. (1998). Understanding long- and short-term changes in vegetation and geomorphic processes: the key to riparian restoration. In Proceedings: Rangeland Management and Water Resources, ed. Potts, D. F.. Middleburg: Water Resources Association and Society for Range Management, pp. 101–10.
Chambers, J. C., Wall, Vander S. B., & Schupp, E. W. (1999). Seed and seedling ecology of pinyon and juniper species in the pygmy woodlands of western North America. Botanical Reviews, 65, 1–38.
Chang, S.–M. (2006). Female compensation through the quantity and quality of progeny in a gynodioecious plant, Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae). American Journal of Botany, 93, 263–70.
Chao, W. S., Horvath, D. P., Anderson, J. V., & Foley, M. E. (2005). Potential model weeds to study genomics, ecology, and physiology in the 21st century. Weed Science, 53, 929–37.
Chapin, F. S. III (1980). The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11, 233–60.
Chapin, F. S. III (1989). The cost of tundra plant structures: evaluation of concepts and currencies. American Naturalist, 133, 1–19.
Chapin, F. S. III, Autumn, K., & Pugnaire, F. (1993). Evolution of suites of traits in response to environmental stress. American Naturalist, 142, S78–S92.
Chapman, C. A. & Overdonk, D. A. (1998). Forests without primates: primate/ plant codependency. American Journal of Primatology, 45, 127–41.
Chapman, V. J. (1976). Mangrove Vegetation. Vaduz: J. Cramer.
Charnov, E. L. (1993). Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chase, J. M. (2003). Community assembly: when should history matter? Oecologia, 136, 489–98.
Chase, M. W. (2005). Classification of Orchidaceae in the age of DNA data. Curtis's Botanical Magazine, 22, 2–7.
Chauvel, A., Grimaldi, M., & Tessier, D. (1991). Changes in soil pore-space distribution following d