Skip to main content Accessibility help
The Risk Society at War
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 80
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In the globalised world of the twenty-first century, security policy in Western societies is driven by a wish to prevent future threats from becoming reality. Applying theories of 'risk society' to the study of strategy, this book analyses the creation of a new approach to strategy. The author demonstrates that this approach creates new choices for policy-makers and challenges well-established truths within the study of security and strategy. He argues that since the seventeenth century the concept of strategy has served to rationalise new technologies, doctrines and agents. By outlining the history of the concept of strategy in terms of rationality, Rasmussen presents a framework for studying strategy in a time of risk and uses this framework to analyse how new technologies of war, pre-emptive doctrines, globalisation and the rise of the 'terrorist approach to warfare' can formulate a new theory of strategy.


‘In illuminating detail, Rasmussen outlines how strategic thinking in the early twenty-first century has been reshaped by the concept of risk. This is a path-breaking book - original, insightful and uniquely important. I hope that politicians and generals alike will read it - they should.’

Christopher Coker - Professor of International Relations, LSE

‘At last a book that connects military strategy into the debate on 'risk society'. Rasmussen should be read by everyone concerned with today's strategic dilemmas, as well as by social scientists interested in risk.’

Martin Shaw - Professor of International Relations and Politics, University of Sussex

'The overall quality of The Risk Society at War is testimony to the careful research and analysis that underpins the book. Weaving together various theoretical developments on risk research from otherwise disparate disciplines of sociology, criminology and international relations, and demonstrating their explanatory power in contemporary questions of war and question is itself a creditable achievement. … a valuable contribution to the existing IR literature on strategy and security.'

Yee-Kuang Heng - Lecturer in International Relations, University of St Andrews

'... offers a number of intriguing insights about the direction of strategy in the context of risk.'

Source: Journal of Politics

' … useful to any reader interested in the changing aspects of warfare and should be requi]red reading for strategists of the twenty-first century.'

Source: International Affairs

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Adams, John, Risk (London: Routledge, 1995).
Ahmed, Kamal and Vulliamy, Ed, ‘United They Stand: The “Odd Couple” Offensive’, Observer, 8 September 2002.
Allison, Graham T., Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1971).
Arend, Anthony Clark, ‘International Law and the Preemptive Use of Military Force’, Washington Quarterly 26 (Spring 2003), 89–103.
Aron, Raymond, ‘The Evolution of Modern Strategic Thought’, in Problems of Modern Strategy, The Institute for Strategic Studies (London: Chatto and Windus, 1970), 13–46.
Aron, Raymond, ‘Reason, Passion, and Power in the Thought of Clausewitz’, Social Research: An International Quarterly of the Social Sciences 39 (1972), 599–621.
Atkinson, Rick, In the Company of Soldiers: A Chronicle of Combat in Iraq (London: Little, Brown and Company, 2004).
Bacevich, Andrew J., ‘Strategic Studies: In from the Cold’, SAIS Review 13 (1993), 11–23.
Bacevich, Andrew J., American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of US Diplomacy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002).
Barnett, Thomas P. M., The Pentagon's New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Putnam, 2004).
Bartelson, Jens, ‘Three Concepts of Globalization’, International Sociology 15 (2000), 180–96.
Bartov, Omer, The Eastern Front, 1941–45: German Troops and the Barbarisation of Warfare (London: Macmillan, 1985).
Bauman, Zygmunt, Modernity and the Holocaust (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989).
Bauman, Zygmunt, Globalization: The Human Consequences (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998).
Bauman, Zygmunt, Society Under Siege (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002).
Baylis, John and James Wirtz, ‘Introduction’, in Baylis, John et al. (eds.), Strategy in the Contemporary World: An Introduction to Strategic Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 1–14.
Beck, Ulrich, ‘The Reinvention of Politics: Towards a Theory of Reflexive Modernization’, in Beck, Ulrich, Giddens, Anthony and Lash, Scott, Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994), 1–55.
Beck, Ulrich, Risk Society, trans. Mark Ritter (London: Sage Publications, 1992).
Beck, Ulrich, World Risk Society (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999).
Beck, Ulrich, What Is Globalization? (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000).
Beck, Ulrich, ‘The Silence of Words: On Terror and War’, Security Dialogue 34 (2003), 255–67.
Becker, Gavin, Fear Less (Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 2002).
Begg, David, Fischer, Stanley and Dornbusch, Rudiger, Economics, third edition (London: MacGraw Hill, 1991).
Beschloss, M. R. and Talbott, S., At the Highest Levels. The Inside Story of the End of the Cold War (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993).
Betts, Richard K., ‘Should Strategic Studies Survive?’, World Politics 50 (1997), 7–33.
Betts, Richard K., ‘Is Strategy an Illusion?’, International Security 25 (2000), 5–50.
Bigo, Didier, To Reassure, and Protect, After September11, (1 December 2004).
Black, Jeremy, War in the New Century (London: Continuum, 2001).
Blair, Tony, Prime Minister's Speech to Economic Club of Chicago, Chicago, 23 April 1999 (London: Prime Minister's Office, 1999).
Blair, Tony, Prime Minister's Address to the Labour Party Conference, Brighton, 2 October 2001, (17 October 2001).
Blair, Tony, PM Warns of Continuing Global Terror Threat, 5 March 2004 (London: Prime Minister's Office, 2004), (7 October 2004).
‘Blair: UK Terror Attack Inevitable’, CNN, 21 January 2003, (7 October 2004).
Blakely, Edward J. and Snyder, Mary Gail, Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1997).
Bond, Brian, War and Society in Europe 1870–1970 (London: Fontana, 1998).
‘Border Breach? Customs Fails to Detect Depleted Uranium – Again’, ABC News, (9 October 2003).
Bourke, Joanna, An Intimate History of Killing: Face-to-Face Killing in Twentieth-Century Warfare (London: Granta Publications, 1999).
Bowden, Mark, Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War (New York: Penguin Books, 1999).
Bowden, Mark, ‘The Kabul-ki Dance’, Atlantic Monthly, November 2002, (18 January 2005).
Boyd, Terry, ‘Service Members Weigh Many Options in Deciding Whether to Re-enlist’, Stars and Stripes, European Edition, 20 October 2003.
Brodie, Bernard, ‘Strategy as a Science’, World Politics 1 (1949), 467–88.
Brodie, Bernard, War and Politics (London: Cassell, 1974).
Bundy, McGeorge, Danger and Survival. Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years (New York: Random House, 1988).
Burchell, Graham, Cordon, Colin and Miller, Peter (eds.), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990).
Bush, George Herbert Walker, Remarks at a White House Briefing on the National Drug Control Strategy, 5 September 1990, George Bush Presidential Library, College Station, TX, (1 March 2004).
Bush, George Herbert Walker, Remarks at the Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, 15 December 1992, The George Bush Presidential Library, College Station, TX.
Bush, George W., A Period of Consequences, The Citadel, Charleston, SC, 23 September 1999, (12 April 2005).
Bush, George W., Governor Bush Addresses American Legion, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Wednesday 6 September 2000.
Bush, George W., President Pledges Assistance for New York in Phone Call with Pataki, Giuliani, Remarks by the President in Telephone Conversation with New York Mayor Giuliani and New York Governor Pataki, 13 September 2001 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2001).
Bush, George W., Remarks by the President in Photo Opportunity with the National Security Team, The Cabinet Room, the White House, 13 September 2001 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2001).
Bush, George W., Remarks by the President on Arrival, 16 September 2001 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2001).
Bush, George W., Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People, 20 September 2001 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2001).
Bush, George W., President Bush Speaks to United Nations, Remarks by the President to United Nations General Assembly, UN Headquarters, New York, 10 November 2001 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2001).
Bush, George W., The President's State of the Union Address, 29 January 2002 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2002).
Bush, George W., President Thanks World Coalition for Anti-Terrorism Efforts, The South Lawn, 11 March 2002 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2002).
Bush, George W., President Bush Thanks Germany for Support Against Terror, Remarks by the President to a Special Session of the German Bundestag, The White House, 23 May 2002 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2002).
Bush, George W., Remarks by the President at 2002 Graduation Exercise of the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, 1 June 2002 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2002).
Bush, George W., President Bush Discusses Iraq with Congressional Leaders, 26 September 2002 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 7 October 2002).
Bush, George W., Remarks by the President at the Signing of HR 5005 the Homeland Security Act of 2002, 25 November 2002 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2002).
Bush, George W., President Bush Outlines Progress in Operation Iraqi Freedom, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems' Headquarters, St Louis, Missouri, 16 April 2003 (22 April 2004).
Bush, George W., President Bush Announces Major Combat Operations in Iraq Have Ended, Remarks by the President from the USS Abraham Lincoln At Sea Off the Coast of San Diego, California, 1 May 2003 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2003).
Bush, George W., Remarks by the President at the United States Air Force Academy Graduation Ceremony, Falcon Stadium, United States Air Force Academy, 2 June 2004 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2004).
Bush, George W., President Sworn-In to Second Term, Capitol, 20 January 2005 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2005).
Butterfield, Herbert, History and Human Relations (London: Collins, 1951).
Buzan, Barry et al., Security: A New Framework for Analysis (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1997).
Carter, Helen, ‘Eye Spy’, Guardian, 1 August 2001.
Castells, Manuel, The Rise of the Network Society (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996).
Cheney, Richard B., Remarks by the Vice President to the Veterans of Foreign Wars 103rd National Convention, 26 August 2002 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 18 September 2002).
Churchill, Winston S., Sinews of Peace, 5 March 1946, Westminster College, Fulton Missouri, The Churchill Center, (26 May 2000).
Churchill, Winston S., The Second World War, vol. I: The Gathering Storm (London: Cassell, 1948).
Clancy, Tom, Executive Orders (London: HarperCollins, 1996).
Clark, Wesley K., Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo and the Future of Conflict (New York: Public Affairs, 2001).
Clarke, Richard A., Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror (New York: The Free Press, 2004).
Clausewitz, Carl, On War, edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976 (1832–4)).
Clinton, William Jefferson, Address by the President to the 48th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, The United Nations, New York (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 1993).
Clinton, William Jefferson, Remarks by the President at Intervention for the North Atlantic Summit, NATO Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 1994).
Clinton, William Jefferson, Address to the Nation by the President, 20 August 1998 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 1998).
ClintonJefferson, William, Statement by the President to the Nation, 24 March 1999 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 1999).
Clinton, William Jefferson, Remarks by President William Clinton to the Veterans of Foreign Wars on Kosovo, Eisenhower Hall, Fort McNair, 13 May 1999 (Washington, DC: The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 1999).
Cohen, William S., Remarks as Prepared for Delivery Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen National Defense University Joint Operations Symposium QDR Conference, Fort McNair, Washington, DC, 23 June 1997 (Washington, DC: Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs), 1997).
Coker, Christopher, War and the 20th Century (London: Brassey's, 1994).
Coker, Christopher, Twilight of the West (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998).
Coker, Christopher, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-First Century: NATO and the Management of Risk, Adelphi Paper 345, International Institute for Strategic Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Coker, Christopher, The Future of War: The Re-Enchantment of War in the Twenty-First Century (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004).
Conetta, Carl, The ‘New Warfare’ and the New American Calculus of War, Project on Defense Alternatives, Briefing Memo No. 26, 30 September 2002, (13 May 2004).
Conetta, Carl, The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict (Cambridge, MA: Commonwealth Institute, 2003).
Cordesman, Anthony H., The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003).
Cordesman, Anthony H., Lessons and Non-Lessons of the Air and Missile Campaign in Kosovo (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2004).
Cordesman, Anthony H., The Ongoing Lessons of Afghanistan: Warfighting, Intelligence, Force Transformation, and Nation-building (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2004).
Cornwell, Rupert, ‘Just Retribution or an Abuse of Human Rights? A Big Question, with Only One Answer in the US’, Independent, 18 January 2002.
Cowell, Alan, ‘Blair Hears Drumbeat of Dissent from Party’, International Herald Tribune, 12 March 2003.
Creveld, Martin, On Future War (London: Brassey's, 1991).
Creveld, Martin, The Art of War: War and Military Thought (London: Cassell, 2000).
Cronin, Audrey Kurth, ‘Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism’, International Security 27 (2002), 30–58.
Crow, Graham, ‘The Use of the Concept of “Strategy” in Recent Sociological Literature’, Sociology 23 (1989), 1–24.
Crow, Sheryl, ‘If It Makes You Happy’, Sheryl Crow, A&M Records, 1996.
Dean, Mitchell, Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society (London: Sage Publications, 1999).
Defense Technical Information Center, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, (2 December 2004).
Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz, Interview with Sam Tannenhaus, Vanity Fair, 9 May 2003, transcript (Washington, DC: US Department of Defense, 2003).
Der Derian, James, ‘The Art of War and the Construction of Peace’, in Kelstrup, Morten and Michael, C. Williams (eds.), International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration: Power, Security and Community (London: Routledge, 2000), 72–105.
Efron, Sonni, Marshall, Tyler and Drogin, Bob, ‘Powell's Talk of Arms Has Fallout’, Los Angeles Times, 19 November 2004.
Elias, Norbert, The Civilizing Process (Oxford: Blackwell, 1978 (1939)).
Eminem, ‘Without Me’, The Eminem Show, Shady/Interscope Records, 2002.
Emsley, Clive, Marwick, Arthur and Simpson, Wendy (eds.), War, Peace and Social Change in Twentieth Century Europe (Buckingham: Open University Press, 1989).
Euben, Roxanne L., Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999).
Ewald, François, ‘Insurance and Risk’, in Burchell, Graham, Gordon, Colin and Miller, Peter (eds.), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991), 197–210.
Fallows, James, ‘The Hollow Army’, Atlantic Monthly, March 2004, (18 January 2005).
Finnemore, Martha, The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs About the Use of Force (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003).
Fischer, Joschka, Speech by Federal Foreign Minister Fischer in the German Bundestag on 20 March 2003 on the War against Iraq (Berlin: German Foreign Ministry, 2003).
Foucault, Michel, ‘Governmentality’ in Essential Works of Foucault 1954–1984, vol. III: Power, ed. James, D. Faubion (New York: The New Press, 2000), 201–22.
Freedman, Lawrence, ‘Indignation, Influence and Strategic Studies’, International Affairs 60 (1984), 207–19.
Freedman, Lawrence, ‘The First Two Generations of Nuclear Strategists’, in Paret, Peter (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), 735–78.
Freedman, Lawrence, The Revolution in Strategic Affairs, Adelphi Paper 318, International Institute for Strategic Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Freedman, Lawrence, ‘The Third World War?’, Survival 43 (2001), 61–88.
Freedman, Lawrence, Deterrence (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004).
Fukuyama, Francis, ‘Their Target: The Modern World’, Newsweek, Special Davos Edition (December 2001–February 2002), 58–63.
Gaddis, John Lewis, ‘A Grand Strategy of Transformation’, Foreign Policy, (11 December 2002).
Gaddis, John Lewis, Surprise, Security, and the American Experience (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004).
Gaddis, John Lewis, ‘Grand Strategy in the Second Term’, Foreign Affairs 84 (January/February 2005), 2–15.
German Marshall Fund, Transatlantic Trends 2004 – Topline Data, (16 January 2005).
‘German Prosecutor Refuses Rumsfeld Probe’, Washington Post, 11 February 2005.
‘German Prosecutor Rejects Investigation of Rumsfeld’, Los Angeles Times, 11 February 2005.
Giddens, Anthony, The Consequences of Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990).
Giddens, Anthony, Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991).
Giddens, Anthony, ‘Risk Society: The Context of British Politics’, in Franklin, Jane (ed.), The Politics of Risk Society (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998), 23–34.
Giddens, Anthony, Runaway World: How Globalisation is Reshaping Our Lives (London: Profile, 1999).
Gilbert, Felix, ‘Machiavelli: The Renaissance of the Art of War’, in Paret, Peter (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), 11–31.
Goldstein, Jonah and Rayner, Jeremy, ‘The Politics of Identity in Late Modern Society’, Theory and Society 23 (June 1994), 367–84.
Gore, Al, Remarks by Vice President Al Gore, US Military Academy Commencement, West Point, 27 May 2000, Clinton Presidential Materials Project, May 2004).
Gore, Al, Iraq and the War on Terrorism, 23 September, 2002, (13 October, 2004).
Gray, Colin, ‘Villains, Victims, and Sheriffs: Strategic Studies and Security for an Interwar Period’, Comparative Strategy 13 (1994), 353–69.
Gray, Colin S., Explorations in Strategy (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996).
Gray, Colin, ‘Clausewitz Rules, OK? The Future is the Past – with GPS’, Review of International Studies 25 (December 1999), 161–82.
Gray, Colin, ‘World Politics as Usual after September 11: Realism Vindicated’, in Booth, Ken and Dunne, Tim (eds.), Worlds in Collision (London: Palgrave, 2002), 226–34.
Guehenno, J.-M., ‘The Impact of Globalisation on Strategy’, Survival 40 (Winter 1998–9), 5–19.
Gunaratna, Rohan, Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002).
Guthrie, Charles, ‘Why NATO Cannot Simply March in and Crush Milosevic’, Evening Standard, 1 April 1999.
Hanson, Victor David, Why the West Has Won: Carnage and Culture from Salamis to Vietnam (London: Faber and Faber, 2001).
The Health and Safety Executive, Reducing Risks, Protecting People, Discussion Document (London: The Health and Safety Executive, 1999).
Heisbourg, François, ‘A Work in Progress: The Bush Doctrine and Its Consequences’, Washington Quarterly 26 (Spring 2003), 75–88.
Hersh, Seymour M., Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib (London: Allen Lane, 2004).
Herwig, Holger H., ‘The Battlefleet Revolution, 1885–1914’, in Knox, MacGregor and Murray, Williamson (eds.), The Dynamics of Mildtary Revolution, 1300–2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 114–31.
Herz, John, Political Realism and Political Idealism (Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 1951).
Hirst, Paul, War and Power (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001).
Holbrooke, Richard, To End A War, revised edition (New York: The Modern Library, 1999).
Howard, Michael, War and the Liberal Conscience (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1978).
Howard, Michael, ‘Terrorism Has Always Fed Off its Response’, Times, 1 September 2001.
Howard, Michael, Speech at the Conference New Policies for a New World, RUSI, unpublished, London, November 2001.
Hughes, Gordon, Understanding Crime Prevention: Social Control, Risk and Late-Modernity (Maidenhead: Open University Press, 1998).
Hulse, Carl, ‘Pentagon Cancels Scheme for Wagering on Terror’, International Herald Tribune, 30 July 2003.
Hundley, Richard O., Past Revolutions, Future Transformations: What Can the History of Revolutions in Military Affairs Tell Us About Transforming the US Military? (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999).
Huntington, Samuel, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (London: Touchstone Books, 1998).
Huntington, Samuel, ‘The Age of Muslim Wars’, Newsweek, Special Davos Edition (December 2001–February 2002), 6–13., (13 April 2005).
Ignatieff, Michael, Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond (London: Chatto and Windus, 2000).
Ikenberry, G. John, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect (Ottawa, ON: International Development Research Centre, 2001).
International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2002–2003 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2003–2004 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
‘It is Meaningless and Dangerous to Declare War Against Terrorism’, Leading Article, Independent, 17 September 2001.
Jervis, Robert, Perception and Misperception in International Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976).
John Kerry for President, (3 May 2004).
Johnston, , Policing Britain: Risk, Security and Governance (London: Longman, 2000).
Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Vision 2010 (Washington, DC: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1997).
Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Vision 2020 (Washington, DC: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2000).
Joint Declaration by the British and French Governments on European Defence, Anglo-French Summit, London, Thursday 25 November 1999.
Joint Doctrine and Concepts Centre, Strategic Trends (Swindon: JDCC, 2003).
Kahn, Herman, On Thermonuclear War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961).
Kalberg, Stephen, ‘Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History’, American Journal of Sociology 85 (1980), 1, 145–79.
Kant, Immanuel, ‘To Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch’, Kant's Political Writings, trans. Nisbet, H. B. and ed. Reiss, H. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970 (1795)).
Kaplan, Fred, The Wizards of Armageddon (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983).
Kaplan, Robert D., Warrior Politics: Why Leadership Demands a Pagan Ethos (New York: Random House, 2002).
Keane, John, Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998).
Keegan, John, The Face of Battle: A Study of Agincourt, Waterloo and the Somme (London: Pimlico, 1991).
Keegan, John, The Iraq War (London: Hutchinson, 2004).
Keller, Bill, ‘The Fighting Next Time’, New York Times, 10 March 2002.
Kemshall, Hazel, Risk Assessment and Management of Known Sexual and Violent Offenders: A Review of Current Issues, Police Research Series, Paper 140 (London: Home Office, 2001).
Kennan, George F., ‘The Long Telegram’, 22 February 1946, reprinted in Etzold, Thomas and Gaddis, John Lewis (eds.), Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 1945–1950 (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1978), 50–63.
Kennan, George F., alias, X, ‘The Sources of Soviet Conduct’, Foreign Affairs 25 (July 1947), 566–82.
Kennan, George F., My Memoirs, 1925–1950 (London: Hutchinson, 1967).
Kerry, John, Remarks by Senator John Kerry on New Strategies to Meet New Threats, 1 June 2004, West Palm Beach, FL, (4 June 2004).
Kerry, John, Remarks of Senator John Kerry on Strengthening Our Military, 3 June 2004, Independence, MO, (4 June 2004).
Kerry, John, Kerry Lays Out Iraq Plan, 20 September 2004, New York, transcript Washington Post, (22 September 2004).
Kerry, John, Remarks of Senator John Kerry on Security and Strength for a New World, Seattle, WA, 27 May 2005, (4 June 2004).
Khalilzad, Zalmay et al., The United States and a Rising China (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999).
Klein, Bradley S., ‘After Strategy: The Search for a Postmodern Politics of Peace’, Alternatives 13 (1988), 293–318.
Klein, Bradley S., Strategic Studies and World Order: The Global Politics of Deterrence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Knowlton, Brian, ‘US Toll in Iraq War Starting to Hit Home’, International Herald Tribune, 19 March 2005.
Knox, MacGregor and Murray, Williamson (eds.), The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Kubrick, Stanley, Dr Strangelove or: How I Learned to stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (Columbia Pictures, 1964).
The Labour Party, Labour Looks Ahead, abridged edition of The Old World and the New Society (London: The Labour Party, 1942).
Laird, Robbin F. and Holger, H. May, The Revolution in Military Affairs: Allied Perspectives, McNair Paper 60 (Washington, DC: National Defense University, 1999).
Latham, Robert, The Liberal Moment: Modernity, Security, and the Making of Postwar International Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997).
Leonhard, Robert R., The Principles of War in the Information Age (Novato, CA: Presido Press, 1998).
Liang, Qiao and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted Warfare (Beijing: PLA Literature and Arts Publishing House, 1999). English translation by FBIS, (12 June 2002).
Libicki, Martin, The Mesh and the Net: Speculations on Armed Conflict in an Age of Free Silicon, McNair Paper 28 (Washington, DC: National Defense University, 1994).
Liddell, Hart, B. H., Strategy (London: Penguin, 1954).
Lifton, Robert Jay, ‘Protean Man’, Partisan Review (Winter 1968), 13–27.
Lincoln, Abraham, First Inaugural Address, 4 March 1861, (3 December 2004).
‘The Litany and the Heretic’, Economist, 31 January 2002.
Litwak, Robert S., ‘The New Calculus of Pre-emption’, Survival 44 (Winter 2002–3), 53–80.
Lomborg, Bjørn, The Sceptical Environmentalist (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Luhmann, Niklas, Risk: A Sociological Theory, trans. Rhodes Barrett (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1993).
Lupton, Deborah, Risk (London: Routledge, 1999).
Luttwak, Edward N., ‘A Post-Heroic Military Policy’, Foreign Affairs 74 (July/August 1996), 33–44.
Luttwak, Edward N., Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2001).
Machiavelli, Niccolò, Discourses on Livy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Machiavelli, Niccolò, The Prince (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1998).
Machiavelli, Niccolò, Art of War, ed. Lynch, Christopher (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003).
Mandelbaum, Michael, The Dawn of Peace in Europe (New York: The Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1996).
Marr, Andrew, ‘Blair's Masochism Makes Great Television – But Is It a Good War Strategy?’, Daily Telegraph, 12 March 2003.
Marshall, Andrew W., Some Thoughts on Military Revolutions, Second Version, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Director of Net Assessment, Washington, DC (1993).
Mazower, Mark, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (London: Allen Lane, 1998).
Mearsheimer, John J., ‘Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War’, International Security 15 (1990), 5–56.
Mearsheimer, John J. and Stephen M. Walt, ‘An Unnecessary War’, Foreign Policy (January/February 2003), 50–9.
Metz, Steven, Armed Conflict in the 21st Century: The Information Revolution and Post-Modern Warfare (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2000).
Metz, Steven, ‘The Next Twist of the RMA’, Parameters (Autumn 2000), 40–53.
Mills, C. Wright, The Sociological Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959).
Misguided Math About the Earth’, Scientific American (January 2002), 61–71.
Moore, Michael, Fahrenheit 9/11 (Columbia, 2004).
A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, Report of the Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (New York: United Nations, 2004).
Morgan, D. H. J., ‘Strategies and Sociologists: A Comment on Crow’, Sociology 23 (1989), 25–9.
Morris, Julian, ‘Defining the Precautionary Principle’, in Morris, Julian (ed.), Rethinking Risk and the Precautionary Principle (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), 1–21.
Morton, Oliver, ‘The Softwar Revolution: A Survey of Defence Technology’, Economist, 10 June 1995.
Moskos, Charles C., ‘Toward a Postmodern Military: The United States as a Paradigm’, in Charles, C. Moskos, , Williams, John Allen and David, R. Segal, (eds.), The Postmodern Military: Armed Forces After the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 14–31.
Murray, Williamson and MacGregor Knox, ‘Thinking About Revolutions in Warfare’, in Knox, and Murray, (eds.), The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 1–14.
Murray, Williamson and Robert, H.Scales, Jr, The Iraq War (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 2003).
Naim, Moises and O'Hanlon, Michael, ‘Reinventing War’, Foreign Policy (November/December 2001), 30–47.
National Security Council, ‘A Report to the National Security Council by the Executive Secretary on United States Objectives and Programs for National Security’, 14 April 1950, reprinted in Merrill, D. (ed.), Documentary History of the Truman Presidency, vol. VII: The Ideological Foundations of the Cold War – the ‘Long Telegram,’ the Clifford Report, and NSC 68 (Lanham, MD: University Publications of America, 1996), 324–59.
The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 17 September 2002 (Washington, DC: The While House, 2002).
NATO, The Alliance's Strategic Concept, Agreed by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Rome on 7–8 November 1991 (Brussels: NATO Handbook, NATO Office of Information and Press, October 1995).
NATO, Allied Joint Doctrine, September 1998.
NATO, The Alliance's Strategic Concept, Approved by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Washington, DC, on 23 and 24 April 1999, reprinted in NATO Handbook – Documentation (Brussels: NATO Office of Information and Press, 1999).
‘NATO Chiefs Test Readiness for Terror Crisis’, International Herald Tribune, 9 October 2003.
NATO, Prague Summit Declaration, Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Prague on 21 November 2002 (Brussels: NATO, 2003).
Neumann, John and Morgenstern, Oskar, Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1944).
Nevin, Thomas, ‘Ernest Jünger: German Stormtrooper Chronicler’, in Cecil, Hugh and Liddle, Peter H. (eds.), Facing Armageddon: The First World War Experienced (London: Leo Cooper, 1996), 269–77.
Nye, Joseph S. and Sean, M.Lynn-Johns, , ‘International Security Studies: A Report of a Conference on the State of the Field’, International Security 12 (1988), 5–27.
Nye, Joseph S. Jr. and William, A.Owens, , ‘America's Information Edge’, Foreign Affairs 75 (1996), 20–36.
OECD, Security in Maritime Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact (Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, Maritime Transport Committee, July 2003).
Owens, Bill (with Ed Offley), Lifting the Fog of War (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000).
Pace, , Peter, General, Interview with Hannah Storm, CBS, Early Show, 5 May 2004, transcript (Washington, DC: US Department of Defense, 2004), (6 April 2005).
Parker, Geoffrey, The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Perle, Richard, ‘Thank God for the Death of the UN’, Guardian, 21 March 2003.
Perry, William J., ‘Desert Storm and Deterrence’, Foreign Affairs 70 (1991), 66–82.
Perry, William and Carter, Ashton, Preventive Defense: A New Security Strategy for America (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1999).
Pollack, Kenneth, ‘Next Stop Baghdad’, Foreign Affairs 81 (March/April 2002), 32–47.
Posen, Barry, Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany between the World Wars (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984).
Posen, Barry R., ‘The Struggle Against Terrorism: Grand Strategy, Strategy and Tactics’, International Security 26 (2001), 39–55.
Priest, Dana, ‘A Decisive Battle That Never Was’, Washington Post, 19 September 1999.
‘Private Contractors in Iraq’, Economist, 7 April 2004.
Promfret, John, ‘China Looks Beyond Old Rules’, International Herald Tribune, 9 August 1999.
Quadrennial Defense Review Report, May 1997 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 1997).
Quadrennial Defense Review Report, 30 September 2001 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2001).
Rapoport, David C., ‘The Fourth Wave: September 11 in the History of Terrorism’, Current History (December 2001), 419–24.
Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby, ‘The Prisoner's Reflection: Identity and Detainees in the “War on Terrorism”’, in Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby, Rynning, Sten, Kristensen, Kristian Søby and Heurlin, Bertel (eds.), The Revolution in Military Affairs (Copenhagen: Institute for International Studies, 2003), 213–28.
Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby, The West, Civil Society and the Construction of Peace (London: Palgrave, 2003).
Reimer, Jeffrey W., ‘Durkheim's “Heroic Suicide” in Military Combat’, Armed Forces and Society 25 (Fall 1998), 103–20.
Rice, Condoleezza, ‘The Making of Soviet Strategy’, in Paret, Peter (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), 648–76.
Rice, Condoleezza, Opening Remarks by Secretary of State Designate Dr Condoleezza Rice, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 18 January 2005 (Washington, DC: Department of State, 2005).
Riddell, Bob, ‘Doom Goes to War’, Wired (April 1997), (21 July 2000).
Risk: Improving Government's Capability to Handle Risk and Uncertainty, Strategy Unit Report, November 2002 (London: Cabinet Office, 2002).
Rogers, Clifford J., ‘“As If a New Sun had Arisen”: England's Fourteenth-Century RMA’, in Knox, MacGregor and Murray, Williamson (eds.), The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300–2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 15–34.
Rosenberg, Justin, The Follies of Globalisation Theory (London: Verso, 2000).
Rothenberg, Gunther E., ‘Maurice of Nassau, Gustavus Adolphus, Raimondo Montecuccoli, and the “Military Revolution” of the Seventeenth Century’, in Paret, Peter (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), 32–63.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, On Social Contract or Principles of Political Right, in Rousseau's Political Writings, trans. Bondanella, Julia Conaway, ed. Ritter, Alan and Bondanella, Julia Conoway (New York: W. W. Norton, 1988), 84–117.
Rumsfeld, Donald, 21st Century Transformation of US Armed Forces, Remarks as Delivered by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, DC, Thursday 31 January 2002 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2002).
Sanger, David E. and Shanker, Thom, ‘War Planners Begin to Speak of War's Risks’, New York Times, 18 February 2003.
Schelling, T. C., ‘The Retarded Science of International Strategy’, Midwest Journal of Political Science 4 (May 1960), 107–37.
Schiesel, Seth, ‘On the Ground in Iraq, the Best Compass is in the Sky’, New York Times, 17 April 2003.
Schröder, Gerhard, The Terrorist Attacks in the United States and the Decisions Taken by the United Nations Security Council and NATO (Berlin: Bulletin der Bundesregierung, No. 61/1, 19 September 2001).
Searle, John R., The Construction of Social Reality (London: Penguin Books, 1995).
The Security Policy Conditions for Danish Defence, August 2003, Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (30 September 2003).
Shaw, Martin, ‘Strategy and Social Process: Military Context and Sociological Analysis’, Sociology 24 (1990), 465–73.
Shaw, Martin, ‘The Development of “Common Risk” Society: A Theoretical Overview’, in Kuhlmann, Jürgen and Callaghan, Jean (eds.), Military and Society in 21st Century Europe: A Comparative Analysis (London: Transaction Publishers, 2000), 13–26.
Shaw, Martin, Risk Transfer Militarism and Legitimacy of War after Iraq, (31 October 2004).
Shaw, Martin, The New Western Way of War: Risk-Transfer War and Its Crisis in Iraq (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005).
Shearer, David, Private Armies and Military Intervention, Adelphi Paper 316 (Oxford: International Institute of Strategic Studies, Oxford University Press, 1998).
Shy, John, ‘Jomini’, in Paret, Peter (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), 143–85.
Soja, Edward W., Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000).
Solana, Javier, ‘Growing the Alliance’, Economist, 13 March 1999.
Solana, Javier, The Development of a Common European Security and Defence Policy: The Integration Project of the Next Decade (Berlin: EU-Commission/Institut für Europäische Politik, Press Release, 17 December 1999).
Solana, Javier, A Secure Europe in a Better World, European Council, Thessaloniki, 20 June 2003 (Brussels: EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, 2003).
Sterling, Bruce, ‘War is Virtual Hell’, Wired (March–April 1993), (21 July 2000).
Tzu, Sun, The Art of War, trans. and with an introduction by Samuel B. Griffith (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963).
Ann, Swidler, ‘The Concept of Rationality in the Work of Max Weber’, Sociological Inquiry 43 (1973), 35–42.
Tama, Jordan, ‘Is Europe Too Cautious?’, Foreign Policy (January/February 2004), 88–90.
Tilly, Charles, Coercion, Capital and European States: AD 990–1990 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990).
Townsend, Mark and Harris, Paul, ‘Security Role for Traffic Cameras’, Observer, 9 February 2003.
Transcript: First Presidential Debate, 30 September 2004, from Coral Gables, FL. Text from FDCH E-media, (7 October 2004).
Tuchman, Barbara W., The Guns of August (New York: Macmillan, 1962).
UN Charter, (26 January 2005).
United States Army, White Paper: Concepts for the Objective Force (2002).
The United States Commission on National Security/21st Century, New World Coming: American Security in the 21st Century, Phase I Report on the Emerging Global Security Environment for the First Quarter of the 21st Century (September 1999).
‘United States: Vulnerable to Cyber Attack’, Stratfor, 31 March 2001, (1 April 2001).
US Department of Defense, News Briefing, Army Brig. General Robert W. Crone, Washington, DC, 2 October 2003 (Washington, DC: US Department of Defense, 2003).
Loon, Joost, Risk and Technological Culture: Towards a Sociology of Virulence (London: Routledge, 2002).
Villepin, Dominique de, Interview given during the Complément d'enquête programme on France 2, Paris, 24 March 2003, (27 March 2003).
Villepin, Dominique de, BBC Dimbleby Lecture, BBC News, (6 November 2003).
Virilio, Paul, ‘Military Space’, in Derian, James (ed.), The Virilio Reader (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998), 22–8.
Wæver, Ole, ‘Securitization and Desecuritization’, in Ronnie, D.Lipschutz, (ed.), On Security (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 46–86.
Wæver, Ole, ‘Security: A Conceptual History for International Relations’, unpublished paper presented at the 12th Nordic Political Science Congress, Uppsala, 19–21 August (1999).
Walker, R. B. J., ‘The Subject of Security’, in Krause, Keith and Williams, Michael C. (eds.), Critical Security Studies (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1997), 61–81.
Wallace, Claire, ‘Reflections on the Concept of “Strategy”’, in Morgan, David and Stanley, Liz (eds.), Debates in Sociology (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), 94–117.
Walsh, Nick Pation, ‘Putin Puts £6m Price on Rebels' Heads’, Guardian, 9 September 2004.
Walt, Stephen M., ‘Why Alliances Endure or Collapse’, Survival 39 (1997), 156–80.
Walt, Stephen M., ‘Beyond Bin Laden: Reshaping US Foreign Policy’, International Security 26 (2001), 57–78.
Waltz, Kenneth N., ‘The Continuity of International Politics’, in Booth, Ken and Dunne, Tim (eds.), Worlds in Collision (London: Palgrave, 2002), 348–53.
Warden, John, ‘Air Theory for the Twenty-first Century’, in Barry, R.Schneider, and Grinter, Lawrence E. (eds.), Battlefield of the Future: 21st Century Warfare Issues, The Air War College Studies in National Security (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air War College, 1995).
Weber, Max, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. Gerth, H. H. and Wright Mills, C. (London: Routledge, 1997).
Weiner, Tim, ‘Drive to Build High-Tech Army Hits Cost Snags’, New York Times, 28 March 2005.
Weldes, Jutta, Constructing National Interests: The United States and the Cuban Missile Crisis (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1999).
Wildavsky, Aaron, ‘Trial and Error Versus Trial Without Error’, in Morris, Julian (ed.), Rethinking Risk and the Precautionary Principle (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), 22–45.
Williams, Cindy (ed.), Holding the Line: US Defense Alternatives for the Early 21st Century (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2001).
Willmott, H., The Great Crusade: A New Complete History of the Second World War (New York: The Free Press, 1989).
Windsor, Phillip, Strategic Thinking: An Introduction and Farewell, ed. Mats Bredal and Spyros Economides (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 2002).
Wolfowitz, Paul, Building a Military for the 21st Century, Prepared Statement for the House and Senate Armed Services Committees, 3–4 October 2001 (Washington, DC: US Department of Defense, 2001).
Wolfowitz, Paul, Remarks Prepared for Delivery by Deputy Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, World Affairs Council, Monterey, CA, Friday 3 May 2002 (Washington, DC: US Department of Defense, 2002).
Woodward, Bob, Bush at War (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002).
Wright, Quincy, ‘The Outlawry of War and the Law of War’, American Journal of International Law 47 (July 1953), 365–76., (14 May 2004).
Zizek, Slavoj, Welcome to the Desert of the Real!, The Global Site, 16 September 2001, (18 February 2002).


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.