Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 7
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: August 2009

17 - Family intervention in early psychosis

from Section 7 - The critical period: specific interventions

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

Adams, K. B. & Sanders, S. (2004). Alzheimer’s caregiver differences in experience of loss, grief reactions and depressive symptoms across stage of disease: a mixed-method analysis. Dementia: International Journal of Social Research and Practice, 3, 195–210.
Addington, J. & Burnett, P. (2004). Working with families in the early stages of psychosis. In J. F. M. Gleeson & P. D. McGorry (eds.), Psychological Interventions for Early Psychosis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley, pp. 99–116.
Addington, J., Coldham, E. L., Jones, B., Ko, T. & Addington, D. (2003). The first episode of psychosis: the experience of relatives. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 285–9.
Addington, J., Collins, A., McCleery, A. & Addington, D. (2005). The role of family work in early psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 79, 77–83.
Bachmann, S., Bottmer, C., Jacob, S. et al. (2002). Expressed emotion in relatives of first-episode and chronic patients with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: a comparison. Psychiatry Research, 112, 239–50.
Ball, R. A., Moore, E. & Kuipers, L. (1992). Expressed emotion in community care staff: a comparison of patient outcome in a nine month follow-up of two hostels. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 27, 35–9.
Barrelet, L., Ferrero, F., Szigethy, L., Giddey, C. & Pellizzer, G. (1990). Expressed emotion and first-admission schizophrenia: nine-month follow-up in a French cultural environment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 357–62.
Barrowclough, C. & Hooley, J. M. (2003). Attributions and expressed emotion: a review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 849–80.
Barrowclough, C., Haddock, G., Lowens, I. et al. (2001). Staff expressed emotion and causal attributions for client problems on a low security unit: an exploratory study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 517–26.
Bateson, G., Jackson, D. D., Haley, J. & Weakland, J. (1956). Toward a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioral Science, 1, 251–64.
Bebbington, P. & Kuipers, L. (1994). The predictive utility of expressed emotion in schizophrenia: an aggregate analysis. Psychological Medicine, 24, 707–18.
Bech, P. (1993). Rating Scales for Psychopathology, Health Status and Quality of Life. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Becker, T., Albert, M., Angermeyer, M. C. & Thornicroft, G. (1997). Social networks and service utilisation in patients with severe mental illness. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 6, 113–25.
Bentsen, H., Boye, B., Munkvold, O. G. et al. (1996). Emotional overinvolvement in parents of patients with schizophrenia or related psychosis: demographic and clinical predictors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 622–30.
Bentsen, H., Notland, T. H., Munkvold, O.-G. et al. (1998). Guilt proneness and expressed emotion in relatives of patients with schizophrenia or related psychoses. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 125–38.
Bibou-Nakou, I., Dikaiou, M. & Bairactaris, C. (1997). Psychosocial dimensions of family burden among two groups of carers looking after psychiatric patients. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 104–8.
Bland, R. C., Parker, J. H. & Orn, H. (1978). Prognosis in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 72–7.
Breitborde, N. J. K., López, S. R., Wickens, T. D., Jenkins, J. H. & Karno, M. (2007). Toward specifying the nature of the relationship between expressed emotion and schizophrenic relapse: the utility of curvilinear models. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16, 1–10.
Brown, G. W. (1985). The discovery of expressed emotion: induction or deduction? In J. Leff & C. Vaughn (eds.), Expressed Emotion in Families. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 7–25.
Brown, G. W., Carstairs, G. M. & Topping, G. G. (1958). Post-hospital adjustment of chronic mental patients. Lancet, ii, 685–9.
Brown, G. W., Carstairs, G. M. & Topping, G. (1962). Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic illness. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 16, 55.
Brown, S. & Birtwistle, J. (1998). People with schizophrenia and their families: fifteen-year outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 139–44.
Butzlaff, R. L. & Hooley, J. M. (1998). Expressed emotion and psychiatric relapse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 547–52.
Chambless, D. L. & Steketee, G. (1999). Expressed emotion and behavior therapy outcome: a prospective study with obsessive-compulsive and agoraphobic outpatients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 658–65.
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–9.
Cole, E., Leavey, G., King, M., Johnson-Sabine, E. & Hoar, A. (1995). Pathways to care for patients with a first episode of psychosis: a comparison of ethnic groups. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 770–6.
Conus, P. & McGorry, P. D. (2002). First-episode mania: a neglected priority for early intervention. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 158–72.
Cornwall, P. L. & Scott, J. (1996). Burden of care, psychological distress and satisfaction with services in the relatives of acutely mentally disordered adults. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 31, 345–8.
Coyne, J. C., Wortman, C. B. & Lehman, D. R. (1988). The other side of support: emotional overinvolvement and miscarried helping. In B. H. Gottlieb (eds.), Marshalling Social Support: Formats, Processes, and Effects. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 305–30.
de Jesus Mari, J. & Streiner, D. L. (1994). An overview of family interventions and relapse on schizophrenia: meta-analysis of research findings. Psychological Medicine, 24, 565–78.
Dingemans, P. M., Linszen, D. H. & Lenior, M. (2002). Patient psychopathology and parental expressed emotion in schizophrenia revisited. In A. Schaub (eds.), New Family Interventions and Associated Research in Psychiatric Disorders. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 91–8.
Dixon, L., McNary, S. & Lehman, A. (1995). Substance abuse and family relationships of persons with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 456–8.
Dixon, L., Lucksted, A., Stewart, B. et al. (2004). Outcomes of the peer-taught 12-week family-to-family education programme for severe mental illness. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109, 207–15.
Dixon, L., McFarlane, W. R., Lefley, H. et al. (2001). Evidence-based practices for services to families of people with psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatric Services, 52, 903–10.
Doka, K. J. (1989). Disenfranchised Grief: Recognizing Hidden Sorrow. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Dupuy, H. J. (1984). The psychological general well-being (PGWB) index. In N. K. Wenger, M. E. Mattson, C. D. Furberg & J. Elinson (eds.), Assessment of Quality of Life in Clinical Trials of Cardiovascular Therapies. New York: Le Jacq, pp. 170–83.
EPPIC and the Victorian Department of Human Services (1997). Working with Families in Early Psychosis. Melbourne: Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre Statewide Services.
Fadden, G. I. (1997). Implementation of family interventions in routine clinical practice following staff training programs: a major cause for concern. Journal of Mental Health, 6, 599–612.
Fadden, G. I. (1998). Family intervention in psychosis. Journal of Mental Health, 7, 115–22.
Fearon, M., Donaldson, C., Burns, A. & Tarrier, N. (1998). Intimacy as a determinant of expressed emotion in carers of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1085–90.
Francis, A. & Papageorgiou, P. (2004). Expressed emotion in Greek versus Anglo-Saxon families of individuals with schizophrenia. Australian Psychologist, 39, 172–7.
Fromm-Reichmann, F. (1950). Principles of Intensive Psychotherapy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Freeman, D. & Bebbington, P. E. (2001). A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 31, 189–95.
Gibbons, J. S., Horn, S. H., Powell, J. M. & Gibbons, J. L. (1984). Schizophrenic patients and their families: a survey in a psychiatric service based on a DGH unit. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 70–7.
Gleeson, J., Jackson, H. J., Stavely, H. & Burnett, P. (1999). Family intervention in early psychosis. In P. D. McGorry & H. J. Jackson (eds.), The Recognition and Management of Early Psychosis: A Preventive Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 376–406.
Godress, J., Ozgul, S., Owen, C. & Foley-Evans, L. (2004). Grief experiences of parents whose children suffer from mental illness. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 88–94.
Goldberg, D. P. & Blackwell, P. (1988). A User’s Guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
Goldstein, M. J., Rodnick, E. H., Evans, J. R., May, P. R. & Steinberg, M. R. (1978). Drug and family therapy in the aftercare of acute schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1169–77.
Hahlweg, K., Goldstein, M. J., Nuechterlein, K. H. et al. (1989). Expressed emotion and patient–relative interaction in families of recent onset schizophrenics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 11–18.
Haley, J. (1980). Leaving Home: The Therapy of Disturbed Young People. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hardy, A., Fowler, D., Freeman, D. et al. (2005). Trauma and hallucinatory experience in psychosis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 501–7.
Harvey, K., Burns, T., Sedgwick, P. et al. (2001a). Relatives of patients with severe psychotic disorders: factors that influence contact frequency. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 248–54.
Harvey, K., Burns, T., Fahy, T., Manley, C. & Tattan, T. (2001b). Relatives of patients with severe psychotic illness: factors that influence appraisal of caregiving and psychological distress. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 456–61.
Heikkilä, J., Karlsson, H., Taiminen, T. et al. (2002). Expressed emotion is not associated with disorder severity in first-episode mental disorder. Psychiatry Research, 111, 155–65.
Heresco-Levy, U., Greenberg, D. & Dasberg, H. (1990). Family expressed emotion: concepts, dilemmas and the Israeli perspective. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 27, 205–15.
Hinrichsen, G. A. & Pollack, S. (1997). Expressed emotion and the course of late-life depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 336–40.
Hooley, J. M. (1986). Expressed emotion and depression: interactions between patients and high- versus low-expressed-emotion spouses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 237–46.
Hooley, J. M. & Hiller, J. B. (1998). Expressed emotion and the pathogenesis of relapse in schizophrenia. In M. F. Lenzenweger & R. H. Dworkin (eds.), Origins and Development of Schizophrenia: Advances in Experimental Psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Press, pp. 447–68.
Huguelet, P., Favre, S., Binyet, S., Gonzalez, C. & Zabala, I. (1995). The use of the Expressed Emotion Index as a predictor of outcome in first admitted schizophrenic patients in a French speaking area of Switzerland. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92, 447–52.
Jarbin, H. K., Gråwe, R. W. & Hansson, K. (2000). Expressed emotion and prediction of relapse in adolescents with psychotic disorders. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 201–5.
Jeppesen, P., Petersen, L., Thorup, A. et al. (2005). Integrated treatment of first-episode psychosis: effect of treatment on family burden – OPUS trial. British Journal of Psychiatry Special Issue: Early psychosis: A Bridge to the Future, 187, s85–9.
Joyce, J., Leese, M., Kuipers, E., Szmukler, G., Harris, T. & Staples, E. (2003). Evaluating a model of caregiving for people with psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 189–95.
Judge, A. M., Perkins, D. O., Nieri, J. & Penn, D. L. (2005). Pathways to care in first episode psychosis: a pilot study on help-seeking precipitants and barriers to care. Journal of Mental Health, 14, 465–9.
Jungbauer, J. & Angermeyer, M. C. (2002). Living with a schizophrenic patient: a comparative study of burden as it affects parents and spouses. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 65, 110–23.
Karno, M. & Jenkins, J. H. (1993). Cross-cultural issues in the course and treatment of schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16, 339–50.
Kavanagh, D. J. (1992). Recent developments in expressed emotion and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 601–20.
Kelly, M. & Newstead, L. (1996). Family intervention in routine practice: It is possible! Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11, 64–72.
Kershner, J. G., Cohen, N. J. & Coyne, J. C. (1996). Expressed emotion in families of clinically referred and nonreferred children: toward a further understanding of the expressed emotion index. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 97–106.
King, S. & Dixon, M. J. (1999). Expressed emotion and relapse in young schizophrenia outpatients. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 25, 377–86.
Kuipers, E. (2006). Family interventions in schizophrenia: evidence for efficacy and proposed mechanisms of change. Journal of Family Therapy, 28, 73–80.
Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., Dunn, G. et al. (2006). Influence of carer expressed emotion and affect on relapse in non-affective psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 173–9.
Lataster, T., van Os, J., Drukker, M. et al. (2006). Childhood victimisation and developmental expression of non-clinical delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences: victimisation and non-clinical psychotic experiences. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41, 423–8.
Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer.
Leavey, G., Gulamhussein, S., Papadopoulos, C. et al. (2004). A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for families of patients with a first episode of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 34, 423–31.
Leff, J. & Vaughn, C. (1985). Expressed Emotion in Families: Its Significance for Mental Illness. New York: Guilford Press.
Leff, J. P. & Brown, G. W. (1977). Family and social factors in the course of schizophrenia. [Letter] British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 417–20.
Lehman, A. F., Steinwachs, D. M., Dixon, L. B. et al. (1998). Translating research into practice: the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 1–10.
Lenior, M. E., Dingemans, P. M. A. J., Linszen, D. H., de Haan, L. & Schene, A. H. (2001). Social functioning and the course of early-onset schizophrenia: five-year follow-up of a psychosocial intervention. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 53–8.
Lenior, M. E., Dingemans, P. M. A. J., Schene, A. H., Hart, A. A. M. & Linszen, D. H. (2002). The course of parental expressed emotion and psychotic episodes after family intervention in recent-onset schizophrenia. A longitudinal study. Schizophrenia Research, 57, 183–90.
Lidz, T. (1973). The Origin and Treatment of Schizophrenia. New York: Basic.
Lidz, T., Cornelison, A. R., Fleck, S. & Terry, D. (1957). The intrafamilial environment of schizophrenic patients: II. Marital schism and marital skew. American Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 241–8.
Linszen, D. H., Dingemans, P., van der Does, J. W. et al. (1996). Treatment, expressed emotion and relapse in recent onset schizophrenic disorders. Psychological Medicine, 26, 333–42.
Lowyck, B., de Hert, M., Peeters, E., Gilis, P. & Peuskens, J. (2001). Can we identify the factors influencing the burden on family members of patients with schizophrenia? International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 5, 89–96.
MacMillan, J. F., Gold, A., Crow, T. J., Johnson, A. L. & Johnstone, E. C. (1986). The Northwick Park Study of first episodes of schizophrenia: IV. Expressed emotion and relapse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 133–43.
MacMillan, J. F., Crow, T. J., Johnson, A. L. & Johnstone, E. C. (1987). Expressed emotion and relapse in first episodes of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 320–3.
Magaña, A. B., Goldstein, M. J., Karno, M. et al. (1986). A brief method for assessing expressed emotion in relatives of psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Research, 17, 203–12.
Martens, L. & Addington, J. (2001). The psychological well-being of family members of individuals with schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 128–33.
McCarty, C. A., Lau, A. S., Valeri, S. M. & Weisz, J. R. (2004). Parent–child interactions in relation to critical and emotionally overinvolved expressed emotion (EE): is EE a proxy for behavior? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 83–93.
McCreadie, R. G. (2001). Effects of schizophrenia on patients’ relatives. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 575.
McElroy, E. M. (1987). The beat of a different drummer. In A. B. Hatfield & H. P. Lefley (eds.), Families of the Mentally Ill: Coping and Adaptation. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 225–43.
Miklowitz, D. J. & Stackman, D. (1992). Communication deviance in families of schizophrenic and other psychiatric patients: current state of the construct. Progress in Experimental Personality and Psychopathology Research, 15, 1–46.
Miklowitz, D. J., Goldstein, M. J., Nuechterlein, K. H., Snyder, K. S. & Mintz, J. (1988). Family factors and the course of bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 225–31.
Miklowitz, D. J., Goldstein, M. J., Doane, J. A. et al. (1989). Is expressed emotion an index of a transactional process? I. Parents’ affective style. Family Process, 28, 153–67.
Miklowitz, D. J., Biuckians, A. & Richards, J. A. (2006). Early-onset bipolar disorder: a family treatment perspective. Development and Psychopathology Special Issue: Developmental Approaches to Bipolar Disorder, 18, 1247–65.
Mintz, J., Mintz, L. & Goldstein, M. (1987). Expressed emotion and relapse in first episodes of schizophrenia: a rejoinder to Macmillan et al. (1986). British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 314–20.
Mohr, W. K. & Regan-Kubinski, M. J. (2001). Living in the fallout: parents’ experiences when their child becomes mentally ill. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 15, 69–77.
Möller-Leimkühler, A. M. (2006). Multivariate prediction of relatives’ stress outcome one year after first hospitalization of schizophrenic and depressed patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256, 122–30.
Morrison, A. & Petersen, T. (2003). Trauma, metacognition and predisposition to hallucinations in non-patients. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 31, 235–46.
Nomura, H., Inoue, S., Kamimura, N. et al. (2005). A cross-cultural study on expressed emotion in carers of people with dementia and schizophrenia: Japan and England. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 564–70.
Norton, J. P. (1982). Expressed emotion, affective style, voice tone and communication deviance as predictors of offspring schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Ph.D. thesis, University of California at Los Angeles.
Nuechterlein, K. H. & Dawson, M. E. (1984). A heuristic vulnerability/stress model of schizophrenic episodes. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 300–12.
Nuechterlein, K. H., Snyder, K. S. & Mintz, J. (1992). Paths to relapse: possible transactional processes connecting patient illness onset, expressed emotion, and psychotic relapse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 88–96.
Nugter, A., Dingemans, P., van der Does, J. W., Linszen, D. & Gersons, B. (1997). Family treatment, expressed emotion and relapse in recent onset schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 72, 23–31.
O’Brien, M. P., Gordon, J. L., Bearden, C. E. et al. (2006). Positive family environment predicts improvement in symptoms and social functioning among adolescents at imminent risk for onset of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 81, 269–75.
O’Farrell, T. J., Hooley, J., Fals-Stewart, W. & Cutter, H. S. G. (1998). Expressed emotion and relapse in alcoholic patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 744–52.
Oliver, N. & Kuipers, E. (1996). Stress and its relationship to expressed emotion in community mental health workers. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 42, 150–9.
Osborne, J. & Coyle, A. (2002). Can parental responses to adult children with schizophrenia be conceptualized in terms of loss and grief? A case study. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 15, 307–23.
Östman, M. & Hansson, L. (2004). Appraisal of caregiving, burden and psychological distress in relatives of psychiatric inpatients. European Psychiatry, 19, 402–7.
Ozgul, S. (2004). Parental grief and serious mental illness: a narrative. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25, 183–7.
Palazzoli-Selvini, M., Boscolo, L., Cecchin, G. F. & Prata, G. (1978). Paradox and Counterparadox: A New Model in the Therapy of the Family in Schizophrenic Transaction. New York: Jason Aronson.
Parker, G. & Hadzi-Pavlovic, D. (1990). Expressed emotion as a predictor of schizophrenic relapse: an analysis of aggregated data. Psychological Medicine, 20, 961–5.
Patterson, P., Birchwood, M. & Cochrane, R. (2000). Preventing the entrenchment of high expressed emotion in first episode psychosis: early developmental attachment pathways. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34(Suppl), S191–7.
Patterson, P., Birchwood, M. & Cochrane, R. (2005). Expressed emotion as an adaptation to loss. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, s59–64.
Pavuluri, M. N., Graczyk, P. A., Henry, D. B. et al. (2004). Child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder: development and preliminary results. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 528–37.
Peris, T. S. & Baker, B. L. (2000). Applications of the expressed emotion construct to young children with externalizing behavior: stability and prediction over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41, 457–62.
Perlick, D., Clarkin, J. F., Sirey, J. et al. (1999). Burden experienced by caregivers of persons with bipolar affective disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 56–62.
Pharoah, F. M., Rathbone, J., Mari, J. J. & Streiner, D. L. (2003). Family intervention for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD000088.
Pourmand, D., Kavanagh, D. J. & Vaughan, K. (2005). Expressed emotion as predictor of relapse in patients with comorbid psychoses and substance use disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 473–8.
Provencher, H. L., Perreault, M., St-Onge, M. & Rousseau, M. (2003). Predictors of psychological distress in family caregivers of persons with psychiatric disabilities. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 10, 592–607.
Rolland, J. S. (1994). Families, Illness, and Disability: An Integrative Treatment Model. New York: Basic Books.
Rosen, J. N. (1947). The treatment of schizophrenic psychosis by direct analytic therapy. Psychiatric Quarterly, 21, 3–37.
Rund, B. R., Oie, M., Borchegrevink, T. S. & Fjell, A. (1995). Expressed emotion, communication deviance, and schizophrenia: an exploratory study of the relationship between two family variables and the course and outcome of a psychoeducational treatment programme. Psychopathology, 28, 220–8.
Ryan, K. A. (1993). Mothers of adult children with schizophrenia: an ethnographic study. Schizophrenia Research, 11, 21–31.
Saunders, J. C. & Byrne, M. M. (2002). A thematic analysis of families living with schizophrenia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 16, 217–23.
Scazufca, M. & Kuipers, E. (1999). Coping strategies in relatives of people with schizophrenia before and after psychiatric admission. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 154–8.
Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group (1987). The Scottish first episode schizophrenia study: IV. Psychiatric and social impact on relatives. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 340–4.
Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group (1992). The Scottish first episode schizophrenia study: VIII. Five-year follow-up: clinical and psychosocial findings. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 496–500.
Shabad, P. C. (1989). Vicissitudes of psychic loss of a physically present parent. In D. Dietrich & P. C. Shabad (eds.), The Problem of Loss and Mourning: Psychoanalytic Perspectives. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, pp. 101–26.
Sin, J., Moone, N. & Wellman, N. (2003). Incorporating psycho-educational family and carers work into routine clinical practice. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 10, 730–4.
Singer, M. T. & Wynne, L. C. (1965). Thought disorder and family relations of schizophrenics: IV. Results and implications. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 201–12.
Smith, G. & Velleman, R. (2002). Maintaining a Family Work for Psychosis Service by recognizing and addressing the barriers to implementation. Journal of Mental Health, 11, 471–9.
Snyder, K. S., Wallace, C. J., Moe, K. & Liberman, R. P. (1994). Expressed emotion by residential care operators and residents’ symptoms and quality of life. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 1141–3.
Solomon, P. & Draine, J. (1996). Examination of grief among family members of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Psychiatric Quarterly, 67, 221–34.
St Onge, M. & Lavoie, F. (1997). The experience of caregiving among mothers of adults suffering from psychotic disorders: factors associated with their psychological distress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 73–94.
Stærk Buksti, A., Munkner, R., Gade, I. et al. (2006). Important components of a short-term family group programme. From the Danish National Multicenter Schizophrenia Project. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 213–19.
Stirling, J., Tantam, D., Thomas, P. et al. (1991). Expressed emotion and early onset schizophrenia: a one year follow-up. Psychological Medicine, 21, 675–85.
Stirling, J., Tantam, D., Thomas, P. et al. (1993). Expressed emotion and schizophrenia: the ontogeny of EE during an 18-month follow-up. Psychological Medicine, 23, 771–8.
Szmukler, G., Eisler, I., Russell, G. F. & Dare, C. (1985). Anorexia nervosa, parental ‘expressed emotion’ and dropping out of treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 265–71.
Szmukler, G. I., Burgess, P., Herrman, H. et al. (1996). Caring for relatives with serious mental illness: the development of the Experience of Caregiving Inventory. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 31, 137–48.
Tait, L., Birchwood, M. & Trower, P. (2004). Adapting to the challenge of psychosis: personal resilience and the use of sealing-over (avoidant) coping strategies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 410–15.
Tarrier, N., Sommerfield, C. & Pilgrim, H. (1999). Relatives’ expressed emotion (EE) and PTSD treatment outcome. Psychological Medicine, 29, 801–11.
Tennakoon, L., Fannon, D., Doku, V. et al. (2000). Experience of caregiving: relatives of people experiencing a first episode of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 529–33.
Terkelsen, K. G. (1987). The evolution of family responses to mental illness through time. In A. B. Hatfield & H. P. Lefley (eds.), Families of the Mentally Ill: Coping and Adaptation. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 151–66.
Thorup, A., Petersen, L., Jeppesen, P. et al. (2005). Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis: results from the Danish OPUS trial. Schizophrenia Research, 79, 95–105.
Tuck, I., du Mont, P., Evans, G. & Shupe, J. (1997). The experience of caring for an adult child with schizophrenia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 11, 118–25.
Vale, M. J., Jelinek, M. V. & Best, J. D. (2005). Impact of coaching patients on coronary risk factors: lessons from the COACH Program. Disease Management and Health Outcomes, 13, 225–44.
van Furth, E. F., van Strien, D. C., Martina, L. M. L. et al. (1996). Expressed emotion and the prediction of outcome in adolescent eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20, 19–31.
Vaughn, C., Leff, J. & Sarner, M. (1999). Relatives’ expressed emotion and the course of inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 47, 461–9.
Wamboldt, F. S., O’Connor, S. L., Wamboldt, M. Z., Gavin, L. A., & Klinnert, M. D. (2000). The Five Minute Speech Sample in children with asthma: deconstructing the construct of expressed emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 887–98.
Wasow, M. (1994). A missing group in family research: parents not in contact with their mentally ill children. Hospital and Community Psychiatry Special Issue: Violent Behaviour and Mental Illness, 45, 720–1.
Wearden, A. J., Tarrier, N., Barrowclough, C., Zastowny, T. R. & Rahill, A. A. (2000). A review of expressed emotion research in healthcare. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 633–66.
Wig, N. N., Menon, D. K., Bedi, H. et al. (1987). Expressed emotion and schizophrenia in North India: I. Cross-cultural transfer of ratings of relatives’ expressed emotion. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 156–60.
Wittmund, B., Wilms, H. U., Mory, C. & Angermeyer, M. C. (2002). Depressive disorders in spouses of mentally ill patients. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37, 177–82.
Wright, B., Casswell, G., White, D. & Partridge, I. (2004). Family work in adolescent psychosis: the need for more research. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 9, 61–74.
Wynne, L. C. & Singer, M. T. (1963). Thought disorder and family relations of schizophrenics: I. A research strategy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 9, 191–8.
Zhang, M., Wang, M., Li, J. & Phillips, M. R. (1994). Randomised-control trial of family intervention for 78 first-episode male schizophrenic patients: an 18-month study in Suzhou, Jiangsu. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 96–102.