Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: August 2009

6 - At-risk mental state and prediction

from Section 3 - At-risk mental state

References

Altamura, C., Guercetti, G. & Percudani, M. (1989). Dexamethasone suppression test in positive and negative schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 30, 69–75.
APA (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Andreasen, N. C. (1983). The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Iowa City: University of Iowa.
Andreasen, N. C. (1987). The Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) Interview. Iowa City: University of Iowa.
Asnis, G. M., Halbreich, U., Ryan, N. D. et al. (1987). The relationship of the dexamethasone suppression test (1-mg and 2-mg) to basal plasma cortisol levels in endogenous depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 12, 295–301.
Bak, M., Myin-Germeys, I., Hanssen, M. et al. (2003). When does experience of psychosis result in a need for care? A prospective general population study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 349–58.
Bebbington, P., Wilkins, S., Jones, P. et al. (1993). Life events and psychosis: initial results from the Camberwell Collaborative Psychosis Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 72–9.
Bechdolf, A., Ruhrmann, S., Wagner, M. et al. (2005a). Interventions in the initial prodromal states of psychosis in Germany: concept and recruitment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, s45–8. [Special Issue: Early Psychosis: A Bridge to the Future.]
Bechdolf, A., Kohn, D., Knost, B., Pukrop, R. & Klosterkötter, J. (2005b). A randomized comparison of group cognitive–behavioural therapy and group psychoeducation in acute patients with schizophrenia: outcome at 24 months. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112, 173–9.
Bechdolf, A., Veith, V., Schwarzer, D. et al. (2005c). Cognitive– behavioral therapy in the pre-psychotic phase: an exploratory study. Psychiatry Research, 136, 251–5.
Bechdolf, A., Phillips, L. J., Francey, S. M. et al. (2006). Recent approaches to psychological interventions for people at risk of psychosis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256, 159–73.
Bell, R. Q. (1992). Multiple-risk cohorts and segmenting risk as solutions to the problem of false positives in risk for the major psychoses. Psychiatry, 55, 370–81.
Bentall, R. P. & Morrison, A. P. (2002). More harm than good: the case against using antipsychotic drugs to prevent severe mental illness. Journal of Mental Health, 11, 351–6.
Bogerts, B., Ashtari, M., Degreef, G. et al. (1990). Reduced temporal limbic structure volumes on magnetic resonance images in first episode schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 35, 1–13.
Bogerts, B., Lieberman, J. A., Ashtari, M. et al. (1993). Hippocampus–amygdala volumes and psychopathology in chronic schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 33, 236–46.
Brewer, W. J., Pantelis, C., Anderson, V. et al. (2001). Stability of olfactory identification deficits in neuroleptic-naive patients with first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 107–15.
Brewer, W. J., Francey, S. M., Wood, S. J. et al. (2005). Memory impairments identified in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis who later develop first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 71–8.
Brewer, W. J., Wood, S. J., Phillips, L. J. et al. (2006). Generalised and specific cognitive performance in clinical high-risk cohorts: a review highlighting potential vulnerability markers for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 538–55.
Brockhaus-Dumke, A., Schultze-Lutter, F., Müller, R. et al. (2008). Sensory gating in schizophrenia: P50 and N100 gating in antipsychotic-free subjects at risk, first-episode and chronic patients. Biological Psychiatry, Epub: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.02.006.
Broome, M. R., Woolley, J. B., Tabraham, P. et al. (2005). What causes the onset of psychosis? Schizophrenia Research, 79, 23–34.
Brown, G. & Birley, J. (1968). Crises and life changes and the onset of schizophrenia. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 9, 203–14.
Canton, G. & Fraccon, I. G. (1985). Life events and schizophrenia: a replication. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanivica, 71, 211–16.
Carroll, B. J. (1985). Dexamethasone suppression test: a review of contemporary confusion. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 13–24.
Chung, R. K., Langeluddecke, P. & Tennant, C. (1986). Threatening life events in the onset of schizophrenia, schizophreniform psychosis and hypomania. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 680–5.
Conrad, K. (1958). Die Beginnende Schizophrenie. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme.
Corcoran, C., Malaspina, D. & Hercher, L. (2005). Prodromal interventions for schizophrenia vulnerability: the risks of being ‘at risk’. Schizophrenia Research, 73, 173–84.
Cornblatt, B. A. (2002). The New York High Risk Project to the Hillside Recognition and Prevention (RAP) program. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 956–66.
Cornblatt, B. A., Lencz, T. & Kane, J. M. (2001). Treatment of the schizophrenia prodrome: it is presently ethical? Schizophrenia Research, 51, 31–8.
Cornblatt, B. A., Lencz, T., Correll, C., Auther, A. & Smith, C. (2002). Treating the prodrome: naturalistic findings from the RAP program. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106, 44.
Cornblatt, B. A., Lencz, T., Smith, C. W. et al. (2003). The schizophrenia prodrome revisited: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 633–51.
Day, R., Nielsen, J. A., Korten, A. et al. (1987). Stressful life events preceding the acute onset of schizophrenia: a cross-national study from the World Health Organization. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 11, 123–205.
Docherty, J. P., van Kammen, D. P., Siris, S. G. & Marder, S. R. (1978). Stages of onset of schizophrenic psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 420–6.
Donlon, P. T. & Blacker, K. H. (1973). Stages of schizophrenic decompensation and reintegration. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 157, 200–9.
Escher, S., Romme, M., Buiks, A., Delespaul, P. & van Os, J. (2002). Formation of delusional ideation in adolescents hearing voices: a prospective study. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 913–20.
Falloon, I. R. H. (1992). Early intervention for first episodes of schizophrenia: a preliminary exploration. Psychiatry, 55, 4–15.
Francey, S. M., Jackson, H. J., Phillips, L. J. et al. (2005). Sustained attention in young people at high risk of psychosis does not predict transition to psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 79, 127–36.
Freeman, D. & Garety, P. A. (2003). Connecting neurosis and psychosis: the direct influence of emotion on delusions and hallucinations. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 923–47.
Garner, B., Pariante, C. M., Wood, S. J. et al. (2005). Pituitary volume predicts future transition to psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 417–23.
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1994). Working memory in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 6, 348–57.
Graf von Reventlow, H., Ruhrmann, S., Klosterkötter, J. et al. (2004). Comparison of inclusion criteria for an early detection of psychosis study across different countries: first results from the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, EPOS. Schizophrenia Research, 67(Suppl 1), 37.
Green, M. F. (1996). What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 321–30.
Gross, G. (1989). The ‘basic’ symptoms of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155(Suppl 7), s21–5.
Häfner, H., Riecher, R. A., Hambrecht, M. et al. (1992). IRAOS: an instrument for the assessment of onset and early course of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 6, 209–23.
Häfner, H., Maurer, K., Loffler, W. & Riecher-Rossler, A. (1993). The influence of age and sex on the onset and early course of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 80–6.
Häfner, H., Maurer, W., Loffler, B. et al. (1995). Onset and early course of schizophrenia. In H. Häfner & W. F. Gattaz (eds.), Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia. New York: Springer, pp. 43–66.
Häfner, H., Loffler, W., Maurer, K., Hambrecht, M. & van der Heiden, W. (1999). Depression, negative symptoms, social stagnation and social decline in the early course of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 100, 105–18.
Häfner, H., Maurer, K., Ruhrmann, S. et al. (2004). Early detection and secondary prevention of psychosis: facts and visions. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 254, 117–28.
Häfner, H., Maurer, K., Trendler, G., van der Heiden, W. & Schmidt, M. (2005). The early course of schizophrenia and depression. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 255, 167–73.
Haroun, N., Dunn, L., Haroun, A. & Cadenhead, K. (2006). Risk and protection in prodromal schizophrenia: ethical implications for clinical practice and future research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 166–78.
Hawkins, K. A., Addington, J., Keefe, R. S. E. et al. (2004). Neuropsychological status of subjects at high risk for a first episode of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 67, 115–22.
Heinrichs, R. W. & Zakzanis, K. K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426–45.
Heinssen, R. K., Perkins, D. O., Appelbaum, P. S. & Fenton, W. S. (2001). Informed consent in early psychosis research: National Institute of Mental Health Workshop, November 15, 2000. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 571–84.
Hirsch, S., Bowen, J., Emmani, J. et al. (1996). A one year prospective study of the effects of life events and medication in the aetiology of schizophrenic relapse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 49–56.
Hubain, P. P., Simonnet, M. P. & Mendlewicz, J. (1986). The dexamethasone suppression test in affective illnesses and schizophrenia: relationship with psychotic symptoms. Neuropsychobiology, 16, 57–60.
Johns, L. C., Cannon, M., Singleton, N. et al. (2004). Prevalence and correlates of self-reported psychotic symptoms in the British population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 298–305.
Johnstone, E. C., Ebmeier, K. P., Miller, P., Owens, D. G. & Lawrie, S. M. (2005). Predicting schizophrenia: findings from the Edinburgh High-Risk Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 18–25.
Jou, R. J., Hardan, A. Y. & Keshavan, M. S. (2005). Reduced cortical folding in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia: a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research, 75, 309–13.
Kaneko, M., Yokoyama, F., Hoshino, Y. et al. (1992). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function in chronic schizophrenia: association with clinical features. Neuropsychobiology, 25, 1–7.
Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Scharfer, C. & Lazarus, R. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: daily hassles and uplifts vs major life events. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 4, 1–39.
Klosterkötter, J., Schultze-Lutter, F., Gross, G., Huber, G. & Steinmeyer, E. M. (1997a). Early self-experienced neuropsychological deficits and subsequent schizophrenic diseases: an 8-year average follow-up prospective study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 95, 396–404.
Klosterkötter, J., Gross, G., Huber, G. et al. (1997b). Evaluation of the ‘Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms – BSABS’ as an instrument for the assessment of schizophrenia proneness: a review of recent findings. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, 5, 137–50.
Klosterkötter, J., Hellmich, M., Steinmeyer, E. M. & Schultze-Lutter, F. (2001) Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 158–64.
Klosterkötter, J., Birchwood, M., Linszen, D. et al. (2005). Overview on the recruitment, sample characteristics, and distribution of inclusion criteria of the European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS). European Psychiatry, 20(Suppl 1), s48.
Krabbendam, L., Myin-Germeys, I., Hanssen, M. et al. (2005). Development of depressed mood predicts onset of psychotic disorder in individuals who report hallucinatory experiences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 113–25.
Kraepelin, E. (1919). Dementia Praecox. New York: Churchill Livingstone.
Kulynych, J. J., Luevano, L. F., Jones, D. W. & Weinberger, D. R. (1997). Cortical abnormality in schizophrenia: an in vivo application of the gyrification index. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 995–9.
Larsen, T. K. (2002). The transition from premorbid period to psychosis: how can it be described? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106(Suppl), S10–11.
Lawrie, S. M., Whalley, H., Abukmeil, S. S. et al. (2002). Temporal lobe volume changes in people at high risk of schizophrenia with psychotic symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 138–43.
Leff, J., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., Vaughn, L. & Sturgeon, D. (1983). Life events, relatives expressed emotion and maintenance neuroleptics in schizophrenic relapse. Psychological Medicine, 13, 799–806.
Lencz, T., Smith, C. W., Auther, A. M., Correll, C. U. & Cornblatt, B. A. (2003). The assessment of ‘prodromal schizophrenia’: unresolved issues and future directions. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 717–28.
Lencz, T., Smith, C. W., Auther, A., Correll, C. U. & Cornblatt, B. (2004). Nonspecific and attenuated negative symptoms in patients at clinical high-risk for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 68, 37–48.
Lencz, T., Smith, C. W., McLaughlin, D. et al. (2006). Generalized and specific neurocognitive deficits in prodromal schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 863–71.
Linszen, D. & van Amelsvoort, T. (2007). Cannabis and psychosis: an update on course and biological plausible mechanisms. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 116–20.
Loranger, A. W., Sartorius, N., Andreoli, A. et al. (1994). The International Personality Disorder Examination. The World Health Organization Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration pilot study of personality disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 215–24.
Malla, A. K. & Norman, R. M. G. (1992). Relationship of life events and daily stressors to symptomatology in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 664–7.
Malla, A. K., Cortese, L., Shaw, T. S. & Ginsberg, B. (1990). Life events and relapse in schizophrenia: a one year prospective study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 25, 221–4.
Mason, O., Startup, M., Halpin, S. et al. (2004). State and trait predictors of transition to first episode psychosis among individuals with at risk mental states. Schizophrenia Research, 71, 227–37.
McGlashan, T. H. (2001). Psychosis treatment prior to psychosis onset: ethical issues. Schizophrenia Research, 51, 47–54.
McGlashan, T. H., Zipursky, R. B., Perkins, D. et al. (2006). Randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 790–9.
McGorry, P. D., Yung, A. & Phillips, L. (2001). Ethics and early intervention in psychosis: keeping up the pace and staying in step. Schizophrenia Research, 51, 17–29.
McGorry, P. D., Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J. et al. (2002). Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 921–8.
McGorry, P. D., Yung, A. R. & Phillips, L. J. (2003). The ‘close-in’ or ultra high risk model: a safe and effective strategy for research and clinical intervention in prepsychotic mental disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 771–90.
Mednick, S. A., Parnas, J., Schulsinger, F. & Mednick, B. (1987). The Copenhagen High-Risk Project, 1962–1986. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 485–96.
Miller, T. J., McGlashan, T. H., Rosen, J. L. et al. (2002). Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive validity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 863–5.
Miller, T. J., McGlashan, T. H., Rosen, J. L. et al. (2003a). Prodromal assessment with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and the scale of prodromal symptoms: predictive validity, interrater reliability, and training to reliability. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 703–15.
Miller, T. J., Zipursky, R. B., Perkins, D. et al. (2003b). The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. II. Baseline characteristics of the ‘prodromal’ sample. Schizophrenia Research, 61, 19–30.
Morrison, A. P., Bentall, R. P., French, P. et al. (2002). Randomised controlled trial of early detection and cognitive therapy for preventing transition to psychosis in high-risk individuals: study design and interim analysis of transition rate and psychological risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181(Suppl), s78–84.
Morrison, A. P., French, P., Walford, L. et al. (2004). Cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultra-high risk: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 291–7.
Niendam, T. A., Bearden, C. E., Johnson, J. K. et al. (2006). Neurocognitive performance and functional disability in the psychosis prodrome. Schizophrenia Research, 84, 100–11.
Nuechterlein, K. H., Dawson, M. E., Ventura, J. et al. (1994). The vulnerability/stress model of schizophrenic relapse: a longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanivica, 89, 58–64.
Olsen, K. A. & Rosenbaum, B. (2006). Prospective investigations of the prodromal state of schizophrenia: review of studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113, 247–72.
Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799–812.
Pantelis, C., Barnes, T. R., Nelson, H. E. et al. (1997). Frontal – striatal cognitive deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Brain, 120, 1823–43.
Pantelis, C., Wood, S. J. & Maruff, P. (2002). Schizophrenia. In A. M. Owen & J. Harrison (eds.), Cognitive Deficits in Brain Disorders. London: Martin Dunitz, pp. 217–48.
Pantelis, C., Velakoulis, D., McGorry, P. D. et al. (2003). Neuroanatomical abnormalities before and after onset of psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI comparison. Lancet, 361, 281–8.
Pariante, C. M., Vassilopoulou, K., Velakoulis, D. et al. (2004). Abnormal pituitary volume in psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 5–10.
Park, S., Püschel, J., Sauter, B. H., Rentsch, M. & Hell, D. (1999). Spatial working memory deficits and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia: a 4-month follow-up study. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 392–400.
Phillips, L., Curry, C., Yung, A. et al. (2002a). Cannabis use is not associated with the development of psychosis in an ‘ultra’ high-risk group. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 800–6.
Phillips, L. J., Velakoulis, D., Pantelis, C. et al. (2002b). Non-reduction in hippocampal volume is associated with risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 58, 145–58.
Ruhrmann, S., Schultze-Lutter, F. & Klosterkötter, J. (2003). Early detection and intervention in the initial prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry, 36(Suppl), s162–7.
Ruhrmann, S., Schultze-Lutter, F., Maier, W. & Klosterkötter, J. (2005). Pharmacological intervention in the initial prodromal phase of psychosis. European Psychiatry, 20, 1–6.
Ruhrmann, S., Bechdolf, A., Kühn, K. et al. (2007). Acute effects of treatment for prodromal symptoms in persons putatively in a late initial prodromal state of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191(Suppl 51), s88–95.
Schultze-Lutter, F. (2001). Früherkennung der Schizophrenie anhand subjektiver Beschwerdeschilderungen: ein methodenkritischer Vergleich der Vorhersageleistung nonparametrischer statistischer und alternativer Verfahren zur Generierung von Vorhersagemodellen. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cologne (http://www.ub.uni-koeln.de/ediss/archiv/2001/11w1210.pdf).
Schultze-Lutter, F. (2004). Prediction of psychosis is necessary and possible. In C. McDonald, K. Schultz, R. Murray & P. Wright (eds.), Schizophrenia: Challenging the Orthodox. London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 81–90.
Schultze-Lutter, F., Wieneke, A., Picker, H. et al. (2004). The Schizophrenia Prediction Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). Schizophrenia Research, 70(Suppl 1), s76–7.
Schultze-Lutter, F., Ruhrmann, S. & Klosterkötter, J. (2006). Can schizophrenia be predicted phenomenologically? In J. O. Johannessen, B. V. Martindale & J. Cullberg (eds.), Evolving Psychosis. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis, pp. 104–23.
Schultze-Lutter, F., Addington, J., Klosterkötter, J. & Ruhrmann, S. (2007a). Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult version (SPI-A). Rome: Giovanni Fioriti Editore s.r.l.
Schultze-Lutter, F., Klosterkötter, J., Picker, H., Steinmeyer, E. M. & Ruhrmann, S. (2007b). Predicting first-episode psychosis by basic symptom criteria. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 4, 11–22.
Schultze-Lutter, F., Ruhrmann, S., Picker, H. et al. (2007c). Basic symptoms in early psychotic and depressive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191(Suppl 51), s31–7.
Seidman, L. J., Giuliano, A. J., Smith, C. W. et al. (2006). Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults at genetic risk for schizophrenia and affective psychoses: results from the Harvard and Hillside Adolescent High Risk Studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 507–24.
Snitz, B. E., Macdonald, A. W. III, & Carter, C. S. (2006). Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 179–94.
Strauss, J. S. (1969). Hallucinations and delusions as points on continua function. Archives of General Psychiatry, 21, 581–6.
Sullivan, H. S. (1994). The onset of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 135–9.
Tien, A. Y. (1991). Distributions of hallucinations in the population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 26, 287–92.
van Os, J., Hanssen, M., Bijl, R. V. & Vollebergh, W. (2001). Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community level of psychotic symptoms: an urban-rural comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 663–8.
Velakoulis, D., Pantelis, C., McGorry, P. D. et al. (1999). Hippocampal volume in first-episode psychoses and chronic schizophrenia: a high resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 133–41.
Ventura, J., Nuechterlein, K. H., Lukoff, D. & Hardesty, J. P. (1989). A prospective study of stressful life events and schizophrenic relapse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 407–11.
Verdoux, H., van Os, J., Maurice-Tison, S. et al. (1998). Is early adulthood a critical developmental stage for psychosis proneness? A survey of delusional ideation in normal subjects. Schizophrenia Research, 29, 24.
Verdoux, H., van Os, J., Maurice-Tison, S. et al. (1999). Increased occurrence of depression in psychosis-prone subjects: a follow-up study in primary care settings. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 40, 462–8.
Warner, R. (2005). Problems with early and very early intervention in psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 48(Suppl), s104–7.
Webster, M. J., Knable, M. B., O’Grady, J., Orthmann, J. & Weickert, C. S. (2002). Regional specificity of brain glucocorticoid receptor mRNA alterations in subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 985–94.
Wölwer, W., Buchkremer, G., Häfner, H. et al. (2003). German research network on schizophrenia. Bridging the gap between research and care. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 253, 321–9.
Wood, S. J., Pantelis, C., Proffitt, T. et al. (2003). Spatial working memory ability is a marker of risk-for-psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 33, 1239–47.
Woods, S. W., Brier, A., Zipursky, R. B. et al. (2003). Randomized trial of olanzapine versus placebo in the symptomatic acute treatment of the schizophrenic prodrome. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 453–64.
Yung, A. R. (2003). Commentary: the schizophrenia prodrome: a high-risk concept. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 859–65.
Yung, A. R. & McGorry, P. D. (1996). The prodromal phase of first-episode psychosis: past and current conceptualizations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22, 353–70.
Yung, A. R. & McGorry, P. D. (1997). Is pre-psychotic intervention realistic in schizophrenia and related disorders? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 799–805.
Yung, A. R. & McGorry, P. (2003). Keeping an open mind: investigating options for treatment of the pre-psychotic phase. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 341–3.
Yung, A. R., McGorry, P. D., McFarlane, C. A. & Patton, G. (1995). The PACE Clinic: development of a clinical service for young people at high risk of psychosis. Australasian Psychiatry, 3, 345–9.
Yung, A. R., McGorry, P. D., McFarlane, C. A. et al. (1996). Monitoring and care of young people at incipient risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22, 283–303.
Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J., McGorry, P. D. et al. (1998). The prediction of psychosis: a step towards indicated prevention of schizophrenia? British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(Suppl 33), 14–20.
Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J., Yuen, H. P. et al. (2003). Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk (‘prodromal’) group. Schizophrenia Research, 60, 21–32.
Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J. & McGorry, P. D. (2004a). Treating Schizophrenia in the Pre-Psychotic Phase. London: Dunitz.
Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J., Yuen, H. P. & McGorry, P. D. (2004b). Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophrenia Research, 67, 131–42.
Yung, A. R., Yuen, H. P., McGorry, P. D. et al. (2005). Mapping the onset of psychosis: the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States (CAARMS). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 964–71.
Yung, A. R., Stanford, C., Cosgrave, E. et al. (2006a). Testing the ultra high risk (prodromal) criteria for the prediction of psychosis in a clinical sample of young people. Schizophrenia Research, 84, 57–66.
Yung, A. R., Buckby, J. A., Cotton, S. M. et al. (2006b). Psychotic-like experiences in non-psychotic help-seekers: associations with distress, depression and disability. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 352–9.
Yung, A. R., Yuen, H. P., Berger, G. et al. (2007). Declining transition rate in ultra high risk (prodromal) services: dilution or reduction of risk? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 673–81.