Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Rebuilding Leviathan
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 194
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Why do some governing parties limit their opportunistic behaviour and constrain the extraction of private gains from the state? This analysis of post-communist state reconstruction provides surprising answers to this fundamental question of party politics. Across the post-communist democracies, governing parties have opportunistically reconstructed the state - simultaneously exploiting it by extracting state resources and building new institutions that further such extraction. They enfeebled or delayed formal state institutions of monitoring and oversight, established new discretionary structures of state administration, and extracted enormous informal profits from the privatization of the communist economy. By examining how post-communist political parties rebuilt the state in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, Grzymala-Busse explains how even opportunistic political parties will limit their corrupt behaviour and abuse of state resources when faced with strong political competition.

Reviews

"Following her successful book on successor Communist parties in Eastern Europe, Anna Grzymala-Busse, in Rebuilding Leviathan, examines the impact of party competition on state building. Although market economies and electoral democracies are pervasive in the region, the record of state-building is mixed. In her original and well-researched study, Grymala-Busse argues that the variation can be explained by the degree of "robust" competition between political parties--that is, whether opposition parties are distinct, provide a plausible governing alternative, and are effective critics. She provides an effective critique both of those who dismiss the impact of party competition on institution building and those who miss the nuances of real-world party politics. Robust competition can persuade incumbents to create independent oversight bodies, limit clientalistic behavior, and control rent-seeking by public officials. In spite of its regional focus, the lessons of Rebuilding Leviathan will be of great interest to students of state reform and democratic transition throughout the world, especially in the middle-income countries of Latin American and Asia, where party competition is of increasing importance."
Susan Rose-Ackerman, Yale University

"What makes this book a valuable addition to the politics of transition studies is the detailed and empirically based comparative examination of various stratagems that parties have pursued in nine countries.... This book can be strongly recommended to scholars as well as policy makers."
-R. P. Peters, University of Massachusetts at Boston, for Choice Magazine

"This is a model study: original in conception and execution, fully researched, and superbly analytical, surpassing even some of the work of is illustrious patrons. No one should look at corruption and the links of the politicians to the state in quite the same way again...Nothing is perfect, of course, but this book comes very close."
-Bohdan Harasymiw, University of Calgary, Canadian Slavonic Papers

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Bibliography
Bibliography
Ades, Alberto, and Di Tella, Rafael. 1999. “Rents, Competition, and Corruption,” American Economic Review, 89, 4 (September): 982–93.
Ades, Alberto, and Di Tella, Rafael. 1997. “The New Economics of Corruption: A Survey and Some New Results,” Political Studies, 45, 3: 496–515.
Ades, Alberto, and Di Tella, Rafael. 1995. “Competition and Corruption.” Applied Economics Discussion Paper Series No. 169. Oxford University.
Ágh, Attila, ed. 1994. The First Steps. Budapest: Hungarian Center of Democracy Studies.
Ágh, Attila, and Kurtán, Sándor. 1996. “‘Parliaments’ and ‘Organized Interests’ in Civil Society: Local Government Legislation and Elections in Hungary (1990–1995),” in Ágh, Attila, and Ilonszki, Gabriella, eds. Parliaments and Organized Interests: The Second Steps. Budapest: Hungarian Center for Democracy Studies.
Ákos, Róna-Tas. 1997. The Great Surprise of the Small Transformation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Albats, Yevgenia. 2003. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University.
Aldrich, John. 1995. Why Parties? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Allina-Pisano, Jessica. 2005. “Informal Politics and Challenges to Democracy: Administrative Resource in Kuchma's Ukraine.” Unpublished Manuscript, Harvard University.
Amsden, Alice, Kochanowicz, Jacek, and Taylor, Lance. 1994. The Market Meets Its Match. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ansell, Christopher, and Burris, Arthur. 1997. “Bosses of the City Unite! Labor Politics and Political Machine Consolidation, 1870–1910,” Studies in American Political Development, 11 (Spring): 1–43.
Appel, Hilary. 2004. A New Capitalist Order: Privatization and Ideology in Russia and Eastern Europe. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Appel, Hilary. 2001. “Corruption and the Collapse of the Czech Transition Miracle,” East European Politics and Societies, 15, 3: 528–53.
Arian, Alan, and Barnes, Samuel. 1974. “The Dominant Party System: A Neglected Model of Democratic Stability,” Journal of Politics, 36, 1: 592–614.
Auers, Daunis. 2002/2003. “Latvia's 2002 Elections: Dawn of a New Era?” East European Constitutional Review, 11/12, 4/1 (Fall/Winter): 106–10.
Axelrod, Robert. 1970. Conflict of Interest. Chicago: Markham.
Baldersheim, Harald, et al. 1996. “New Institutions of Local Government: A Comparison,” in Baldersheim, Harald, Illner, Michal, Offerdal, Audun, Rose, Lawrence, and Swaniewicz, Paweł, eds. Local Democracy and the Processes of Transformation in East-Central Europe. Boulder: Westview Press.
Barnes, Andrew. 2003. “Comparative Theft: Context and Choice in the Hungarian Czech, and Russian Transformations 1989–2000,” East European Politics and Societies, 17, 3: 533–65.
Bartlett, David. 1997. The Political Economy of Dual Transformations. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bartlett, David. 1996. “Democracy, Institutional Change, and Stabilization Policy in Hungary,” Europe-Asia Studies, 48, 1: 47–83.
Bartolini, Stefano. 1999–2000. “Collusion, Competition, and Democracy,” Journal of Theoretical Politics, 11, 4: 435–70; 12, 1: 33–65.
Bartolini, Stefano. 2002. “Electoral and Party Competition: Analytical Dimensions and Empirical Problems,” in Gunther, Richard, Montero, Jose Ramon, and Linz, Juan, eds. Political Parties. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 84–110.
Bartolini, Stefano, and Mair, Peter. 1990. Identity, Competition, and Electoral Availability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barzelay, Michael. 1997. “Central Audit Institutions and Performance Auditing,” Governance, 10, 3: 235–60.
Bates, Robert. 1981. Markets and States in Tropical Africa. Berkeley: UC Press.
Bendor, Jonathan, Glazer, A., Hammond, T. 2001. “Theories of Delegation,” Annual Review of Political Science, 4: 235–69.
Bennett, Colin. 1997. “Understanding Ripple Effects: The Cross-National Adoption of Policy Instruments for Bureaucratic Accountability,” Governance, 10, 3: 213–33.
Benoit, Kenneth. 2004. “Models of Electoral System Change,” Electoral Studies, 23: 363–89.
Benoit, Kenneth, and Hayden, Jacqueline. 2004. “Institutional Change and Persistence: The Evolution of Poland's Electoral System, 1989–2001,” Journal of Politics, 66, 2: 396–427.
Bercík, Peter, and Nemec, Juraj. 1999. “The Civil Service System of the Slovak Republic,” in Verheijen, Tony, ed. Civil Service Systems in Central and Eastern Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 184–210.
Bernhard, Michael. 2000. “Institutional Choice After Communism,” East European Politics and Societies, 3: 316–47.
Bielasiak, Jack. 1983. “The Party: Permanent Crisis,” in Brumberg, Abraham, ed. Poland: Genesis of a Revolution. New York: Vintage.
Birch, Sarah. 2002. Electoral Systems and Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Birch, Sarah. 2001. “Electoral Systems and Party System Stability in Post-Communist Europe.” Paper presented at American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, 30 August–2 September 2001, San Francisco.
Birnir, Jóhanna Kristín. 2005. “Public Venture Capital and Party Institutionalization,” Comparative Political Studies, 38, 8 (October): 915–38.
Bruszt, Laszlo, and Stark, David. 1991. “Remaking the Political Field in Hungary: From the Politics of Confrontation to the Politics of Competition,” Journal of International Affairs, 45, 1 (Summer): 201–45.
Brym, Robert, and Gimpelson, Vladimir. 2004. “The Size, Composition, and Dynamics of the Russian State Bureaucracy in the 1990s,” Slavic Review, 63, 1: 90–112.
Buchanan, James, and Tullock, Gordon. 1963. The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bugaric, Bojan. 2005. “The Europeanization of National Administrations in Central and Eastern Europe: Creating Formal Structures Without Substance?” Paper prepared for the Apres Enlargement Workshop, EUI, Florence, 29–30 April.
Bukowska, Xymena, and Czesnik, Mikołaj. 2002. “Analiza Treści Programów Wyborczych,” in Markowski, Radoslaw, ed. System Partyjny I Zachowania Wyborcze. Warsaw: ISP PAN.
Bunce, Valerie. 2001. “Democratization and Economic Reform,” Annual Review of Political Science, 4.
Bunce, Valerie. 1999. “The Political Economy of Postsocialism,” Slavic Review 58, 4: 756–93.
Calvo, Ernesto, and Murillo, Maria Victoria. 2004. “Who Delivers? Partisan Clients in the Argentine Electoral Market,” American Journal of Political Science, 48 (4 October): 742–57.
Carey, John. 2000. “Parchment, Equilibria, and Institutions,” Comparative Political Studies, 33, 6/7: 735–61.
Carpenter, Daniel. 2001. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy.Princeton: Princeton University Press.
CBOS. 2000. “Finansowanie partii politycznych.” Komunikat z badań (Fall).
Cekota, Jaromir, Gönenç, Rauf, and Kwang-Yeol Yoo. 2002. “Strengthening the Management of Public Spending in Hungary,” OECD Economics Department Working Paper No. 336 (30 July).
Center for Study of Democracy. 2004. Brief. Bulgaria Sofia (July). Available at http://www.csd.bg, accessed 19 November 2004.
Čigāne, Lolita. 2002. “A Reflection of the Shortcomings in Legislation on Party Financing in the 2001 Finance Declarations.” Soros Foundation Latvia and Transparency International “delna,” Riga Latvia (April). Available at http://www.politika.lv.
Cirtautas, Arista. 1995. “The Post-Leninist State: A Conceptual and Empirical Examination,” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 28, 4: 379–92.
Colazingari, Silvia, and Rose-Ackerman, Susan. 1998. “Corruption in a Paternalistic Democracy: Lessons from Italy for Latin America,” Political Science Quarterly, 113, 3: 447–70.
Collier, David, and Levitsky, Steven. 1997. “Research Note: Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research,” World Politics, 49, 3: 430–51.
Colomer, Josep. 1995. “Strategies and Outcomes in Eastern Europe,” Journal of Democracy, 6, 2: 74–85.
Comisso, Ellen. 1986. “State Structures, Political Processes, and Collective Choice in CMEA States,” in Comisso, Ellen, and Tyson, Laura D'Andrea, eds. Power, Purpose, and Collective Choice: Economic Strategy in Socialist States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Coppedge, Michael. 2001. “Political Darwinism in Latin America's Lost Decade,” in Larry, Diamond, and Richard, Gunther, eds. Political Parties and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 173–205.
Coppedge, Michael. 1993. “Parties and Society in Mexico and Venezuela: Why Competition Matters,” Comparative Political Studies, 26, 1 (April): 253–74.
Cotta, Maurizio. 1996. “Structuring the New Party Systems after the Dictatorship,” in Pridham, Geoffrey, and Lewis, Paul, eds. Stabilising Fragile Democracies. London: Routledge, pp. 69–99.
Crenson, Matthew, and Ginsberg, Benjamin. 2004. Downsizing Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Crombrugghe, Alain de. 1997. “Wage and Pension Pressure on the Polish Budget.” Report for World Bank Project RPO 678–96, Policy Research Working Paper No. 1793.
Czabański, Krzysztof. 2003. “Rywin TV.” Wprost, 26 October.
Dallek, Robert. 1998. Flawed Giant: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1960–1973. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mesquita, Bruce Bueno. 1974. “Need for Achievement and Competitiveness as Determinants of Political Party Success in Elections and Coalitions,” American Political Science Review, 68, 3: 1207–20.
Della Porta, Donatella. 2000. “Political Parties and Corruption: 17 Hypotheses on the Interactions Between Parties and Corruption.” EUI Working Papers RSC 2000/60, European University Institute, Fiesole, San Domenico, Italy.
Della Porta, Donatella, and Meny, Yves, eds. 1997. Democracy and Corruption in Europe. London: Pinter.
Della Porta, Donatella, and Vannucci, Alberto Vannucci. 1997. “The ‘Perverse Effects’ of Political Corruption,” Political Studies, 45, 3: 516–38.
Demsetz, Harold. 1982. Economic, Legal, and Political Dimensions of Competition. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Di Palma, Giuseppe. 1990. “Establishing Party Dominance,” in Pempel, T. J., ed. Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Diermeier, Daniel, and Merlo, Antonio. 2000. “Government Turnover in Parliamentary Democracies,” Journal of Economic Theory, 94: 46–79.
Dnitrova, Zoya. 2002. Financing Election Campaigns. Unpublished Manuscript. Ljabljana: Peace Institute.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
Duverger, Maurice. 1965. Political Parties. New York: Wiley and Sons, p. 308.
Dyson, Kenneth. 1977. “Party, State, and Bureaucracy in Western Germany.” Sage Professional Papers in Comparative Politics, No. 01-063. Beverly Hills: Sage.
East European Constitutional Review. 2001. (Winter). Available at http://www.balticsworldwide.com/wkcrier/0301_0322_99.htm, accessed February 9, 2006. RFE/RL OMRI Daily Digest Report, 29 July 1996.
Ekiert, Grzegorz. 2001. The State After State Socialism: Poland in Comparative Perspective. Unpublished Manuscript. Harvard University.
Ekiert, Grzegorz, and Zielonka, Jan. 2003. “Introduction: Academic Boundaries and Path Dependencies Facing the EU's Eastward Enlargement,” East European Politics and Societies, 17, 1 (Winter): 7–23.
Elster, Jon, Offe, Claus, and Preuss, Ulrich K. 1998. Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Enyedi, Zsolt. 2006. “Party Politics in Post-Communist Transition,” in Katz, Richard, and Crotty, William, eds. Handbook of Party Politics. London: Sage.
Enyedi, Zsolt. 2003. “Cleavage Formation in Hungary: The Role of Agency.” Paper presented at the 2003 Joint Sessions of the ECPR Edinburgh.
Enyedi, Zsolt. 1996. “Organizing a Sub-Cultural Party in Eastern Europe,” Party Politics, 2, 3: 377–96.
Epstein, David, and O'Halloryn, Sharyn. 1994. “Administrative Procedures, Information, and Agency Discretion,” American Journal of Political Science, 38/3: 697–722.
European Union Commission. 2000. Regular Report on the Czech Republic's Progress Towards Accession. Brussels: EU.
Evans, Peter, Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Skocpol, Theda, eds. 1985. Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eyal, Gil, Szelényi, Ivan, and Townsley, Eleanor. 1998. Making Capitalism Without Capitalists. London: Verso.
Fainsod, Merle. 1963. Bureaucracy and Modernization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Fainsod, Merle. 1958. Smolensk Under Soviet Rule. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Fainsod, Merle. 1953. How Russia Is Ruled. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Fearon, James. 1999. “Electoral Accountability and the Control of Politicians: Selecting Good Types Versus Sanctioning Poor Performance,” in Stokes, Susan, Przeworski, Adam, and Manin, Bernard, eds. Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ferejohn, John. 1999. “Accountability and Authority: Toward a Theory of Political Accountability,” in Stokes, Susan, Przeworski, Adam, and Manin, Bernard, eds. Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–53.
Ferejohn, John. 1986. “Incumbent Performance and Electoral Control,” Public Choice, 30: 5–25.
Fidrmuc, Jan, Fidrmuc, Jarko, and Horvath, Julius. 2002. “Visegrad Economies: Growth Experience and Prospects.” GDN Global Research Project: Determinants of Economic Growth.
Firmin-Sellers, Kathryn. 1995. “The Politics of Property Rights,” American Political Science Review, 89, 4: 867–81.
Fish, M. Steven. 1998. “The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Postcommunist World,” East European Politics and Societies, 12: 31–78.
House, Freedom. 2002. Nations in Transit, 2001. Washington: Freedom House.
Frič, Pavol. 1999. Korupce na český způsob. Prague: G Plus G.
Friedrich, Carl, and Brzezinski, Zbigniew. 1956. Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Frydman, Roman, Murphy, Kenneth, and Rapaczynski, Andrzej. 1998. Capitalism with a Comrade's Face. Budapest: Central European University Press.
Frye, Timothy. 2002. “The Perils of Polarization,” World Politics, 54 (April), pp. 308–37.
Frye, Timothy. 1997. “A Politics of Institutional Choice: Post-Communist Presidencies,” Comparative Political Studies, 30: 523–52.
Ganev, Venelin. 2005. Preying on the State: State Formation in Post-Communist Bulgaria (1989–1997). Unpublished Manuscript.
Ganev, Venelin. 2000. “Post-Communism as a Historical Episode of State Building, or Explaining the Weakness of the Post-Communist State.” Paper presented at the twelfth International Conference of Europeanists Chicago, March.
Gazsó, Ferenc. 1992. “Cadre Bureaucracy and the Intelligentsia,” Journal of Communist Studies (September): 76–90.
Geddes, Barbara. 1994. The Politician's Dilemma. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Geddes, Barbara, and Neto, Artur Ribeiro. 1992. “Institutional Sources of Corruption in Brazil,” Third World Quarterly, 4: 641–2.
Gimpelson, Vladimir, and Treisman, Daniel. 2002. “Fiscal Games and Public Employment,” World Politics, 54: 145–83.
Goetz, Klaus H. 2001. “Making Sense of Post-Communist Central Administration: Modernization Europeanization or Latinization?Journal of European Public Policy, 8, 6 (December): 1032–51.
Goetz, Klaus, and Margetts, Helen. 1999. “The Solitary Center: The Core Executive in Central and Eastern Europe,” Governance, 12, 4 (October): 425–53.
Golden, Miriam, and Chang, Eric. 2001. “Competitive Corruption: Factional Conflict and Political Malfeasance in Postwar Italian Christian Democracy,” World Politics, 53: 588–622.
Goldsmith, Arthur. 1999. “Africa's Overgrown State Reconsidered,” World Politics, 4: 520–46.
Government of the Czech Republic. 1998. “Programové prohlašení Vlády České Republiky” [Programmatic declaration of the Government of the Czech Republic] (27 January). Available at http://www.vlada.cz/ASC/urad/historie/vlada98/dokumenty/progrprohl.il2.htm.
Government of the Republic of Slovakia. 2001. “Správa o boji proti korupcii na Slovensku.” [Report of the Slovak government]. October. Available at http://www.government.gov.sk, accessed 23 November 2002.
Grabbe, Heather. 2001. “How Does Europeanization Affect CEE Governance? Conditionality, Diffusion, and Diversity,” Journal of European Public Policy, 8, 6 (December): 1013–31.
Greene, Kenneth. 2004. Defeating Dominance: Opposition Party Building and Mexico's Democratization in Comparative Perspective. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Berkeley.
Gros, Daniel, and Suhcrke, Marc. 2000. “Ten Years After: What Is Special About Transition Countries?” EBRD Working Paper No. 56, August.
Grzymała-Busse, Anna. 2004. “Informal Institutions and the Post-Communist State.” Paper prepared for the Conference on the Role of Ideas in Post-Communist Politics: A Re-Evaluation Havighurst Center, Luxembourg, 5–9 July.
Grzymała-Busse, Anna. 2003. “Political Competition and the Politicization of the State,” Comparative Political Studies, 36, 10 (December): 1123–47.
Grzymała-Busse, Anna. 2002. Redeeming the Communist Past. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grzymała-Busse, Anna, and Innes, Abby. 2003. “Great Expectations: The EU and Domestic Political Competition in East Central Europe,” East European Politics and Societies, 17, 1: 64–73.
Grzymała-Busse, Anna, and Jones Luong, Pauline. 2002. “Reconceptualizing the Post-Communist State,” Politics and Society, 30, 4 (December): 529–54.
György, Istvan. 1999. “The Civil Service System of Hungary,” in Verheijen, Tony, ed. Civil Service Systems in Central and Eastern Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar: 131–58.
Habermas, Jürgen. 1975. Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon.
Hadenius, Stig. 1985. Swedish Politics During the 20th Century. Boras: Swedish Institute.
Hegedüs, József. 1999. “Hungarian Local Government,” in Emil, Kirchner, ed., Decentralization and Transition in the Visegrad. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Heidenheimer, Arnold J., Johnston, Michael, and Levine, Victor, eds. 1989. Political Corruption. New Brunswick: Transaction.
Hellman, Joel. 1998. “Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform,” World Politics, 50, 2 (January): 203–34.
Hellman, Joel, and Kaufmann, Daniel. 2001. “Confronting the Challenge of State Capture in Transition Economics,” Finance and Development, 38, 3 (September).
Hellman, Joel, Jones, Geraint, and Kaufmann, Daniel. 2000. “Seize the State, Seize the Day.” World Bank Policy Research Paper No. 2444.
Hendley, Katherine. 1996. Trying to Make Law Matter. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Herrera, Yoshiko. 2001. “Russian Economic Reform 1991–1998,” in Barany, Zoltan, and Moser, Robert, eds. Challenges to Democratic Transition In Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hesse, Joachim Jens. 1993. “From Transformation to Modernization: Administrative Change in Central and Eastern Europe,” in idem. ed. Administrative Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.
Heywood, Paul. 1997. “Political Corruption: Problems and Perspectives,” Political Studies, 45, 3: 417–35.
Hirszowicz, Maria. 1980. The Bureaucratic Leviathan. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Hojnacki, William. 1996. “Politicization as a Civil Service Dilemma,” in Bekke, Hans, Perry, James, and Toonen, Theo, eds. Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 137–64.
Holmes, Stephen. 1996. “Cultural Legacies or State Collapse: Probing the Post-Communist Dilemma,” in Mandelbaum, Michael, ed. Postcommunism: Four Perspectives. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Holmstrom, Bengt. 1982. “Managerial Incentive Problems: A Dynamic Perspective,” in Essays in Economic and Management in Honor of Lars Wahlbeck. Stockholm: Swedish School of Economics.
Horowitz, Shale, and Petréš, Martin. 2003. “Pride and Prejudice in Prague: Understanding Early Policy Error and Belsteol Reform in Czech Economic Transition,” East European Politics and Societies, 17, 2: 231–65.
Horráth, Tamás, ed. 2000. Decentralization: Experiments and Reforms. Budapest: Open Society Institute.
Hough, Jerry. 1969. The Soviet Prefects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hough, Jerry, and Fainsod, Merle. 1979. How the Soviet Union Is Governed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Howard, Marc Morjé. 2003. The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huber, John, and Shipan, Charles. 2002. Deliberate Discretion? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Humphrey, Caroline. 2002. The Unmaking of Soviet Life. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Hutchcroft, Paul. 1998. Booty Capitalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Ichino, Nahomi. 2006. Thugs and Voters: Political Tournaments in Nigeria. Ph.D. Thesis Department of Political Science, Stanford University.
Ikstens, Jānis, Smilov, Daniel, and Walecki, Marcin. 2002. “Campaign Finance in Central and Eastern Europe,” IFES Reports (April). Washington: IFES.
Ilonszki, Gabriella. 2002. “A Functional Clarification of Parliamentary Committees in Hungary, 1990–1998,” in Olson, David, and Crowther, William, eds. Committees in Post-Communist Democratic Parliaments: Comparative Institutionalization. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, pp. 21–43.
Ilonszki, Gabriella. 2000. “The Second Generation Political Elite in Hungary: Partial Consolidation,” in Frentzel-Zagórska, Janina, and Wasilewski, Jacek, eds. The Second Generation of Democratic Elites in East and Central Europe. Warsaw: PAN ISP.
Ilonszki, Gabriella. 1998. “Representation Deficit in a New Democracy: Theoretical Considerations and the Hungarian Case,” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 14: 157–70.
INEKO for the Slovak Government. 2000. “Zaverečná správa o výsledkoch a odporučaniach audity súladu činnosti a financovania úsredných orgánov štátnej správy,” August.
Innes, Abby. 2002. “Party Competition in Post-Communist Europe: The Great Electoral Lottery,” Comparative Politics, 35, 1: 85–105.
International Monetary Fund. 1999. Report on Observance of Standards and Codes, August 1999/March 2000.
Ishiyama, John. 1997. “Transitional Electoral Systems in Post-Communist Eastern Europe,” Political Science Quarterly, 112, 1: 95–115.
Issacharoff, Samuel, and Pildes, Richard. 1998. “Politics as Markets: Partisan Lockups of the Democratic Process,” Stanford Law Review (February): 642–717.
Iversen, Torben, and Wren, Anne. 1998. “Equality, Employment, and Budgetary Restraint,” World Politics, 50, 4: 507–46.
Jabłoński, A. 1998. “Europeanization of Public Administration in Central Europe: Poland in Comparative Perspective.” NATO Individual Democratic Institution Research Fellowships, Final Report 1995–7.
Jackman, Robert. 1993. Power Without Force. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Jacoby, Wade. 2004. The Enlargement of the EU and NATO: Ordering from the Menu in Central Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jarosz, Maria. 2001. Manowce Polskiej Prywatyzacji. Warszawa: PWN SA.
Jednotka boji proti korupci, Ministry of Interior. 2001. Zpráva o korupci v ČR a o plnění harmonogramu opatření vládního programu boje proti korupci v ČR.
Johns, Michael. 2003. “Do as I Say and Not as I Do: The European Union, Eastern Europe, and Minority Rights,” East European Politics and Societies, 17, 4 (November): 682–99.
Jones Luong, Pauline. 2002. Institutional Change and Political Continuity in Post-Soviet Central Asia: Power, Perceptions, and Pacts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jones Luong, Pauline, and Weinthal, Erika. 2004. “Contra Coercion: Russian Tax Reform, Exogenous Shocks and Negotiated Institutional Change,” American Political Science Review, 98, 1: 139–52.
Jungerstam-Mulders, Susanne, ed. 2006. Post-Communist EU Member States: Parties and Party Systems. London: Ashgate.
Kalniņš, Valts, and Čigāne, Lolita. 2003. “On the Road Toward a More Honest Society.” Policy Report, January. Available at http://www.politika.lv.
Kaminski, Antoni. 1992. An Institutional Theory of Communist Regimes: Design, Function, and Breakdown. San Francisco: ICS Press.
Kang, David. 2002. Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kaplan, Karel. 1993. Aparát ÚV KSC v letech 1948–1968. Sesity Ústavu pro Soudobé Dějiny AV ČR Sv. 10.
Kaplan, Karel. 1987. The Short March: The Communist Takeover of Power in Czechoslovakia, 1945–1948. Boulder CO: Westview Press.
Karasimeonov, Georgii. 1996. “Bulgaria's New Party System,” in Pridham, Geoffrey, and Lewis, Paul, eds. Stabilizing Fragile Democracies. London: Routledge.
Karklins, Rasma. 2002. Typology of Post-Communist Corruption, Problems of Post-Communism, 49 (July/August): 22–32.
Karl-Heinz, Nassmacher. 1989. “Structure and Impact of Public Subsidies to Political Parties in Europe,” in Alexander, Herbert, ed. Comparative Political Finance in the 1980s, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 236–67.
Katz, Richard, and Mair, Peter. 1995. “Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy,” Party Politics, 1: 5–28.
Kaufman, Daniel. 2003. “Rethinking Governance: Empirical Lessons Challenge Orthodoxy.” World Bank Working Paper.
Kaufman, Daniel, Kraay, A., and Mastruzzi, M. 2005. Governance Matters IV: Governance Indicators 1996–2004. Washington: World Bank.
Keri, Laszlo. 1994. Balance: The Hungarian Government 1990–1994. Budapest: Korridor.
Kettle, Steve. 1995. “Straining at the Seams.” Transition (April). Available at http://www.tol.cz.
King, Roswitha. 2003. “Conversations with Civil Servants: Interview Results from Estonia, Lithuania, Czech Republic and Poland.” Manuscript, University of Latvia Riga.
Kiss, Csilla. 2003. “From Liberalism to Conservatism: The Federation of Young Democrats in Post-Communist Hungary,” East European Politics and Societies, 16, 3, 739–63.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 2001. “Divergent Paths of Post-Communist Democracies,” in Diamond, Larry, and Gunther, Richard, eds. Political Parties and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 299–323.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 2000. “Linkages Between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities,” Comparative Political Studies, 33, 6/7: 845–79.
Kitschelt, Herbert, Mansfeldová, Zdenka, Markowski, Radoslaw, and Toka, Gábor. 1999. Post-Communist Party Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert, and Wilkinson, Steven. Forthcoming. “Citizen-Politician Linkages: An Introduction,” in Kitschelt, and Wilkinson, , eds. Patrons, Clients, and Linkages. Manuscript, Duke University.
KNAB. 2003. “Progress and Results in the Field of Corruption Prevention and Combat,” Periodic Update 24 (November). Available at http://www.knab.gov.lv/ru/actual/article.php?id=18863, accessed 12 February 2004.
Knight, Jack. 1992. Institutions and Social Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kochanowicz, Jacek. 1994. “Reforming Weak States and Deficient Bureaucracies,” in Nelson, Joan M., Kochanowicz, Jacek, Mizsei, Kalman, and Munoz, Oscar, eds. Intricate Links: Democratization and Market Reforms in Latin America and Eastern Europe. Washington: Overseas Development Council, pp. 194–206.
Koole, Ruud. 1996. “Cadre, Catch-all or Cartel? A Comment,” Party Politics, 4: 507–23.
Kopecký, Petr. 2006. “Political Parties and the State in Post-Communist Europe: The Nature of the Symbiosis,” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 22, 3 (September): 251–73.
Kopstein, Jeff, and Reilly, David. 2000. “Geographic Diffusion and the Transformation of the Postcommunist World,” World Politics, 53, 1: 1–37.
Körösényi, Andras. 1999. Government and Politics in Hungary. Budapest: CEU Press.
Krasner, Stephen. 1984. “Approaches to the State: Alternative Conceptions and Historical Dynamics,” Comparative Politics, 16, 2 (January): 223–46.
Krašovec, Alenka. 2001. “Party and State in Democratic Slovenia,” in Lewis, Paul G., ed. Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe. London: Frank Cass, pp. 93–106.
Krause, Kevin Deegan. 2006. Elected Affinities. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Krueger, Anne. 1974. “The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society,” American Economic Review, 64, 3: 291–303.
Krupavičius, Algis. 1998. “The Post-Communist Transition and Institutionalization of Lithuania's Parties,” Political Studies, 46, 3: 465–91.
Kunicová, Jana, and Rose-Ackerman, Susan. 2005. “Electoral Rules and Constitutional Structures as Constraints on Corruption,” British Journal of Political Science, 35: 573–606.
Kurczewski, Jacek. 1999. “The Rule of Law in Poland,” in Přibán, Jiří, and Young, James, eds. The Rule of Law in Central Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Lancaster, Thomas D., and Montinolla, Gabriella. 2001. “Comparative Political Corruption: Issues of Operationalization and Measurement,” Studies in Comparative International Development, 36, 3 (Fall): 3–27.
Palombara, Joseph. 1994. “Structural and Institutional Aspects of Corruption,” Social Research, 61, 2 (Summer): 325–50.
Laver, Michael, and Shepsle, Kenneth. 1999. “Government Accountability in Parliamentary Democracy,” in Stokes, Susan, Przeworski, Adam, and Manin, Bernard, eds. Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–96.
Lawson, Stephanie. 1993. “Conceptual Issues in the Comparative Study of Regime Change and Democratization,” Comparative Politics, 25, 2 (January): 183–205.
Levi, Margaret. 1997. Consent, Dissent, and Patriotism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levi, Margaret. 1988. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Levite, Ariel, and Tarrow, Sidney. 1983. “The Legitimation of Excluded Parties in Dominant Party Systems,” Comparative Politics, 15, 3 (April): 295–327.
Levitsky, Steven. 2003. Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewanski, Rudolf. 1997. “Italian Civil Service: A Pre-Modern Bureaucracy in Transition?” Paper prepared for the Conference on Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective, Indiana University, 5–8 April.
Lewis, Paul, and Gortat, Radzisława. 1995. “Models of Party Development and Questions of State Dependence in Poland,” Party Politics, 4: 599–608.
Lewis, Paul G. 2000. Political Parties in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. London: Routledge.
Lieven, Anatol. 1994. The Baltic Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, Arendt. 1999. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty Six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, Arendt, ed. 1992. Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
Lindberg, Staffan. 2004. The Power of Elections: Democratic Participation, Competition, and Legitimacy in Africa. Lund: Lund University.
Linek, Lukáš. 2002. “Czech Republic,” European Journal of Political Research, 41: 931–40.
Linek, Lukáš, and Rakušanová, Petra. 2002. “Parties in the Parliament: Why, When, and How Do Parties Act in Unity?” Institute of Sociology, Czech Republic Sociological Paper No. 02:9.
Linz, Juan. 1994. “Introduction: Some Thoughts on Presidentialism in PostCommunist Europe,” in Taras, Ray, ed. Postcommunist Presidents. Cambridge, Oxford University Press: 1–14.
Lippert, Barbara, Umbach, Gaby, and Wessels, Wolfgang. 2001. “Europeanization of CEE Executives: EU Membership Negotiations as a Shaping Power,” Journal of European Public Policy, 8 (6 December): 980–1012.
Logue, John, and Einhorn, Eric. 1988. “Restraining the Governors: The Nordic Experience with Limiting the Strong State,” Scandinavian Political Studies, 11, 1.
Łoś, Maria, and Zybertowicz, Andrzej. 1999. “Is Revolution a Solution?” in Krygier, Martin, and Czarnota, Adam, eds. The Rule of Law After Communism. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Lucking, Richard. 2003. Civil Service Training in the Context of Public Administration Reform. New York: United Nations Development Program.
Lupia, Arthur, and McCubbins, Matthew. 2000. “The Institutional Foundations of Political Competence,” in Lupia, Arthur, McCubbins, Mathew D., and Popkin, Samuel L., eds. Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 47–66.
Lupia, Arthur, and McCubbins, Matthew. 2000. Privatizing the Police State. New York, St. Martins.
Luther, Kurt Richard, and Müller, Wolfgang. 1992. Politics in Austria: Still a Case of Consociationalism? London: Frank Cass.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1993. “Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination,” Comparative Political Studies, 26, 2 (July): 198–228.
Mair, Peter. 1997. Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Mair, Peter. 1995. “Political Parties, Popular Legitimacy, and Public Privilege,” West European Politics, 18, 2 (July): 40–57.
Mair, Peter. 1994. “Party Organizations,” in Katz, Richard, and Mair, Peter, eds. How Parties Organize. New York: Sage, pp. 134–57.
Majone, Giandomenico. 1994. “The Rise of the Regulatory State in Europe,” West European Politics, 12, 3 (July): 77–101.
Malcická, Lenka. 2001. “Vybrané aspekty financovania politických strán a hnutí v SR” [Selected aspects of party and movement financing in Slovakia]. Manuscript, Bratislava. Available at http://politika.host.sk/prispevky/prispevok_malcicka_financovaniestran.htm, accessed 21 June 2001.
Malová, Darina. 1997. “The Development of Interest Representation in Slovakia After 1989,” in Szomolányi, Soňa, and Gould, John, eds. Slovakia: Problems of Democratic Consolidation. Bratislava: Friedrich Ebert Foundation.
Mann, Michael. 1988. States, War, and Capitalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
“Marching Backwards: Slovakia's Counterrevolution.” 1995. October. Available at http://project-syndicate.org/surveys/marching_bac.php4, accessed 10 September, 2004.
Mattli, Walter, and Plümper, Thomas. 2002. “The Demand-Side Politics of EU Enlargement: Democracy and the Application for EU Membership,” Journal of European Public Policy, 9, 4: 550–74.
Mauro, Paolo. 1998. “Corruption: Causes, Consequences, and Agenda for Further Research,” Finance and Development (March): 11–14.
Mauro, Paolo. 1995. “Corruption and Growth,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110, 3: 681–712.
McChesney, Fred. 1987. “Rent Extraction and Rent Creation in the Economic Theory of Regulation,” Journal of Legal Studies, 16: 101–18.
McCubbins, Matthew, Noll, Roger, and Weingast, Barry. 1989. “Structure and Process; Politics and Policy: Administrative Arrangements and the Political Control of Agencies,” Virginia Law Review, 75, 2: 431–82.
McCubbins, Matthew, Noll, Roger, and Weingast, Barry. 1987. “Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control,” Economics and Organization, 77 (March): 243–77.
McFaul, M. 1995. “State Power, Institutional Change, and the Politics of Privatization in Russia,” World Politics, 47, 2: 210–43.
McMann, Kelly. 2003. “The Civic Realm in Kyrgyzstan: Soviet Economic Legacies and Activists' Expectations,” in Jones Luong, Pauline, ed. The Transformation of Central Asia: States and Societies from Soviet Rule to Independence. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 213–45.
McMenamin, Iain, and Schoenman, Roger. 2004, “Political Competition: The Rule of Law and Corruption in Successful Post-Communist Countries,” Working Papers in International Studies, 7.
Meltzer, Allan H., and Richard, Scott F. 1981. “Rational Theory of the Size of Government,” Journal of Political Economy, 89, 5: 914–27.
Mendilow, Jonathan. 1992. “Public Party Funding and Party Transformation in Multiparty Systems,” Comparative Political Studies, 25, 1 (April): 90–117.
Mesežnikov, Grigorij. 2002. “Domestic Politics,” in Mesežnikov, Grigorij, Kollár, Miroslav, and Nicholson, Tom, eds. Slovakia 2001. Bratislava: Institute for Public Affairs, pp. 21–92.
Mesežnikov, Grigorij. 1997. “The Open-Ended Formation of Slovakia's Political Party System,” in Szomolányi, Soňa, and John, Gould, eds. Slovakia: Problems of Democratic Consolidation. Bratislava: Friedrich Ebert Foundation.
Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik. 2006. “The Rise of the Partisan State? Parties, Patronage, and the Ministerial Bureaucracy in Hungary,” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 22, 3 (September): 274–97.
Miller, William, Grødeland, Ase, and Koshechkina, Tatyana. 2001. A Culture of Corruption? Coping with Government in Post-Communist Europe. Budapest: CEU Press.
Moe, Terry M. 1990. “Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story,” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 7: 213–53.
Moe, Terry M., and Caldwell, Michael, 1994. “The Institutional Foundations of Democratic Government: A Comparison of Presidential and Parliamentary Systems,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 150/1: 171–95.
Moe, Terry, and Miller, Goney. 1983. “Bureaucrats, Legislators, and the Size of Government,” American Political Science Review, 77: 297–323.
Montinola, Gabriella, and Jackman, Robert. 2002. “Source of Corruption: A Cross-Country Study,” British Journal of Political Science, 32, 1 (January): 147–70.
Moravcsik, Andrew, and Vachudová, Milada Anna. 2003. “National Interests, State Power and EU Enlargement,” East European Politics and Societies, 4, 17, 1 (Winter): 42–57.
Morlino, Leonardo. 2001. “The Three Phases of Italian Parties,” in Diamond, Larry, and Gunter, Richard, eds. Political Parties and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 109–42.
Müller-Rommel, Ferdinand, Fettelschoss, Katja, and Harst, Philipp, 2004. “Party Government in Central East European Democracies: A Data Collection (1990–2003),” European Journal of Political Research, 43: 869–93.
Müller, Wolfgang. 2006. “Party Patronage and Party Colonization of the State,” in Richard, Katz, and Crotty, William, eds. Handbook of Party Politic. London: Sage, pp. 189–95.
Müller, Wolfgang. 1992. “Austrian Governmental Institutions: Do They Matter?” in Luther, Kurt Richard, and Müller, Wolfgang, eds. Politics in Austria: Still a Case of Consociationalism? London: Frank Cass, pp. 99–131.
Munck, Gerardo, and Verkuilen, Jay. 2002. “Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: Evaluating Alternative Indices,” Comparative Political Studies, 35, 1: 5–34.
Myerson, Roger. 1993. “Effectiveness of Electoral Systems for Reducing Government Corruption,” Games and Economic Behavior, 5: 118–32.
Nassmacher, Karl-Heinz. 1989. “Structure and Impact of Public Subsidies to Political Parties in Europe,” in Alexander, Herbert, ed. Comparative Political Finance in the 1980s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 236–67.
Nello, Susan Senior. 2001. “The Role of the IMF,” in Zielonka, Jan, and Pravda, Alex, eds. Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe. Vol. 2: International and Transnational Factors. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nørgaard, Ole, Ostrovska, Ilze, and Hansen, Ole Hersted. 2000. “State of the State in Post-Communist Latvia: State Capacity and Government Effectiveness in a Newly Independent Country.” Paper presented at the 2000 European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) Joint Sessions, Copenhagen.
North, Douglass. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass. 1981. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: W. W. Norton.
North, Douglass, and Weingast, Barry. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutional Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England,” Journal of Economic History, 49, 4 (December): 803–32.
Novotný, Vít. 1999. “Deset lat po listopadu: Omězme Moc české Politické Oligarchie,” Britské Listy, 29 November.
Nunberg, Barbara. 2000. “Ready for Europe: Public Administration Reform and European Union Accession in Central and Eastern Europe.” World Bank Technical Paper No. 466. Washington: World Bank.
Nunberg, Barbara, ed. 1999. The State After Communism. Washington: World Bank.
O'Dwyer, Conor. 2004. “Runaway State Building: How Political Parties Shape States in Postcommunist Eastern Europe,” World Politics: 520–53.
O'Dwyer, Conor. 2003. “Expanding the Post-Communist State? A Theory and Some Empirical Evidence.” Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS) Toronto, Canada.
O'Dwyer, Conor. 2002. “Civilizing the State Bureaucracy: The Unfulfilled Promise of Public Administration Reform in Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic (1990–2000).” Occasional paper, Berkeley Program in Soviet and Post Soviet Studies.
OECD. 2001a. Issues and Developments in Public Management: Czech Republic–2000.
OECD. 2001b. Issues and Developments in Public Management: Hungry–2000.
Olson, David. 1998. “Party Formation and Party System Consolidation in the New Democracies of Central Europe,” Political Studies, 46, 3: 432–64.
Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy and Development,” American Political Science Review, 87 (3 September): 567–76.
O'Neil, Patrick. 1998. Revolution from Within. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
O'Neil, Patrick. 1996. “Revolution from Within: Institutional Analysis, Transitions from Authoritarianisms, and the Case of Hungary,” World Politics, 48, 4 (July): 579–603.
O'Neil, Patrick. 1993. “Presidential Power in Post-Communist Europe: The Hungarian Case in Comparative Perspective,” Journal of Communist Studies, 9, 3: 177–201.
Orenstein, Mitchell. 2001. Out of the Red: Building Capitalism and Democracy in Postcommunist Europe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Örkény, Antal, and Scheppele, Kim Lane. 1999. “Rules of Law: The Complexity of Legality in Hungary,” in Krygier, Martin, and Czarnota, Adam, eds. The Rule of Law After Communism. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Ost, David. 1991. “Shaping a New Politics in Poland.” Program on Central and Eastern Europe Working Paper Series, Center for European Studies (CES) Harvard University, No. 8.
Panków, Irena. 1991. “Przemiany środowiska społecznego Polaków w latach osiemdziesiatych,” Kultura i Społeczenstwo, 1: 53–65.
Parlamentní Zpravodaj. 1999. “Jakě jsou klady a zapory aktualního navrhu novely zakona o politických stranach” [What are the bases for the current proposal for the novelization of the law on political parties].
Pempel, T. J. 2000. Regime Shift: Comparative Dynamics of the Japanese Political Economy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Peltzman, Sam. 1998. Political Participation and Government Regulation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Perkins, Doug. 1996. “Structure and Choice: The Role of Organizations, Patronage, and the Media in Party Formation,” Party Politics, 2, 3: 355–75.
Persson, Torsten, Tabellini, , and Guido, . 2002. Political Economics. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Persson, Torsten, Tabellini, Guido, and Trebbi, Francesco. 2001. Electoral Rules and Corruption. Manuscript, June.
Petroff, Włodzimierz. 1996. Finansowanie partii politycznych w postkomunistycznej Europie [The financing of political parties in Europe]. Warsaw: Polish Parliamentary Bureau of Analyses and Expertise.
Pettai, Vello. 1997. “Political Stability Through Disenfranchisement,” Transition, 3, 6 (4 April).
Pettai, Vello, and Kreuzer, Marcus. 2001. “Institutions and Party Development in the Baltic States,” in Lewis, Paul, ed. Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe. London: Frank Cass, pp. 107–25.
PHARE and NVF. 1998. “An Analysis of Public Administration of the Czech Republic.” Summary Report, Prague, September.
Piattoni, Simona. 2001. “Introduction,” in Piattoni, Simona, ed. Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–30.
Pierre, Jon, Svasand, Lars, and Widfeldt, Anders. 2000. “State Subsidies to Political Parties: Confronting Rhetoric with Reality,” West European Politics, 23, 2 (July): 1–24.
Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. 1985. “How Can Money in Politics Be Assessed?” Paper presented at the International Political Science Conference Paris.
Plakans, Andrejs. 1998. “Democratization and Political Participation in Post-Communist Societies: The Case of Latvia,” in Dawish, Karen, and Parott, Bruce, eds. The Consolidation of Democracy in East-Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Plasser, Fritz, Ulram, Peter, and Grausgruber, Alfred. 1992. “The Decline of ‘Lager Mentality’ and the New Model of Electoral Competition in Austria,” in Luther, Kurt Richard, and Müller, Wolfgang, eds. Politics in Austria: Still a Case of Consociationalism? London: Frank Cass.
Poggi, Gianfranco. 1990. The State: Its Nature, Development, and Prospects. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Powell, Bingham. 2000. Elections as Instruments of Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Protsyk, Oleh. 2003. Reforming Cabinets in Post-Communist Countries: Political Determinants of Cabinet Organization and Size. Manuscript, University of Ottawa, Canada.
Przeworski, Adam. 1999. “Minimalist Conception of Democracy: A Defense,” in Shapiro, Ian, and Hacker-Cordón, Casiano, eds. Democracy's Value. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 23–55.
Przeworski, Adam. 1997. “The State in a Market Economy,” in Nelson, Joan, Tilly, Charles, and Walker, Lee, eds. Transforming Post-Communist Political Economies. Washington: National Academy Press, pp. 411–31.
Przeworski, Adam. 1991. Democracy and Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Przeworski, Adam. 1990. The State and the Economy Under Capitalism. London: Harwood Academic.
Przeworski, Adam. 1995. Sustainable Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pujas, Véronique, and Rhodes, Martin. 1999. “Party Finance and Political Scandal in Italy, Spain, and France,” West European Politics, 22, 3: 41–63.
Raiser, Martin, Di Tommaso, Maria, and Weeks, Melvyn. 2000. “The Measurement and Determinants of Institutional Change: Evidence from Transition Economies.” EBRD Working Paper No. 60.
Reed, Quentin. 2002. “Corruption in Czech Privatization: The Dangers of ‘Neo-Liberal’ Privatization,” in Kotkin, Stephen, and Sajos, Andras, eds. Political Corruption: A Skeptic's Handbook. Budapest: CEU Press, pp. 261–86.
Reed, Quentin. 1996. Political Corruption, Privatization and Control in the Czech Republic. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Oxford University.
Regulski, Jerzy. 1999. “Building Democracy in Poland: The State Reform of 1998.” Discussion Paper 9, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative. Budapest: Open Society Institute.
Remington, Thomas, and Smith, Steven. 1996. “Institutional Design, Uncertainty, and Path Dependency During Transition,” American Journal of Political Science 40, 4: 1253–79.
Rice, Eric. 1992. “Public Administration in Post-Socialist Eastern Europe,” Public Administration Review, 52, 2 (March/April): 116–24.
Richardson, Bradley. 2001. “Japan's ‘1995 System’ and Beyond,” in Diamond, Larry, and Gunther, Richard, eds. Political Parties and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 143–69.
Riker, William. 1982. Liberalism Against Populism. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
Riker, William, and Ordeshook, Peter. 1968. “A Theory of the Calculus of Voting,” American Political Science Review, 62: 25–43.
Robinson, James, and Verdier, Therry. 2002. “The Political Economy of Clientelism.” Centre for Economic Policy Discussion Paper Series No. 3205.
Roland, Gerard. 2001. “Ten Years After … Transition and Economics.” IMF Staff Papers, No. 48. Washington: International Monetary Fund.
Róna-Tas, Ákos. 1997. The Great Surprise of the Small Transformation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Rose-Ackerman, Susan. 1999. Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rose-Ackerman, Susan. 1978. Corruption. New York: Academic Press.
Roubini, Nouriel, and Sachs, Jeffrey. 1989. “Government Spending and Budget Deficits in the Industrial Economies.” NBER Working Papers No. 2919, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Rus, Andrej. 1996. “Quasi Privatization: From Class Struggle to a Scuffle of Small Particularisms,” in Benderly, Jill, and Kraft, Evan, eds. Independent Slovenia: Origins, Movements, Prospects. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 225–50.
Rybář, Marek. 2006. “Powered by the State: The Role of Public Resources in Party-Building in Slovakia,” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 22, 3 (September): 320–40.
Rydlewski, Grzegorz. 2000. Rządzenie Koalicyjne w Polsce. Warsaw: Elipsa.
Sadurski, Wojciech, ed. 2002. Constitutional Justice, East and West: Democratic Legitimacy and Constitutional Courts in Post-Communist Europe. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Sajo, Andras. 1998a. “Corruption, Clientelism, and the Future of the Constitutional State in Eastern Europe,” East European Constitutional Review, 7, 2. Available at http://www.law.nyu.edu/eecr/vol7num2.
Sajo, Andras. 1998b. “How the Rule of Law Can Facilitate the Spread of Sleaze,” East European Constitutional Review. 7, 2. Available at http://www.law.ngu.edu/eecr/vol7num 2.
Samuels, David. 2001. “Does Money Matter? Credible Commitments and Campaign Finance in New Democracies,” Comparative Politics, 34, 1 (October): 23–42.
Sartori, Giovanni. 1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scarrow, Susan. 2002. “Parties Without Members?” in Dalton, Russell, and Wattenberg, Martin, eds. Parties Without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schamis, Hector E. 2002. Re-Forming the State: The Politics of Privatization in Latin America and Europe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Schavio-Campo, Salvatore, do Tommaso, G., and Mukherjee, A. 1997a. “Government Employment and Pay in Global Perspective.” Washington: World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1771.
Schavio-Campo, Salvatore, do Tommaso, G., and Mukherjee, A. 1997b. “An International Statistical Survey of Government Employment and Wages.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1806.
Scheppele, Kim Lane. 2002. “Democracy by Judiciary.” Paper presented at the conference. Rethinking the Rule of Law in Post-Communist Europa: Past Legacies, Institutional Innovations, and Constitutional Discourses, EUI, Florence, 22–3 February.
Scherpereel, John. 2003. “Appreciating the Third Player: The European Union and the Politics of Civil Service Reform in East Central Europe.” Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of American Political Science Association (APSA), Philadelphia, 28–31 August.
Schumpeter, Joseph. 1948. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Scott, James. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Shefter, Martin. 1994. Political Parties and the State: The American Experience. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Shleifer, Andrei, and Vishny, Robert W. 1998. The Grabbing Hand: Government Pathologies and Their Cures. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Shleifer, Andrei, and Vishny, Robert W.. 1993. “Corruption,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108: 599–617.
SIGMA. 2002a. “Bulgaria: Public Service and the Administrative Framework: Assessment 2002.”
SIGMA. 2002b. “Czech Republic: Public Service and the Administrative Framework: Assessment 2002.”
SIGMA 2002c. “Latvia: Public Service and the Administrative Framework: Assessment 2002.”
SIGMA. 2002d. “Slovakia: Public Service and the Administrative Framework: Assessment 2002.”
SIGMA. 1999. Public Management Profiles of Central and East European Countries: Estonia. October.
Sikk, Allan. 2006. “From Private Organizations to Democratic Infrastructure: Political Parties and the State in Estonia,” Journal of Communist Studies and Transitional Politics, 22, 3 (September): 341–61.
Sikk, Allan. 2003. “A Cartel Party System in a Post-Communist Country? The Case of Estonia.” Paper prepared for the European Constitution for Political Review (ECPR) General Conference, 18–21 September, Marborg, Germany.
Sjöblom, Gunnar. 1983. “Political Change and Political Accountability: A Propositional Inventory of Causes and Effects,” in Daalder, Hans, and Peter, Mair, eds. West European Party Systems. London: Sage.
Skach, Cindy, and Stepan, Alfred. 1993. “Constitutional Frameworks and Democratic Consolidation: Parliamentarianism Versus Presidentialism,” World Politics, 46, 1: 1–22.
Slovak Government Information Service. 2000. “Audit súladu činností a financovania ústredných orgánov štátnej správy” [Audit of the activities and finances of the central institutions of public administration]. August. Also available at http://www.vlada.gov.sk/INFOSERVIs/.
Slovak Government Information Service. 1999. “Analysis of the Inherited State of the Economy and Society.”
Smith, David, Pabriks, Artis, Purs, Aldis, and Lane, Thomas. 2002. The Baltic States. London: Routledge.
Smith, Karen. 2001. “The Promotion of Democracy,” in Zielonka, Jan, and Pravda, Alex, eds. Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe. Vol. 2: International and Transnational Factors. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 31–57.
Smithey, Shannon Ishiyama, and Ishiyama, John. 2000. “Judicious Choices: Designing Courts in Post-Communist Politics,” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 33: 163–82.
Snipe, Arta. 2003. Financing of Political Parites: Effectiveness of Regulation. The Latvian Example. Master's Thesis, Riga Graduate School of Law, Riga, Latvia.
Spar, Deborah. 1994. The Cooperative Edge: The Internal Politics of International Cartels. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Spruyt, Hendrik. 1992. The Sovereign State and Its Competitors. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Staniszkis, Jadwiga. 1999. Post-Socialism. Warsaw: PAN.
Stark, David, and Bruszt, Laszlo. 1998. Postsocialist Pathways. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stein, Jonathan. 1998. “Still in Bed Together.” New Presence (January). Available at http://www.new-presence.in.
Stepan, Alfred. 1994. “Corruption in South America,” in Trang, Due, ed. Corruption and Democracy. Budapest: CEU.
Stigler, George. 1975. The Citizen and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Stigler, George. 1972. “Economic Competition and Political Competition,” Public Choice, 13: 91–106.
Stroehlein, Andrew. 1999. “The Czech Republic 1992 to 1999,” Central Europe Review. (13 September). Available at http://www.ce-review:org.
Strøm, Kaare. 2000. “Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies,” European Journal of Political Research, 37: 261–89.
Strøm, Kaare. 1990. Minority Government and Majority Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Strøm, Kaare. 1989. “Inter-Party Competition in Advanced Democracies,” Journal of Theoretical Politics, 1, 3: 277–300.
Suleiman, Ezra N. 2003. Dismantling Democratic States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Swaniewiuz, Pawet. 2004. Consolidation or Fragmentation? Budapest: Open Society Institute.
Szabó, Gábor. 1993. “Administrative Transition in a Post-Communist Society: The Case of Hungary,” Hesse, Joachim Jens, ed. Administrative Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.
Szczerbak, Aleks. 2006. “State Party Funding and Patronage in Post-1989 Poland,” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 22, 3 (September): 298–319.
Szelenyi, Ivan, and Szelenyi, Sonya. 1991. “The Vacuum in Hungarian Politics: Classes and Parties,” New Left Review (May–June): 121–37.
Szoboszlai, György, 1985a. “Bureaucracy and Social Control,” in Szoboszlai, György, ed. Politics and Public Administration in Hungary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
Szoboszlai, György, ed. 1985b. Politics and Public Administration in Hungary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
Szomolányi, Soňa. 1997. “Identifying Slovakia's Emerging Regime,” in Szomolányi, Soňa, and Gould, John, eds. Slovakia: Problems of Democratic Consolidation. Bratislava: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, pp. 9–34.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1990. “Maintaining Hegemony in Italy: ‘The Softer They Rise, the Slower They Fall,’” in Pempol, T. J ., ed. Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Dominant Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 306–32.
Terra, Jonathan. 2002. “Political Institutions and Post Communist Transitions.” Paper prepared for the Fourth Annual Society for Comparative Research Graduate Student Retreat, Budapest, May.
Thayer, Nathaniel. 1969. How the Conservatives Rule Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1990. Coercion, Capital, and European States. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Tisenkopfs, Tālis, and Kalniņš, Valts. 2002. “Public Accountability Procedures in Politics in Latvia.” Report, Baltic Studies Center, Riga, Latvia, February.
Todorova, Rossitsa. 2001. “EU Integration as an Agent of Public Administration Reform.” Unpublished Manuscript, American University in Bulgaria.
Toonen, Theo. 1993. “Analysing Institutional Change,” in Hesse, Joachim Jens, ed. Administrative Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Blackwell.
Torres-Bartyzel, Claudia, and Kacprowicz, Grażyna. 1999. “The National Civil Service System in Poland,” in Verheijen, Tony, ed. Civil Service Systems in Central and Eastern Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 159–83.
Trang, Duc, ed. 1994. Corruption and Democracy. Budapest: CEN Press.
Treisman, Daniel. 2000. “The Causes of Corruption: A Cross-National Study,” Journal of Public Economics, 76: 399–457.
Treisman, Daniel. 1998. “Dollars and Democratization: The Role and Power of Money in Russia's Transitional Elections,” Comparative Politics, 31, 1 (October): 1–21.
Tullock, Gordon. 1967. “The Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies and Theft,” Western Economic Journal, 5: 224–32.
Turner, Arthur. 1993. “Postauthoritarian Elections: Testing Expectations about ‘First’ Elections,”Comparative Political Studies, 26, 3 (October): 330–49.
USAID public opinion poll. 1999. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty broadcast, Slovakia, 10 November.
Úsek pro Reformu Veřejné správy. [Section for the Reform of the Public Administration]. 2001. “Vybrané výstupy z projekty PHARE CZ 9808.01 Posílení institucionálních a administrativních kapacit pro implementaci acquis communautaire.” Prague.
Vachudová, Milada Anna. 2005. Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage and Integration After Communism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, ch. 1.
Vanagunas, Stan. 1997. “Civil Service Reform in the Baltics.” Paper presented for conference on Civil Service Systems in Comparative Perspective, Indiana University Bloomington, 5–8 April.
Biezen, Ingrid. 2004. “Political Parties as Public Utilities,” Party Politics, 10, 6: 701–22.
Biezen, Ingrid. 2000. “Party Financing in New Democracies,” Party Politics, 6, 3: 329–42.
Biezen, Ingrid, and Kopecký, Petr. 2001. “On the Predominance of State Money: Reassessing Party Financing in the New Democracies of Southern and Eastern Europe,” Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 2, 3: 401–29.
Vass, Lászlo. 1994. “Changes in Hungary's Governmental System,” in Ágh, Attila, ed. The Emergence of West Central European Parliaments: The First Steps. Budapest: Hungarian Center for Democracy Studies, pp. 186–97.
Verheijen, Tony. 2002. “The European Union and Public Administration Development in Central and Eastern Europe,” in Baker, Randall, ed. Transitions from Authoritarianism: The Role of the Bureaucracy. London: Praeger.
Verheijen, Tony. 1999. “The Civil Service of Bulgaria: Hope on the Horizon,” in Verheijen, Tony, ed. Civil Service Systems in Central and Eastern Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 92–130.
Vinton, Lucy. 1993. Poland's New Election Law: Fewer Parties, Same Impasse? RFE/RL Report (8 July): 7–17.
Vládní program boje proti korupci v Česke Republice. [Government program for the fight against corruption in the Czech Republic]. 1998. “Zpráva o korupci v České republice a možnostech účinného postupu proti tomut negativnímu společenskému jevu.” [Report about corruption in the Czech Republic and the possibilities of an active approach against this negative social development], 17 February.
Vreeland, James Raymond. 2003. The IMF and Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Walecki, Marcin, ed. 2002. Finansowanie Polityki. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Sejmowe.
Warner, Carolyn. 2001. “Mass Parties and Clientelism: France and Italy,” in Piattoni, Simona, ed. Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 122–51.
Wasilewski, Jacek, 2000. “Polish Post-Transitional Elite,” in Frentzel-Zagórska, Janina, and Wasilewski, Jacek, eds. Warsaw: PAN ISP. The Second Generation of Democratic Elites in East and Central Europe.
Waterbury, John. 1973. “Endemic and Planned Corruption in a Monarchical Regime,” World Politics, 25, 4 (July): 533–55.
Weber, Max. 1947. Wirtschaft und Gesellshaft. Tübingen: Mohr.
Weingast, Barry. 1997. “The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law,” American Political Science Review, 91 (June): 245–63.
Weingast, Barry, and Marshall, William. 1988. “The Industrial Organization of Congress; or, Why Legislatures, Like Firms, Are Not Organized as Markets,” Journal of Political Economy, 96, 1: 132–63.
Winiecki, Jan. 1996. “Impediments to Institutional Change in the Former Soviet System,” in Alston, Lee., eds. Empirical Studies in Institutional Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 63–91.
Wittman, Donald. 1995. The Myth of Democratic Failure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
World Bank. 1999. Corruption in Poland: Review of Priority Areas and Proposals for Action. Warsaw: World Bank.
Zemanovičová, Daniela, and Sičáková, xsEmília. 2001. “Transparency and Corruption,” in Mesežnikov, Miroslav, Grigorij, Kollár, and Nicholson, Tom, eds. Slovakia 2001. Bratislava: Institute for Public Affairs, pp. 537–52.
Zielonka, Jan. 1994. “New Institutions in the Old East Bloc,” Journal of Democracy, 5: 87–104.
Žižmond, Egon. 1993. “Slovenia–One Year of Independence,” Europe-Asia Studies, 45, 5: 887–905.
Zuckerman, Alan. 1979. The Politics of Faction: Christian Democratic Rule in Italy. New Haven: Yale University Press.