In this chapter the evolutionary model developed in chapter 3 and its ensuing claims are applied to specific countries and language varieties. For obvious reasons a selection of case studies to focus on was necessary. This includes the most important PCEs and those which are particularly typical of their respective regions.
The order of presentation is basically geographical and, in the case of neighboring countries, also historical. Starting from the Pacific, we move in a broadly westerly direction. Along the Pacific Rim, the countries to be discussed are Fiji and the important settler communities of Australia and New Zealand. The former crown colony of Hong Kong represents the major stronghold of English in East Asia. In South-East Asia and South Asia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and India will be covered. Africa, with a number of countries where English holds a special status, requires a selection of regionally important and typical countries: South Africa; Kenya and Tanzania in East Africa; and Nigeria and Cameroon in West Africa. In the Caribbean, Barbados and Jamaica will be looked at more closely. Finally, in North America, Canada will deserve closer attention. The case studies discussed here serve as examples; in principle, it should be possible to apply the model to most, ideally all of the PCEs around the globe.
In each case I will identify the elements of the Dynamic Model characteristic of the phases a country has gone through so far.