Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: April 2013

Chapter 15 - Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: does the sperm matter?

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

1. National Center for Chronic Disease and Prevention and Health Promotion. Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates. National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. National Center for Chronic Disease and Prevention and Health Promotion; 2008.
2. StefankiewiczJ, KurzawaR, DrozdzikM. [Environmental factors disturbing fertility of men]. Ginekologia polska. 2006;77(2):163–9.
3. WrightVC, ChangJ, JengGet al. Assisted reproductive technology surveillance – United States, 2003. MMWR Surveill Summ /CDC. 2006;55(4):1–22.
4. WalesRG, WhittinghamDG. Development of eight-cell mouse embryos in substrate-free medium. J Reprod Fertil. 1973;32(2):316–17.
5. EdwardsRG. Immunological control of fertility in female mice. Nature. 1964;203:50–3.
6. McLarenA, BiggersJD. Successful development and birth of mice cultivated in vitro as early embryos. Nature. 1958;182(4639):877–8.
7. CohenJ, EdwardsRG, FehillyCBet al. Treatment of male infertility by in vitro fertilization: factors affecting fertilization and pregnancy. Acta Eur Fertil. 1984;15(6):455–65.
8. MansourRT, AboulgharMA, SerourGIet al. The effect of sperm parameters on the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 1995;64(5):982–6.
9. NagyZP, LiuJ, JorisHet al. The result of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is not related to any of the three basic sperm parameters. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(5):1123–9.
10. PalermoG, JorisH, DerdeMPet al. Sperm characteristics and outcome of human assisted fertilization by subzonal insemination and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 1993;59(4):826–35.
11. PalermoGD, CohenJ, AlikaniMet al. Development and implementation of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Reprod Fertil Develop. 1995;7(2):211–17; discussion 217–8.
12. PalermoGD, CohenJ, AlikaniMet al. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a novel treatment for all forms of male factor infertility. Fertil Steril. 1995;63(6):1231–40.
13. TournayeH, DevroeyP, LiuJet al. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a new effective approach to infertility as a result of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Fertil Steril. 1994;61(6):1045–51.
14. LudwigM, al-HasaniS, KupkerWet al. A new indication for an intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure outside the cases of severe male factor infertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1997;75(2):207–10.
15. PorcuE, FabbriR, SeracchioliRet al. Birth of a healthy female after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved human oocytes. Fertil Steril. 1997;68(4):724–6.
16. JohnsonL. Evaluation of the human testis and its age-related dysfunction. Progr Clin Biol Res. 1989;302:35–60; discussion 61–7.
17. SchalkoffME, OskowitzSP, PowersRD. Ultrastructural observations of human and mouse oocytes treated with cryopreservatives. Biol Reprod. 1989;40(2):379–93.
18. Van BlerkomJ, DavisPW, MerriamJ. The developmental ability of human oocytes penetrated at the germinal vesicle stage after insemination in vitro. Hum Reprod. 1994;9(4):697–708.
19. VincentC, PickeringSJ, JohnsonMH. The hardening effect of dimethylsulphoxide on the mouse zona pellucida requires the presence of an oocyte and is associated with a reduction in the number of cortical granules present. J Reprod Fertil. 1990;89(1):253–9.
20. HandysideAH, KontogianniEH, HardyKet al. Pregnancies from biopsied human preimplantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification. Nature. 1990;344(6268):768–70.
21. VerlinskyY, KulievA. Preimplantation polar body diagnosis. Biochem Mol Med. 1996;58(1):13–17.
22. WiltonL. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening in early human embryos: a review. Prenat Diagn. 2002;22(6):512–18.
23. BendiksonKA, NeriQV, TakeuchiTet al. The outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection using occasional spermatozoa in the ejaculate of men with spermatogenic failure. J Urol. 2008;180(3):1060–4.
24. EdwardsRG, TarinJJ, DeanNet al. Are spermatid injections into human oocytes now mandatory?Hum Reprod. 1994;9(12):2217–19.
25. FishelS, GreenS, BishopMet al. Pregnancy after intracytoplasmic injection of spermatid. Lancet. 1995;345(8965):1641–2.
26. TesarikJ, MendozaC, TestartJ. Viable embryos from injection of round spermatids into oocytes. New Engl J Med. 1995;333(8):525.
27. TsaiMC, TakeuchiT, BedfordJMet al. Alternative sources of gametes: reality or science fiction?Hum Reprod. 2000;15(5):988–98.
28. OsmanagaogluK, TournayeH, KolibianakisEet al. Cumulative delivery rates after ICSI in women aged >37 years. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(4):940–4.
29. SunderamS, ChangJ, FlowersLet al. Assisted reproductive technology surveillance – United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009;58(5):1–25.
30. AboulgharMA, MansourRT, SerourGIet al. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection and conventional in vitro fertilization for sibling oocytes in cases of unexplained infertility and borderline semen. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1996;13(1):38–42.
31. FishelS, AslamI, LisiFet al. Should ICSI be the treatment of choice for all cases of in-vitro conception?Hum Reprod. 2000;15(6):1278–83.
32. Nyboe AndersenA, CarlsenE, LoftA. Trends in the use of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection marked variability between countries. Hum Reprod Update. 2008;14(6):593–604.
33. de MouzonJ, LancasterP, NygrenKGet al. World Collaborative Report on Assisted Reproductive Technology, 2002. Hum Reprod. 2009;24(9):2310–2320.
34. WrightVC, ChangJ, JengGet al. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance – United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summaries /CDC. 2008;57(5):1–23.
35. WangYA, DeanJ, Badgery-ParkerTet al. Assisted Reproduction Technology in Australia and New Zealand 2006. Assisted Reproduction Technology Series Number 12. Sydney: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, National Perinatal Statistics Unit and Fertility Society of Australia; 2008.
36. World Health Organization. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen and Sperm–Cervical Mucus Interaction. 3rd edn. Geneva, WHO: 1992.
37. World Health Organization. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen and Sperm–Cervical Mucus Interaction. 4th edn. Geneva, WHO: 1999
38. World Health Organization. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen and Sperm–Cervical Mucus Interaction. 5th edn. Geneva, WHO: 2010.
39. MallidisC, HowardEJ, BakerHW. Variation of semen quality in normal men. Int J Androl. 1991;14(2):99–107.
40. SchwartzD, LaplancheA, JouannetPet al. Within-subject variability of human semen in regard to sperm count, volume, total number of spermatozoa and length of abstinence. J Reprod Fertil. 1979;57(2):391–5.
41. CooperTG, NeuwingerJ, BahrsSet al. Internal quality control of semen analysis. Fertil Steril. 1992;58(1):172–8.
42. MatsonPL. External quality assessment for semen analysis and sperm antibody detection: results of a pilot scheme. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(3):620–5.
43. NeuwingerJ, BehreHM, NieschlagE. External quality control in the andrology laboratory: an experimental multicenter trial. Fertil Steril. 1990;54(2):308–14.
44. GlazenerCM, CoulsonC, LambertPAet al. The value of artificial insemination with husband’s semen in infertility due to failure of postcoital sperm-mucus penetration – controlled trial of treatment. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987;94(8):774–8.
45. IrvineDS, AitkenRJ, LeesMMet al. Failure of high intrauterine insemination of husband’s semen. Lancet. 1986;2(8513):972–3.
46. JoffeM, LiZ. Association of time to pregnancy and the outcome of pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1994;62(1):71–5.
47. VineMF. Smoking and male reproduction: a review. Int J Androl. 1996;19(6):323–37.
48. VineMF, MargolinBH, MorrisonHIet al. Cigarette smoking and sperm density: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 1994;61(1):35–43.
49. Kent-FirstMG, KolS, MuallemAet al. The incidence and possible relevance of Y-linked microdeletions in babies born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and their infertile fathers. Mol Hum Reprod. 1996;2(12):943–50.
50. McLachlanRI, MallidisC, MaKet al. Genetic disorders and spermatogenesis. Reprod Fertil Develop. 1998;10(1):97–104.
51. ReijoR, LeeTY, SaloPet al. Diverse spermatogenic defects in humans caused by Y chromosome deletions encompassing a novel RNA-binding protein gene. Nat Genet. 1995;10(4):383–93.
52. SimoniM, GromollJ, DworniczakBet al. Screening for deletions of the Y chromosome involving the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) gene in azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 1997;67(3):542–7.
53. VogtHJ. [sperm intolerance as a possible cause for infertility?]. Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete. 1996;47(4):312–13.
54. ReppingS, SkaletskyH, LangeJet al. Recombination between palindromes p5 and p1 on the human Y chromosome causes massive deletions and spermatogenic failure. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71(4):906–22.
55. TalJ, ZiskindG, PaltieliYet al. ICSI outcome in patients with transient azoospermia with initially motile or immotile sperm in the ejaculate. Hum Reprod. 2005;20(9):2584–9.
56. BonduelleM, Van AsscheE, JorisHet al. Prenatal testing in ICSI pregnancies: incidence of chromosomal anomalies in 1586 karyotypes and relation to sperm parameters. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(10):2600–14.
57. SutcliffeAG, LudwigM. Outcome of assisted reproduction. Lancet. 2007;370(9584):351–9.
58. PalermoG, NeriQV, TakeuchiTet al. Genetic and epigenetic characteristics of ICSI children. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17(6):820–33.
59. YanagimachiR, BhattacharyyaA. Acrosome-reacted guinea pig spermatozoa become fusion competent in the presence of extracellular potassium ions. J Exp Zool. 1988;248(3):354–60.
60. BarrosC, BedfordJM, FranklinLEet al. Membrane vesiculation as a feature of the mammalian acrosome reaction. J Cell Biol. 1967;34(3):C1–5.
61. BleilJD, WassarmanPM. Sperm–egg interactions in the mouse: sequence of events and induction of the acrosome reaction by a zona pellucida glycoprotein. Develop Biol. 1983;95(2):317–24.
62. WassarmanPM. Sperm receptors and fertilization in mammals. Mount Sinai J Med NY. 2002;69(3):148–55.
63. PalermoG, JorisH, DevroeyPet al. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte. Lancet. 1992;340(8810):17–18.
64. VanderzwalmenP, BertinG, LejeuneBet al. Two essential steps for a successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection: injection of immobilized spermatozoa after rupture of the oolema. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(3):540–7.
65. FishelS, LisiF, RinaldiLet al. Systematic examination of immobilizing spermatozoa before intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the human. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(3):497–500.
66. GerrisJ, MangelschotsK, Van RoyenEet al. ICSI and severe male-factor infertility: breaking the sperm tail prior to injection. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(3):484–6.
67. PalermoGD, SchlegelPN, ColomberoLTet al. Aggressive sperm immobilization prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection with immature spermatozoa improves fertilization and pregnancy rates. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(5):1023–9.
68. Van den BerghM, BertrandE, BiramaneJet al. Importance of breaking a spermatozoon’s tail before intracytoplasmic injection: a prospective randomized trial. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(11):2819–20.
69. TakeuchiT, ColomberoLT, NeriQVet al. Does ICSI require acrosomal disruption? An ultrastructural study. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(1):114–17.
70. DozortsevD, RybouchkinA, De SutterPet al. Sperm plasma membrane damage prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a necessary condition for sperm nucleus decondensation. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(11):2960–4.
71. ChristovaY, JamesP, MackieAet al. Molecular diffusion in sperm plasma membranes during epididymal maturation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;216(1–2):41–6.
72. PalermoGD, AlikaniM, BertoliMet al. Oolemma characteristics in relation to survival and fertilization patterns of oocytes treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(1):172–6.
73. PalermoGD, NeriQV, MonahanDet al. Development and current applications of assisted fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(2):248–59.
74. StrickerSA. Comparative biology of calcium signaling during fertilization and egg activation in animals. Develop Biol. 1999;211(2):157–76.
75. RunftLL, JaffeLA, MehlmannLM. Egg activation at fertilization: where it all begins. Develop Biol. 2002;245(2):237–54.
76. SticeSL, RoblJM. Activation of mammalian oocytes by a factor obtained from rabbit sperm. Mol Reprod Develop. 1990;25(3):272–80.
77. SwannK. A cytosolic sperm factor stimulates repetitive calcium increases and mimics fertilization in hamster eggs. Development. 1990;110(4):1295–302.
78. ParringtonJ, SwannK, ShevchenkoVIet al. Calcium oscillations in mammalian eggs triggered by a soluble sperm protein. Nature. 1996;379(6563):364–8.
79. WolnyYM, FissoreRA, WuHet al. Human glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase, a homologue of hamster oscillin, does not appear to be involved in Ca2+ release in mammalian oocytes. Mol Reprod Develop. 1999;52(3):277–87.
80. DaleB, MarinoM, WildingM. Sperm-induced calcium oscillations. Soluble factor, factors or receptors?Mol Hum Reprod. 1999;5(1):1–4.
81. JonesKT, CruttwellC, ParringtonJet al. A mammalian sperm cytosolic phospholipase c activity generates inositol trisphosphate and causes Ca2+ release in sea urchin egg homogenates. FEBS Lett. 1998;437(3):297–300.
82. RiceA, ParringtonJ, JonesKTet al. Mammalian sperm contain a Ca(2+)-sensitive phospholipase c activity that can generate INSP(3) from PIP(2) associated with intracellular organelles. Develop Biol. 2000;228(1):125–35.
83. WuC, StojanovT, ChamiOet al. Evidence for the autocrine induction of capacitation of mammalian spermatozoa. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(29):26,962–8.
84. ParringtonJ, JonesML, TunwellRet al. Phospholipase c isoforms in mammalian spermatozoa: potential components of the sperm factor that causes Ca2+ release in eggs. Reproduction. 2002;123(1):31–9.
85. SaundersCM, LarmanMG, ParringtonJet al. PLC zeta: a sperm-specific trigger of Ca(2+) oscillations in eggs and embryo development. Development. 2002;129(15):3533–44.
86. CoxLJ, LarmanMG, SaundersCMet al. Sperm phospholipase Czeta from humans and cynomolgus monkeys triggers Ca2+ oscillations, activation and development of mouse oocytes. Reproduction. 2002;124(5):611–23.
87. PalermoGD, NeriQV, TakeuchiTet al. ICSI: where we have been and where we are going. Semin Reprod Med. 2009;27(2):191–201.
88. KashirJ, HeindryckxB, JonesCet al. Oocyte activation, phospholipase C zeta and human infertility. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16(6):690–703.
89. YanagidaK, FujikuraY, KatayoseH. The present status of artificial oocyte activation in assisted reproductive technology. Reprod Med Biol. 2008;7(3):133–42.
90. Vanden MeerschautF, NikiforakiD, De GheselleSet al. Assisted oocyte activation is not beneficial for all patients with a suspected oocyte-related activation deficiency. Hum Reprod. 2012;27(7):1977–84.
91. HeytensE, ParringtonJ, CowardKet al. Reduced amounts and abnormal forms of phospholipase C zeta (PLCzeta) in spermatozoa from infertile men. Hum Reprod. 2009;24(10):2417–28.
92. Nasr-EsfahaniMH, DeemehMR, TavalaeeM. Artificial oocyte activation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(2):520–6.
93. YoonSY, JelleretteT, SalicioniAMet al. Human sperm devoid of PLC, zeta 1 fail to induce Ca(2+) release and are unable to initiate the first step of embryo development. J Clin Invest. 2008;118(11):3671–81.
94. RogersNT, HobsonE, PickeringSet al. Phospholipase Czeta causes Ca2+ oscillations and parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Reproduction. 2004;128(6):697–702.
95. SpadaforaC. Endogenous reverse transcriptase: a mediator of cell proliferation and differentiation. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;105(2–4):346–50.
96. FieldsT, NeriQV, HuJCYet al. A qualitative assay for sperm fertilization competence. Poster viewing session, ESHRE, July, Stockholm. Hum. Reprod. 2011;26(Suppl. 1):i349–53.
97. AitkenRJ, De IuliisGN, McLachlanRI. Biological and clinical significance of DNA damage in the male germ line. Int J Androl. 2009;32(1):46–56.
98. FelicianoM, NeriQV, Kent-FirstMet al. Assays of sperm nuclear status do not correlate with ICSI success. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(Suppl. 1):i52.
99. NeriQV, EvensonD, WehbeASet al. Does DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa affect ICSI offspring development?Hum Reprod. 2004;19(Suppl. 1):i107.
100. AitkenRJ, De IuliisGN. Origins and consequences of DNA damage in male germ cells. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;14(6):727–33.
101. BungumM, HumaidanP, SpanoMet al. The predictive value of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameters for the outcome of intrauterine insemination, IVF and ICSI. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(6):1401–8.
102. ChenC, HuJCY, NeriQVet al. Kinetic characteristics and DNA integrity of human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 2011;19(Suppl. 1):i30.
103. VirroMR, Larson-CookKL, EvensonDP. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameters are related to fertilization, blastocyst development, and ongoing pregnancy in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Fert and Steril. 2004;81(5):1289–95.
104. AitkenRJ, De IuliisGN. On the possible origins of DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Mol Hum Reprod. 2010;16(1):3–13.
105. CalvinHI, BedfordJM. Formation of disulphide bonds in the nucleus and accessory structures of mammalian spermatozoa during maturation in the epididymis. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 1971;13(Suppl. 13): 65–75.
106. BrewerL, CorzettM, BalhornR. Condensation of DNA by spermatid basic nuclear proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(41):38,895–900.
107. DadouneJP. Expression of mammalian spermatozoal nucleoproteins. Microsc Res Techniq. 2003;61(1):56–75.
108. BrewerL, CorzettM, LauEYet al. Dynamics of protamine 1 binding to single DNA molecules. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(43):42,403–8.
109. CarrellDT. Epigenetics of the male gamete. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(2):267–74.
110. HudNV, AllenMJ, DowningKHet al. Identification of the elemental packing unit of DNA in mammalian sperm cells by atomic force microscopy. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 1993;193(3):1347–54.
111. WardWS. Regulating DNA supercoiling: sperm points the way. Biol Reprod. 2011;84(5):841–3.
112. VilfanID, ConwellCC, HudNV. Formation of native-like mammalian sperm cell chromatin with folded bull protamine. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(19):20,088–95.
113. EvensonD, JostL. Sperm chromatin structure assay is useful for fertility assessment. Methods Cell Sci Official J Soc In Vitro Biol. 2000;22(2–3):169–89.
114. EvensonDP, LarsonKL, JostLK. Sperm chromatin structure assay: Its clinical use for detecting sperm DNA fragmentation in male infertility and comparisons with other techniques. J Androl. 2002;23(1):25–43.
115. MorrisID, IlottS, DixonLet al. The spectrum of DNA damage in human sperm assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and its relationship to fertilization and embryo development. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(4):990–8.
116. SakkasD, ManicardiGC, BizzaroD. Sperm nuclear DNA damage in the human. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;518:73–84.
117. van der HeijdenGW, RamosL, BaartEBet al. Sperm-derived histones contribute to zygotic chromatin in humans. BMC Develop Biol. 2008;8:34.
118. ZiniA, SigmanM. Are tests of sperm DNA damage clinically useful? Pros and cons. J Androl. 2009;30(3):219–29.
119. SpanoM, BondeJP, HjollundHIet al. Sperm chromatin damage impairs human fertility. The Danish first pregnancy planner study team. Fertil Steril. 2000;73(1):43–50.
120. ZiniA, BieleckiR, PhangDet al. Correlations between two markers of sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation and DNA fragmentation, in fertile and infertile men. Fertil Steril. 2001;75(4):674–7.
121. HenkelR, MaassG, HajimohammadMet al. Urogenital inflammation: changes of leucocytes and ROS. Andrologia. 2003;35(5):309–13.
122. CarrellDT, LiuL. Altered protamine 2 expression is uncommon in donors of known fertility, but common among men with poor fertilizing capacity, and may reflect other abnormalities of spermiogenesis. J Androl. 2001;22(4):604–10.
123. MoskovtsevSI, WillisJ, MullenJB. Age-related decline in sperm deoxyribonucleic acid integrity in patients evaluated for male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2006;85(2):496–9.
124. MoskovtsevSI, WillisJ, WhiteJet al. Sperm survival: relationship to age-related sperm DNA integrity in infertile men. Archiv Androl. 2007;53(1):29–32.
125. PlastiraK, MsaouelP, AngelopoulouRet al. The effects of age on DNA fragmentation, chromatin packaging and conventional semen parameters in spermatozoa of oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007;24(10):437–43.
126. SinghNP, MullerCH, BergerRE. Effects of age on DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human sperm. Fertil Steril. 2003;80(6):1420–30.
127. TamburrinoL, MarchianiS, MontoyaMet al. Mechanisms and clinical correlates of sperm DNA damage. Asian J Androl. 2012;14(1):24–31.
128. GriffinDK, HylandP, TempestHGet al. Safety issues in assisted reproduction technology: should men undergoing ICSI be screened for chromosome abnormalities in their sperm?Hum Reprod. 2003;18(2):229–35.
129. HassoldT, HuntPA, ShermanS. Trisomy in humans: incidence, origin and etiology. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993;3(3):398–403.
130. BonduelleM, LegeinJ, BuysseAet al. Prospective follow-up study of 423 children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(7):1558–64.
131. LudwigM, KatalinicA. Malformation rate in fetuses and children conceived after ICSI: results of a prospective cohort study. Reprod Biomed Online. 2002;5(2):171–8.
132. MartinRH, GreeneC, RademakerAW. Sperm chromosome aneuploidy analysis in a man with globozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(Suppl. 3):1662–4.
133. ColomberoLT, MoomjyM, SillsESet al. The role of structural integrity of the fertilising spermatozoon in early human embryogenesis. Zygote. 1999;7(2):157–63.
134. PalermoGD, ColomberoLT, HariprashadJJet al. Chromosome analysis of epididymal and testicular sperm in azoospermic patients undergoing ICSI. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(3):570–5.
135. RubioC, SimonC, BlancoJet al. Implications of sperm chromosome abnormalities in recurrent miscarriage. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1999;16(5):253–8.
136. CarrellDT, WilcoxAL, LowyLet al. Elevated sperm chromosome aneuploidy and apoptosis in patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(6):1229–35.
137. TakeuchiT, NeriQV, ToschiMet al. The value of the sperm aneuploidy assay in men undergoing assisted reproductive technology. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(3, Suppl.):S513.
138. HuJCY, MonahanD, NeriQVet al. The role of sperm aneuploidy assay. Fertil Steril. 2011;96(3S):S24–5.
139. PalermoG, MunneS, CohenJ. The human zygote inherits its mitotic potential from the male gamete. Hum Reprod. 1994;9(7):1220–5.
140. PalermoGD, ColomberoLT, RosenwaksZ. The human sperm centrosome is responsible for normal syngamy and early embryonic development. Rev Reprod. 1997;2(1):19–27.
141. NeriQV, ScalaV, RosenwaksZet al. Assessment of the sperm centrosome. Fertil Steril. 2011;96(3, Suppl.):S235–S6.
142. BartoovB, BerkovitzA, EltesF. Selection of spermatozoa with normal nuclei to improve the pregnancy rate with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. New Engl J Med. 2001;345(14):1067–8.
143. BartoovB, BerkovitzA, EltesFet al. Real-time fine morphology of motile human sperm cells is associated with IVF-ICSI outcome. J Androl. 2002;23(1):1–8.
144. AntinoriM, LicataE, DaniGet al. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection: a prospective randomized trial. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;16(6):835–41.
145. BartoovB, BerkovitzA, EltesFet al. Pregnancy rates are higher with intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection than with conventional intracytoplasmic injection. Fertil Steril. 2003;80(6):1413–19.
146. BerkovitzA, EltesF, YaariSet al. The morphological normalcy of the sperm nucleus and pregnancy rate of intracytoplasmic injection with morphologically selected sperm. Hum Reprod. 2005;20(1):185–90.
147. HazoutA, Dumont-HassanM, JuncaAMet al. High-magnification ICSI overcomes paternal effect resistant to conventional ICSI. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006;12(1):19–25.
148. ZamboniL. The ultrastructural pathology of the spermatozoon as a cause of infertility: the role of electron microscopy in the evaluation of semen quality. Fertil Steril. 1987;48(5):711–34.
149. FawcettDW, ItoS. Observations on the cytoplasmic membranes of testicular cells, examined by phase contrast and electron microscopy. J Biophysic Biochem Cytol. 1958;4(2):135–42.
150. TanakaA, NagayoshiM, AwataSet al. Are crater defects in human sperm heads physiological changes during spermiogenesis?Fertil Steril. 2009;92(3):S165.
151. WatanabeS, TanakaA, FujiiSet al. No relationship between chromosome aberrations and vacuole-like structures on human sperm head. Hum Reprod. 2009;24(Suppl. 1):i94–6.
152. BaccettiB, BurriniAG, CollodelGet al. Crater defect in human spermatozoa. Gamete Res. 1989;22(3):249–55.
153. KacemO, SiferC, Barraud-LangeVet al. Sperm nuclear vacuoles, as assessed by motile sperm organellar morphological examination, are mostly of acrosomal origin. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;20(1):132–7.
154. PeerS, EltesF, BerkovitzAet al. Is fine morphology of the human sperm nuclei affected by in vitro incubation at 37 degrees C?Fertil Steril. 2007;88(6):1589–94.
155. PalermoGD, HuJCY, RienziLet al. Thoughts on IMSI. In RacowskyC, SchlegelPN, FauserBCet al., editors. Biennial Review of Infertility, Vol. 2. New York, NY: Springer, 2011; 277–90.
156. HuszarG, OzenciCC, CayliSet al. Hyaluronic acid binding by human sperm indicates cellular maturity, viability, and unreacted acrosomal status. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(Suppl. 3):1616–24.
157. JakabA, SakkasD, DelpianoEet al. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a novel selection method for sperm with normal frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies. Fertil Steril. 2005;84(6):1665–73.
158. YagciA, MurkW, StronkJet al. Spermatozoa bound to solid state hyaluronic acid show chromatin structure with high DNA chain integrity: an acridine orange fluorescence study. J Androl. 2010;31(6):566–72.
159. HuJCY. The role of HA selection on spermatozoon competence. Hum Reprod. 2012;27(Suppl. 2):73.
160. World Health Organization. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen. 5th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
161. SchlegelPN, GirardiSK. Clinical review 87: in vitro fertilization for male factor infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(3):709–16.
162. PalermoGD, SchlegelPN, SillsESet al. Births after intracytoplasmic injection of sperm obtained by testicular extraction from men with nonmosaic Klinefelter’s syndrome. New Engl J Med. 1998;338(9):588–90.
163. MonahanD, NeriQV, SchlegelPet al. The time spent in searching for testicular spermatozoa influences ICSI outcome. Hum Reprod. 2011;26(Suppl. 1):i73–5.