Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: November 2015

11 - Replacing the past: restoration and re-enactment

from Part IV - Remaking the past

Summary

‘These old offices of ours, such as the Badgeries, are much more important as rituals than they were as realities. Like old churches, they are nostalgic, photogenic, and give a sense of security. Centuries ago, the Co-Wardens held every badger in the land, and they still do, technically, but with no badgers involved any more.’

‘Is there no immediate badger whatever? An occasional glimpse of one would serve as a foundation, though I admit that invisibility is a higher and more splendid challenge.’

‘There is a token badger maintained by the Yeomen of Hertford Forest. It is a stuffed one, of course.’

‘I suppose they let us take it on ceremonial occasions.’

‘Not the actual, token badger, except on the death of the Lord Royal. Normally, you get a clip of artificial fur set in an osier staff. This is an emblem of the token. A symbolic dog-rose [is] presented to you annually by the Knights of Egham.’

‘In short, what is not symbolic is emblematic?’

‘Except when it is token. Then, it is stuffed.’

‘Which of these – token, symbolical, or emblematical – applies to our annual ritual of Easing the Badger?’

‘All three. The stuffed, or token, boar-badger is inserted into a symbolic den and then eased out with your symbolical gold spade. In this way, there is no need actually to disturb any living badger.’ Vinson represented the spirit of English history and institutions. Carrying his token spade, he stood for everything whose demise was beyond dispute.

Nigel Dennis, 1955

What if the past’s demise is indisputable? What if its forms and features are no more? Is there any way to bring them back? Can pasts that survive only in memory and memoir somehow be retrieved? History is full of efforts to recover bygone things and thoughts. Attempts to replace what has been lost are legion. Two types of retrieval are paramount. One is to restore what was once there; the other is to travel back to how things used to be.

Yearning for departed ancestors and bygone things takes two main routes, restoration and re-enactment. Both aim, as faithfully as possible, to reconstitute what has been recalled and recorded. Although the actual past remains unreachable, such simulacra may become laudable substitutes. Indeed, as the offspring of our own efforts, they may even feel superior to the original past they ostensibly replicate.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Past Is a Foreign Country – Revisited
  • Online ISBN: 9781139024884
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139024884
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Dennis, Nigel, Cards of Identity (1955; Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1974), 125–7, 134
Morris, William, The Earthly Paradise (London, 1868), 216, 124
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Great Gatsby (1925; Scribners, 1953), 89
Nemesius, Bishop of Emesa, On the Nature of Man (late fourth century; Liverpool, 2008), 193
Wells, H. G., The Dream (Collins, 1929), 236
Duff, R. A., ‘Restorative punishment and punitive restoration’, in Walgrave, Lode, ed., Restorative Justice and the Law (Cullompton: Willan, 2002), 82–100
Weiner, Brian A., Sins of the Parents: The Politics of National Apologies in the United States (Temple, 2005), 116
Maier, Charles S., ‘Overcoming the past? Narrative and negotiation, remembering and reparation’, in Torpey, John, ed., Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003), 295–304
‘Restoration’, in Daniels, Stephen et al., eds., Envisioning Landscapes: Making Worlds: Geography and the Humanities (Routledge, 2011), 209–26
Dekkers, Midas, The Way of All Flesh (1997; London: Harvill, 2000), 94
Piaget, Jean, The Child’s Conception of the World (1929; Routledge, 1998), 361–7
Slaughter, Virginia et al., ‘Constructing a coherent theory: children’s biological understanding of life and death’, in Siegal, Michael and Peterson, Candida, eds., Children’s Understanding of Biology and Health (Cambridge, 1999), 71–96
Hamber, Brandon, ‘Narrowing the micro and the macro: a psychological perspective on reparations’, in de Greiff, Pablo, ed., The Handbook of Reparations (Oxford, 2006), 560–88 at 562–3
Rafman, Sandra, ‘Restoration of a moral universe: children’s perspectives on forgiveness and justice’, in Malcolm, Wanda et al., eds., Women’s Reflections on the Complexities of Forgiveness (Routledge, 2007), 215–34
Allen, Elizabeth Akers, Rock Me to Sleep, Mother, ll. 1–2 (1859; Boston, 1883)
Polybius, , The Histories (after 146 bc; London, 1889), bk. VI
Burnet, Thomas, The Sacred Theory of the Earth (1684–90; Southern Illinois, 1965), 53, 64
James, Hutton, Theory of the Earth (Edinburgh, 1795)
Gould, Stephen Jay, Time’s Arrow, Time’s Cycle (Harvard, 1987), 77–9, 129
Charles, Lyell, Principles of Geology (1830; London, 1840), 1: 193
Rudwick, Martin J. S., Bursting the Limits of Time (Chicago, 2005), 188–93, 642–51
Darwin, Charles, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859; Oxford, 1998), 395
The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882 (Norton, 1958), 92
Kelvin, Lord, ‘On a universal tendency in nature to the dissipation of mechanical energy’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 18 Apr. 1852
Beer, Gillian, ‘“The death of the sun”’, in Bullen, J. B., ed., The Sun Is God (Clarendon Press, 1989), 159–80
Davies, Paul T., The Last Three Minutes: Conjectures about the Ultimate Fate of the Universe (Basic Books, 1994), 9–13
Eliade, Mircea, The Myth of the Eternal return (1949; Princeton, 1994)
Burke, Edmund, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790; Yale, 2003), 170, 181–5
Cubitt, Geoffrey, ‘The political uses of seventeenth-century English history in Bourbon Restoration France’, Historical Journal 50:1 (2007): 73–95
Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène, ‘Restauration’, in Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle (Paris, 1866), 8: 14–34 at 14
Hearn, M. F., ed., The Architectural Theory of Viollet-le-Duc (MIT Press, 1990), 269–86
Palgrave, R. H. Inglis, ‘Biographical memoir of Sir Francis Palgrave, KH’, in Palgrave, Francis, Collected Historical Works (Cambridge, 1922), 1: xi–lvi at xlv
Palgrave, Francis, The History of Normandy and England (London, 1851–64), 1: xxix
Vaccaro, Alessandra Melluco, ‘Restoration and anti-restoration’, in Price, Nicholas Stanley et al., eds., Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage (Getty, 1996), 308–13
Tschudi-Madsen, Stephan, Restoration and Anti-Restoration, 2nd edn (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1976)
Harvey, Charles and Jon Press, William Morris (Manchester, 1991), 118
Ruskin, John, The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849; New York: Noonday, 1961), 178, 183
Hoeniger, Cathleen Sara, ‘Aesthetic unity or conservation honesty? Four generations of wall-painting restorers in Italy and the changing approaches to loss, 1850–1970’, in Oddy, Andrew and Smith, Sandra, eds., Past Practice – Future Prospects (British Museum Occasional Paper 145, 2001), 115–22
Bushnell, Rebecca W., ‘Gardens, memory, and history: the Shakespeare and modern Elizabethan garden’, Change over Time 3:1 (Spring 2013): 64–81 at 78
Yourcenar, Marguerite, That Mighty Sculptor, Time (Macmillan, 1993), 57–62 at 60
Bennett, Alan, The History Boys (Faber & Faber, 2006), 62–3
Pietrangeli, Carlo et al., The Sistine Chapel: A Glorious Restoration (Abrams, 1999)
Beck, James with Daley, Michael, Art Restoration (Norton, 1996), 88–100
Eggert, Paul, Securing the Past: Conservation in Art, Architecture and Literature (Cambridge, 2009), 90–3
Graham-Dixon, Andrew, Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2008)
Daley, Michael, ‘Michelangelo’s watery grave’, ArtWatch UK 27 (Spring 2011): 21–3
Hope, Charles, ‘The National Gallery cleaning controversy’, ArtWatch UK 28 (Winter 2012): 15
Kemp, Martin, ‘Looking at Leonardo’s Last Supper’, in Booth, Peter et al., eds., Appearance, Opinion, Change: Evaluating the Look of Paintings (London: UK Institute for Conservation, 1990), 14–21 at 18
Bell, Julian, ‘Cosmic dreams’, TLS, 25 Nov. 2011: 5
Barkan, Leonard, Unearthing the Past (Yale, 1999), 187
Podany, Jerry, ‘Restoring what wasn’t there’, in Oddy, Andrew, ed., Restoration (British Museum Occasional Paper 99, 1994), 9–16
Taruskin, Richard, ‘The pastness of the present and the presence of the past’, in Kenyon, Nicholas, ed., Authenticity and Early Music (Oxford, 1988), 137–207
Butt, John, Playing with History: The Historical Approach to Musical Performance (Cambridge, 2003), 43
Godlovitch, Stan, ‘Performance authenticity’, in Kemal, Salim and Gaskell, Ivan, eds., Performance and Authenticity in the Arts (Cambridge, 1999), 154–74
‘From harmony of the spheres to national anthem’, GeoJournal 65 (2006): 3–15 at 8–9
Merchant, Carolyn, Reinventing Eden (Routledge, 2003), 5–10, 86–7, 137–43
Fox, Jr. John, The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (New York, 1908), 201–2
Westcott, Brooke Foss, The Gospel of Life (Macmillan, 1892), 243
White, Jr Lynn., ‘The historical roots of our ecologic crisis’, Science 155 (1967): 1203–7
Moo, Douglas J., ‘Nature in the new creation: New Testament eschatology and the environment’, Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 49 (2006): 449–88
Choi, Young D., ‘Restoration ecology to the future’, Restoration Ecology 15 (2007): 351–3
Schaefer, Valentin, ‘Science, stewardship, and spirituality: the human body as a model for ecological restoration’, Restoration Ecology 14:1 (2006): 1–3
Elliot, Robert, Faking Nature (1982; Routledge, 1997), vii
Hall, Marcus, Earth Repair (Virginia, 2005), 1–2, 13–15
Losin, Peter, ‘Faking nature’, and ‘Sistine Chapel debate’, Restoration & Management Notes 4 (1986): 55, and 6 (1988): 6.
‘Natural and cultural heritage’, in Olwig, Kenneth R. and Lowenthal, David, eds., The Nature of Cultural Heritage and the Culture of Natural Heritage (Routledge, 2006), 79–90
Benford, Gregory, Deep Time: How Humanity Communicates across Millennia (Harper, 2000), 171–3
Denevan, William M., ‘The “Pristine Myth” revisited’, Geographical Review 101 (2011): 576–91
Katz, Eric, ‘The big lie: human restoration of nature’, Research in Philosophy and Technology 12 (1992): 231–41 at 235
Klinkenborg, Verlyn, ‘Restoring a Montana spring creek’, IHT, 10–11 July 2010: 7
von Droste, Bernd et al., eds., Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value (Jena: Gustav Fischer/UNESCO, 1995
Katz, Eric, ‘Further adventures in the case against restoration’, Environmental Ethics 34 (2012): 67–97
Dizard, Jan E., Going Wild, rev. edn (Massachusetts, 1999)
‘Environment as heritage’, in Flint, Kate and Morphy, Howard, eds., Culture, Landscape, and the Environment (Oxford, 2000), 198–217
Wheaton, Joseph M. et al., ‘Does scientific conjecture accurately describe restoration practice? Insight from an international river restoration survey’, Area 38 (2006): 128–42
Cairns, Jr. John, ‘The status of the theoretical and applied science of restoration ecology’, The Environmental Professional 13 (1991): 186–94 at 187
Bradshaw, Anthony D., ‘Alternative endpoints for reclamation’, in Cairns, Jr. John, ed., Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1988), 2: 69–85
Higgs, Eric, ‘Restoration goes wild’, Restoration Ecology 14 (2006): 500–3 at 502
Tredici, Peter Del, ‘Neocreationism and the illusion of ecological restoration’, Harvard Design Magazine, no. 20 (2004): 87–9
Jordan, III William R., ‘Restoration, community, and wilderness’, in Gobster, Paul H. and Hull, R. Bruce, eds., Restoring Nature (Island Press, 2000), 21–36 at 27
Davis, Mark A., ‘“Restoration” – a misnomer?Science 287 (2000): 1203 (letter)
Janzen, Daniel, ‘Gardenification of wildland nature and the human footprint’, Science 279 (1998): 1312–13
Friedländer, Max J., On Art and Connoisseurship (1942; Boston, 1960), 267
Coolman, Boyd Taylor, The Theology of Hugh of St Victor (Cambridge, 2010), 12–15, 99, 132, 144, 172, 205, 218
Rorem, Paul, Hugh of Saint Victor (Oxford, 2009), 27, 31, 66
Auster, Paul, City of Glass (Los Angeles: Sun & Moon, 1985), 119, 128
Niebuhr, Barthold Georg, The History of Rome (1811–12; Cambridge, 1831), 1: 5
Misenheimer, Barry, ‘The stage of war’, New Yorker, 7 Feb 2011: 7
Durkheim, Emile, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912; Free Press, 1995), 416–17
Fortes, Meyer, ‘Rituals and office in tribal society’, in Gluckman, Max, ed., Essays on the Ritual of Social Relations (Manchester, 1962), 53–88
Assmann, Jan, Cultural Memory and Early Civilization (Cambridge, 2011), 3–4, 70–4, 81–6
Costa, Janeen A. and Bamossy, Gary J., ‘Retrospecting retroscapes’, in Brown, Stephen and Sherry, John F., eds., Time, Space, and the Market (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2003), 253–70 at 260–1
Smith, Helmut Walser, ‘Anti-Semitic violence as reenactment’, Rethinking History 11:3 (2007): 335–51
Muraca, Giovanni Orlando, ‘Scourging rituals in southern Italy’, in Mifsud-Chircop, George, ed., SIEF Working Group on the Ritual Year …: Proceedings (San Gwann, Malta: PEG, 2006), 420–5
Deri, Roberto, ‘The largest self-punishment rite in the Western world’, DEMOTIX.com/news/419737 (22 Aug. 2010)
Marks, Kathy, ‘Dozens ignore warnings to re-enact crucifixion’, Independent on Sunday, 22 Mar. 2008
Dacaney, Barbara Mae, ‘Crucifixion ritual suffers as nobody is willing to play the part of Judas’, Gulfnews.com (13 Apr. 2008)
Chamberlin, E. R., Preserving the Past (Dent, 1979), 18–24
Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh, ‘The legacy of ancient Persia’, in Curtis, John F. and Tallis, Nigel, eds., Forgotten Empire (California, 2006), 250–64 at 257
Hjemdahl, K. M., ‘History as a cultural playground’, Ethnologia Europaea 32:2 (2002): 105–24 at 107
Sterne, Laurence, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy (1759; Penguin, 2003), 184–90, 510–11
During, Simon, ‘Mimic toil’, Rethinking History 11:3 (2007): 320–6
Brannigan, John, ‘Pat Barker’s Regeneration trilogy’, in Lane, Richard J. et al., eds., Contemporary British Fiction (Polity, 2003), 13–26 at 21–3
Van der Kolk, Bessel A., ‘The compulsion to repeat the trauma’, Psychiatric Clinics of North America 12 (1989): 389–411
Scaer, Robert C., Body Bears the Burden (Haworth Medical, 2007), 129–40
Mellencamp, Patricia, High Anxiety (Indiana, 1992), 99–103
Sturken, Marita, Tangled Memories (California, 1997), 29–31
Allen, James, ‘Living the past in Illinois’, Historic Illinois 1:4 (1978): 3
Middlesworth, Vicky, ‘History and hardtack: a museum workshop program for Kentucky teachers’, Journal of American Culture 12:2 (Summer 1989): 87–91
Hjemdahl, Kristi Mathiesen, ‘History as a cultural playground’, Ethnologia Europaea 32:2 (2002): 105–24 at 107–10
Holtorf, Cornelius, ‘The time travellers’ tools of the trade: some trends at Lejre’, International Journal of Heritage Studies 19:5 (2013): 1–16 at 10
Delap, Lucy, Knowing Their Place: Domestic Service in Twentieth-Century Britain (Oxford, 2011), 224, 229
Stanton, Cathy, Reenactors in the Parks (Boston: NPS, 1999), 22
Weinberg, Carl, ‘The discomfort zone: reenacting slavery at Conner Prairie’, Magazine of History 23:2 (Apr. 2009): 62–4
Snow, Steven Eddy, Performing the Pilgrims: … Plimoth Plantation (Mississippi, 1993), 156
Magelssen, Scott, ‘Recreation and re-creation … at Plimoth Plantation’, Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism 17 (2002): 107–26
Anderson, Jay, Time Machines (AASLH, 1984), 43–52
Magelssen, Scott, Living History Museums (Scarecrow Press, 2007), 138–54
Carson, Cary, ‘The end of history museums?’ Public Historian 30:4 (2008): 9–27 at 18
Cook, Alexander, ‘The use and abuse of historical reenactment’, Rethinking History (2007): 487–96 at 487–8
Reynolds, Peter J.Iron-Age Farm: The Butser Experiment (British Museum, 1979)
‘The nature of experiment in archaeology’, in Harding, A. F., ed., Experiment and Design in Archaeology (Oxbow, 1999), 156–62
Cubero i Corpas, Carmen et al., ‘From the granary to the field: archaeobotany and experimental archaeology at l’Esquerda (Catalonia, Spain)’, Vegetation History & Archaeobotany 17:1 (2008): 85–92
Millson, Dana C. E., ed., Experimentation and Interpretation (Oxford: Oxbow, 2010)
Saraydar, Stephen C., Replicating the Past (Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2008).
Dening, Greg, Beach Crossings (PennPress, 2004), 176–83
Dening, Greg, ‘Voyaging the past, present and future: historical reenactments on HM Bark Endeavour and the voyaging canoe Hokule’a in the sea of islands’, in Nussbaum, Felicity A., ed., The Global Eighteenth Century (Johns Hopkins, 2005), 309–24
Schumach, Murray, ‘Queens gets battle of ’76 at last’, NYT, 28 May 1976: C1–2
‘The bicentennial landscape’, Geographical Review 67 (1977): 253–67
Elder, Betty Doak, ‘War games: recruits and their critics draw battle lines over authenticity’, History News 36:8 (1981): 8–12
Clark, Tim, ‘When the paraders meet the button-counters at Penobscot Bay’, Yankee (July 1980): 44–9, 129–43 at 49, 134–5
Rettie, Dwight F., Our National Park System (Illinois, 1996), 47
Stanton, Cathy, ‘Battle road 2000’, Journal of American History 8 (2000): 992–5
Duke of Bedford, ‘Historic homes’, Times, 9 Sept. 1976: 15
US NPS, Tatton Park Interpretive Study (Countryside Commission [UK] 1975), 31–4
Pile, Dolly, ‘Interpreting Old Hall, Tatton Park’, Interpretation, no. 17 (1981): 3–5
Bayley, Stephen, ‘Stop this Disneyfication of the National Trust’, Times, 18 Oct. 2010: 20
Bennett, Alan, People (Faber & Faber, 2012), ix–xi.
Schlehe, Judith et al., eds., Staging the Past (Bielefeld: Transcript, 2010)
Gapps, Stephen, ‘Blacking up for the explorers of 1951’, in Agnew, Vanessa and Lamb, Jonathan, eds., Settler and Creole Re-Enactment (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 208–20
‘Tombs or time-machines? Antipodean and other museums’, in McMichael, Donald F., ed., Australian Museums (Canberra, 1991), 9–21
Grunska, Kip M., From Fard to Pard: A Story of Civil War Reenactment (Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2003)
Strauss, M. D., ‘Pattern categorization of male U.S. Civil War reenactment images’, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 20 (2002): 99–109.
Horwitz, Tony, Confederates in the Attic (Pantheon, 1998), 387–8
Strauss, M. D., ‘A framework for assessing military dress authenticity in Civil War reenacting’, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 19:4 (2001)
Thompson, Jenny, War Games: Inside the World of 20th-Century War Reenactors (Smithsonian, 2004)
Begone, Jonah, “Seven annoying reenacting types’, and ‘Who was the founding father of farb?’ Camp Chase Gazette 20:10 (Sept. 1993), and 26:10 (Sept. 1999).
Barth, Jack, ‘The red badge of make-believe courage’, Outside (Mar. 1996), 88–92.
Allred, Randal, ‘Catharsis, revision, and re-enactment: negotiating the meaning of the American Civil War’, Journal of American Culture 19:4 (1996): 1–13 at 6
Begone, Jonah, ‘Do something new!’ Camp Chase Gazette (Oct. 1995).
Farmer, James Oscar, ‘Playing rebels: reenactment as nostalgia and defense of the Confederacy in the Battle of Aiken’, Southern Cultures 11:1 (2005): 46–73 at 50
Holschuh, Bill in Camp Chase Gazette 28:4 (2001): 71
Strauss, M. D., ‘Identity construction among Confederate Civil War reenactors’, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 21:4 (2003): 149–61
Begone, Jonah, ‘10 bad reasons to reenact’, Camp Chase Gazette 18:8 (July 1991)
Iott, Rich quoted in ‘Candidate rejects criticism of Nazi uniform’, Washington Post, 12 Oct. 2010
Kingsepp, Eva, ‘Hitler as our devil? Nazi Germany in mainstream media’, in Buttsworth, Sara and Abbenhuis, Maartje., eds., Making Monsters (Praeger, 2010), 29–52 at 45–7
Begone, Jonah, ‘Differences between Civil War & Revolutionary War reenacting’, Camp Chase Gazette 17:9 (Aug. 1990).
Goodman, Mark, ‘Re-enactment: is it still a hobby?’ in Echoes of the Past ([BBC], 2000
Decker, Stephanie K., ‘Being period: an examination of bridging discourse in a historical reenactment group’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 39:3 (2010): 273–96 at 289–90
Friedman, David D. and Cook, Elizabeth, Cariadoc’s Miscellany (San Jose, CA, 2000)
Magelssen, Scott, ‘Performance practices of [living] open-air museums (and a new look at “Skansen” in American living museum context)’, Theatre History Studies 24 (June 2004): 125–49 at 146
Pierce, Clifford, Life and Times of a Civil War Reenactor (Palm Coast, FL: Backintyme, 2008), i, 4
Young, Elizabeth, Disarming the Nation: Women’s Writing and the American Civil War (Chicago, 1999), 287–8).
de Groot, Jerome, Consuming History (Routledge, 2009), 179
Begone, Jonah, ‘Reenacting: a hobby for every generation’, Camp Chase Gazette 24:2 (Nov.–Dec. 1996)
Turner, Rory, ‘Bloodless battles: the Civil War reenacted’, Drama Review 34:4 (1990): 123–36 at 126
Hall, Dennis, ‘Civil War reenactors and the postmodern sense of history’, Journal of American Culture 17:3 (1994): 7–11 at 11
Agnew, Vanessa, ‘Introduction: what is reenactment?’ Criticism 46:3 (2004): 327–40 at 330
Arrow, Michelle, ‘“That history should not ever have been how it was”: The Colony, Outback House, and Australian history’, Film & History 37:1 (2007): 54–66 at 59
Coupland, Douglas, Generation A (London: Windmill, 2010), 269
Knox, T. A. J., ‘Et in Arcadio ego’, in Baer, N. S. and Snickars, F., eds., Rational Decision-Making in the Preservation of Cultural Property (Berlin: Dahlem, 2001), 83–99 at 96
Craig, Tracey Linton, ‘Retreat into history’, History News, 38:6 (1983): 10–19 at 15
Belk, R. W. and Costa, J. A., ‘The Mountain Man myth’, Journal of Consumer Research 25 (1998): 218–40 at 222, 232
van der Dussen, W. J., History as Science: The Philosophy of R. G. Collingwood (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1981), 321
Collingwood, R. G., ‘History as re-enactment of past experience’, in The Idea of History (Oxford, 1946), 282–302
Finberg, H. P. R., The Local Historian and His Theme (Leicester, 1952), 9.
Erlanger, Steve, ‘A labor of love, ye olde way’, IHT, 2 Aug. 2010: 2
Magelssen, Scott, ‘“This is a drama. You are characters”: the tourist as fugitive slave in Conner Prairie’s “Follow the North Star”’, Theatre Topics 16:1 (Mar. 2006): 19–36 at 19–22
Thompson, Jenny, ‘Playing wars whose wounds are fresh’, NYT, 5 June 2004: 1, 17
Agnew, Vanessa, ‘Introduction: What is reenactment?’, Criticism, special issue, Extreme and Sentimental History, 46:3 (2004): 327–40 at 331–2
Blackson, Robert, ‘Once more … with feeling: reenactment in contemporary art and culture’, Art Journal 66:1 (Spring 2007): 28–40
Dickinson, Rod cited in Sean O’Hagan, ‘It’s simply shocking’, Observer, 10 Feb. 2002
Blass, Thomas, The Man Who Shocked the World: The Life and Legacy of Stanley Milgram (Basic Books, 2004)
Rushton, Steve, ed., The Milgram Re-Enactment (Berlin: Kellerrevolver, 2004)
Adam Kargman film Atrocity (2006)
Sherwin, Adam, ‘Film pirates sunk by the real thing’, Times, 25 Nov. 2005: 21
Kuznick, Peter J., ‘Defending the indefensible: a meditation on the life of Hiroshima pilot Paul Tibbets, Jr.’, Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, 22 Jan. 2008
Turner, Rory, ‘Bloodless battles’, Drama Review 34:4 (1990): 130
Coombs, Annie E., History after Apartheid: Visual Culture and Public Memory in a Democratic South Africa (Duke, 2003), 73.
Idov, Michael, ‘The movie set that ate itself’, GQ Magazine, Nov. 2011: 190–3.
Stueber, Karsten R., ‘The psychological basis of historical explanation: reenactment, simulation, and the fusion of horizons’, History and Theory 41:1 (2002): 25–42 at 41.
Brown, Rita Mae, ‘Fighting the Civil War anew’, NYT, 12 June 1988
Westall, Robert, The Devil on the Road (Macmillan, 1978), 7
McCalman, Iain, ‘Little ship of horrors’, Criticism 46:3 (2004): 477–86 at 479–80
Percival, John, Living in the Past (BBC, 1980), 16, 25–6, 37, 111–27
Firstbrook, Peter L., Surviving the Iron Age (BBC, 2001)
King, Katie, Networked Reenactments (Duke, 2011), 147–51
Schlenker, Rolf and Bick, Almut, Steinzeit: Leben wie vor 5000 Jahren (Stuttgart: Theiss, 2007)
Schöbel, Gunter, ‘Steinzeit – das Experiment, das hat noch gefehlt – Steinzeit als Doku-Soap?Plattform 15/16 (2008): 4–44).
Gau, Colleen, ‘Physiologic effects of wearing corsets: studies with reenactors’, Dress: Costume Society of America 26 (1999): 63–70 at 67
Barry, Dave, ‘Why I like old things’, Historic Preservation 35:1 (1983): 50.
Frolick, Billy, ‘1992 House’, New Yorker, 17 Jan 2005: 49
Miller, Wiley, ‘Non sequitur’, IHT, 15 Jan. 2011
Margolies, Jane, ‘Plymouth, Mass.: live as a Pilgrim’, NYT, 12 July 2010
Begone, Jonah, ‘Time’s arrow’, Camp Chase Gazette 28:4 (Mar. 2001).
Hendershott, Jeff, ‘Annoying reenacting types (Part II)’, Camp Chase Gazette, c. 2006
Taddeo, Julie Anne and Dvorak, Ken, ‘The PBS Historical House series: where historical reality succumbs to reel reality’, Film & History 37:1 (2007): 18–28 at 18, 20, 25
Kershaw, Baz, The Radical in Performance (Routledge, 1999), 140–43
Gapps, Stephen, ‘Adventures in The Colony’, Film & History 37:1 (2007): 67–72
Gapps, Stephen, ‘Mobile monuments’, Rethinking History 11:3 (2007): 395–407 at 407
Handler, Richard and Saxton, William, ‘Dyssimulation: reflexivity, narrative, and the quest for authenticity in “living history”’, Cultural Anthropology 3 (1988): 242–60
Handler, Richard, ‘Overpowered by realism: living history and the simulation of the past’, Journal of American Folklore 100:397 (1987): 337–41 at 340
McCalman, Iain and Pickering, Paul A., ‘From realism to the affective turn’, in their, eds., Historical Reenactment (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 1–17 at 11
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel, ‘Democracy and modernity’, London Review of Books, 3–17 Feb. 1983: 10
Horsnell, Michael and Chong, Liz, ‘Blade fells martial arts warrior in Wars of the Roses’, Times, 28 June 2005: 2
Shaikn, Thair, ‘Battle cry to save history from ban on replica guns’, Times, 9 May 2005: 16.
Forester, Tom, ‘Weekend warriors’, New Society, 10 Sept. 1981: 418.
Sherwin, Adam, ‘Film pirates sunk by the real thing’, Times, 25 Nov. 2005: 21.
Popkin, Jeremy D., History, Historians, and Autobiography (Chicago, 2005), 170.
Lively, Penelope, Judgement Day (Heinemann, 1980), 138
von Tunzelmann, Alex, ‘Reel history special: Ridley Scott’s Robin Hood: wide of the mark?’ Guardian, 23 Sept. 2010
Schwarz, Anja, ‘“Not this year!”: Reenacting contested pasts aboard The Ship’, Rethinking History 46 (2004): 427–46
Bowen, Ashley E., ‘“Old Times There Are Not Forgotten”: Civil War Re-enactors and the Creation of Heritage’ (MA thesis, Georgetown University, 2009), 127
Dillon, Sam, ‘All of a war’s trappings, with accuracy at stake’, NYT, 10 Apr. 2011: 24
Shenker, Israel, ‘U.S. bicentennial cures history’s warts’, IHT, 5–6 July 1975: 5
Malvern, Jack, ‘One of these days we’re going to win, say the French as weekend warriors replay Waterloo’, Times, 21 June 2010: 19
Page, Adam, ‘Crafty French back their man to win at Waterloo, part deux’, Times, 28 Jan. 2015: 3
Rejack, Brian, ‘Toward a virtual reenactment of history: video games and the recreation of the past’, Rethinking History 11:3 (2007): 411–25.
Vance, Tom, ‘History lives at Lincoln’s log cabin’, Historic Illinois 1:4 (1978): 10.
Fortier, John, ‘Louisbourg: managing a moment in time’, in Rider, Peter E., ed., The History of Atlantic Canada: Museum Interpretations (Ottawa, 1981), 91–123
Proudfoot, Dan, ‘How Louisbourg restored looks today’, Canadian Geographical Journal 93:1 (1976): 28–33
Fawkes, Charley quoted in ‘Fortress of Louisbourg awaits Wolfe’s redcoats one more time’, Canwest News Service, 21 June 2008
Carson, Cary, ‘Colonial Williamsburg and the practice of interpretive planning in American history museums’, Public Historian 20 (1998): 11–51 at 51
Luke, Timothy W., Museum Pieces (Minnesota, 2002), 16, 36.
Kirschenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara, Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage (California, 1998), 199.
Phillips, Noelle, ‘Simulation teaches Holocaust lesson’, The State: South Carolina’s Homepage (21 Jan. 2011).
Dening, Greg, Mr Bligh’s Bad Language (Cambridge, 1992), 4
Courtney, Kent, Returning to the Civil War (Salt Lake City: Peregrine, 1997), 40–1
Lipsitz, George, Time Passages (Minnesota, 1990), 233–56
Dunning, Tom, ‘Civil War re-enactments’, Australasian Journal of American Studies 21 (2002): 63–72 at 68–71.
Lowenthal, David, The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History (Cambridge, 1998), 101
Brown, David, ‘Ye olde English village with very modern cost of living’, Times, 22 Oct. 2011: 16–17
Urry, John, The Tourist Gaze (Sage, 1990; 2nd edn 2002), 131.
von Habsburg, Francesca et al., ‘Debate: Preservation, contemporary art, and architecture’, Future Anterior 4:2 (Winter 2007): 70–85 at 78
Macfarquhar, Neil, ‘Frozen in time, and resenting it’, IHT, 10 Jan. 2011: 2
Joy, Charlotte L., The Politics of Heritage Management in Mali: From UNESCO to Djenné (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2013)
Collins, John, ‘“But what if I should need to defecate in your neighborhood, Madame?”: Empire, redemption, and the “Tradition of the Oppressed” in a Brazilian World Heritage Site’, Cultural Anthropology 23 (2008): 279–328
Haddix, Margaret Peterson, Running Out of Time (Simon & Schuster, 1995).
Keeley, Graham, ‘Village will vote on staying Smurf’, Times, 15 Dec. 2011: 38
Crichton, Michael, Timeline (Knopf, 1999), 436
Bruner, Edward M., ‘Abraham Lincoln as authentic reproduction’, American Anthropologist 96:2 (1994): 397–415 at 400–1
Gable, Eric and Handler, Richard, ‘After authenticity at an American heritage site’, American Anthropologist 98:3 (1996): 568–78 at 572–4.
Gable, Eric and Handler, Richard, ‘Deep dirt: messing up the past at Colonial Williamsburg’, Social Analysis 34 (1993): 3–16 at 8
Handler, Richard and Gable, Eric, New History in an Old Museum: Creating the Past at Colonial Williamsburg (Duke, 1997), 6–7, 35, 45–6
Trouillot, Michel-Rolph, Silencing the Past (Beacon, 1997), 148