Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: February 2020

12 - The Dark and Light Sides of Big Data

from II - Media Explosion, Knowledge as Power, and Demographic Reversals

Summary

The growth of Big Data has become central to the politics of contemporary societies and stimulated new research in political sociology. Citizens and states increasingly depend on the Internet, cell phones, social media, and other new information communication technologies (or ICTs) to communicate about politics and to mobilize, control, monitor, and influence politics (Castells 2009, 2012; Castells and Cardoso 2015). One of the most important consequences has been the “Twitter revolution” of using websites, blogs, social media, and cell phones to mobilize and coordinate political action. ICTs have lowered communication costs, provided platforms for forming new political identities and identifying grievances, devising strategies, organizing protests and collective action, creating citizen access to information (including internet hacks), carrying out administrative planning, and providing new platforms for democratic discussion and governance (the “light side”).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Alvarez, R. Michael. 2016. Computational Social Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Amenta, Edwin, Caren, Neal, Chiarello, Elizabeth, and Yang, Su. 2010. “The Political Consequences of Social Movements.Annual Review of Sociology 36: 287307.
Anderson, Chris. 2008. “The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete.” Wired, June 23.
Anduiza, Eva, Cantijoch, Marta, and Gallego, Aina. 2009. “Political Participation and the Internet.Information, Communication & Society 12(6): 860878.
Bail, Christopher. 2014. “The Cultural Environment: Measuring Culture with Big Data.Theoretical Sociology 43(3–4): 465482.
Barbera, Pablo. 2015. “Birds of a Feather Tweet Together: Bayesian Ideal Point Estimation Using Twitter Data.Political Analysis 23: 7691.
Barbera, Pablo, Wang, Ning, Richard Bonneau, John T. Jost, Jonathan Nalger, Tucker, Joshua and Gonzalez-Bailon., Sandra 2015. “The Critical Periphery in the Growth of Social Protests.PLOS ONE 10(11): 115.
Beieler, John, Brandt, Patrick T., Andrew Halterman, Phillip A. Schrodt, and Simpson, Erin M.. 2016. “Generating Event Data in Near Real Time: Opportunities and Challenges” pp. 98121 in Michael Alvarez, R. (ed.) Computational Social Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Benkler, Yochai, Roberts, Hal, Faris, Robert, Solow-Niederman, Alicia, and Etling, Bruce. 2015. “Social Mobilization and the Networked Public Sphere: Mapping the SOPA-PIPA Debate.Political Communications 32(4): 594624.
Bennett, W. Lance and Segerberg, Alexandra. 2013. The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bennett, W. Lance and Segerberg, Alexandra. 2015. “Three Patterns of Power in Technology-Enabled Contention.Mobilization 19(4): 421439.
Berger, J. M. 2013. “#Unfollow: The Case for Kicking Terrorists Off Twitter.” Foreign Policy February 20. Retrieved July 5, 2018. https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/02/20/unfollow/
Berger, J. M.. 2014. “How ISIS Games Twitter.” Atlantic, June 16. Retrieved July 5, 2018. https://bit.ly/1n55aDd
Berger, J. M. and Morgan, Jonathon. 2015. The ISIS Twitter Census: Defining and Describing the Population of ISIS Supporters on Twitter. Washington, D.C.: Brookings.
Best, Rebecca H., Carpino, Christine, and Mark, J. C. Crescenzi. 2013. “An Analysis of the TABARI Coding System.Conflict Management and Peace Science 30(4): 335348.
Bimber, Bruce. 2014. “Digital Media in the Obama Campaigns of 2008 and 2012: Adaptation to the Personalized Political Communication Environment.Journal of Information Technology & Politics 11(2): 130150.
Bond, Doug, Bond, Joseph, Churl Oh, J. Jenkins, Craig, and Taylor, Charles Lewis. 2003. “Integrated Data for Events Analysis (IDEA): An Event Typology for Automated Event Data Development.Journal of Peace Research 40: 733745.
Bond, Robert M., Fariss, Christopher J., Jones, Jason J., et al. 2012. “A 61-Million Person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization.” Nature 489: 295298. DOI:10.1038/nature11421
Boulainne, Shelley 2009. “Does Internet Use Affect Engagement? A Meta-analysis of Research.Political Communication 26(2): 193211.
Boulainne, Shelley. 2015. “Social Media Use and Participation: A Meta-Analysis of Current Research.Information, Communication & Society 18(5): 524538.
Brandt, Patrick T., Bagozzi, Benjamin E., Orazio, Vito D’, Khan, Latifur, and Gao, Yang. 2017. “The Automated Discovery of Protest Stories From Text.” Paper presented at the “Democracy, the State and Protest” conference. Mershon Center for International Security Studies, Ohio State University, Columbus. May 1112.
Bruns, Axel, Highfield, Tim, and Burgess, Jean. 2013. “The Arab Spring and Social Media Audiences: English and Arab Twitter Users and Their Networks.American Behavioral Scientist 70(7): 871898.
Brym, Robert, Godbout, Melissa, Hoffbauer, Andreas, Menard, Gabe, and Zhang, Tony H.. 2014. “Social Media in the 2011 Egyptian Uprising.British Journal of Sociology 65(2): 266292.
Cambria, Erik, Schuller, Bjorn, Xia, Yunqing, and Havasi, Catherine. 2013. “New Avenues in Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis.IEEE Intelligent Systems 28(2): 1521.
Castells, Manuel. 2009. Communication Power. New York: Oxford University Press.
Castells, Manuel. 2012. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge: Polity.
Castells, Manuel and Cardoso, Gustavo (eds.). 2005. The Network Society: From Knowledge to Policy. Washington, D.C.: Johns Hopkins Center for Transatlantic Relations.
Chang, Ray M., Kauffman, Robert J., and Kwon, Young O.. 2014. “Understanding the Paradigm Shift to Computational Social Science in the Presence of Big Data.Decision Support Systems 63: 6780.
Chen, Hsinchun, Chung, Wingyan, Qin, Jialun, Reid, Edna, Sageman, Marc, and Weimann, Gabriel. 2008. “Uncovering the Dark Web: A Case Study of Jihad on the Web.Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59(8): 13471359.
Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio. 2013. Introduction to Computational Social Science: Principles and Applications. London: Springer.
Conover, Michael D., Ferrara, Emilio, Menczer, Filippo, and Flammini, Alessandro 2013. “The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street.PLOS ONE 8(5): E64679.
Conover, Michael D., Goncalves, Bruno, Ratkikewicz, Jacob, Flammini, Alessandro, and Menczer, Filippo. 2011a. “Predicting the Political Alignment of Twitter Users.” 2011 IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk, and Trust and IEEE International Conference on Social Computing. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6113114
Conover, M. D., Ratkiewicz, J., Francisco, M., Goncalves, B., Flammini, A., and Menczer, F.. 2011b. “Political Polarization on Twitter.” Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://bit.ly/2Rmg5QV
Costello, , Matthew, J. Jenkins, Craig, and Aly, Hassan. 2015. “Bread, Justice or Opportunity? The Determinants of the Arab Awakening Protests.World Development 67: 90100.
Crenshaw, Edward M., Robison, Kris, and Craig Jenkins, J.. 2018. “The Globalization of Contention: The Effects of International Media and Globalization on Protest, Terrorism and Guerrilla Warfare.” Department of Sociology, Ohio State University.
Daniels, Jessie. 2009. Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the New Attack on Civil Rights. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Daniels, Jessie. 2018. “The Algorithmic Rise of the ‘Alt-Right.’Contexts 17(1): 6065.
Davenport, Christian and Ball, Patrick. 2002. “Views to a Kill: Exploring the Implications of Source Selection in the Case of Guatemalan State Terror, 1977–1995.Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(3): 427450.
Diamond, Larry and Plattner, Marc F.. 2012. Liberation Technology: Social Media and the Struggle for Democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diani, Mario. 2000. “Social Movement Networks Virtual and Real.Information, Communication & Society 3(3): 386401.
DiMaggio, Paul, Nag, Manish, and Blei, David. 2013. “Exploiting Affinities Between Topic Modeling and the Sociological Perspective on Culture: Application to Newspaper Coverage of Government Arts Funding in the U.S.Poetics 41: 570606.
Durso, , Rachel, J. Jenkins, Craig, Martin, Andrew, and Stearmer, Matthew. 2018. “How to Study Political Activists: A Petition Survey Approach.Social Science Research 73: 207220.
Earl, Jennifer. 2013. “Studying Online Activism: The Effects of Sampling Design on Findings.Mobilization 18(4): 389406.
Earl, Jennifer, Copeland, Lauren, and Bimber, Bruce. 2017. “Routing Around Organizations: Self-Directed Political Consumption.Mobilization 22(2): 131153.
Earl, Jennifer and Kimport, Katrina. 2011. Digitally Enabled Social Change: Activism in the Internet Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Earl, Jennifer, Kimport, Katrina, Prieto, Greg, Rush, Carly, and Reynoso, Kimberly. 2010. “Changing the World One Webpage at a Time: Conceptualizing and Explaining Internet Activism.Mobilization 15(4): 425446.
Earl, Jennifer, Maher, Thomas V., and Elliott, Thomas. 2017. “Youth, Activism and Social Movements.Sociology Compass 11: e12465. DOI:10.1111/soc4.12465
Earl, Jennifer and Schussman, Alan. 2003. “The New Site of Activism: On-line Organizations, Movement Entrepreneurs and the Changing Location of Social Movement Decision-Making.Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change 24: 155187.
Faris, Robert, Roberts, Hal, Etling, Bruce, Othman, Dalia, and Benkler, Yochai. 2015. “Score Another One for the Internet? The Role of the Networked Public Sphere in the U.S. Net Neutrality Policy Debate.” Berkman Center Research Publication #2015–4. Retrieved July 2, 2018. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2563761
Fisher, Dana R. and Boekkooi, Marje. 2009. “Mobilizing Friends and Strangers: Understanding the Role of the Internet in the Step It Up Day of Action.Information, Communication & Society 13(2): 193208.
Foos, Florian, Kostadinov, Lyubomir, Marinov, Nikolay, and Schmiddelfennig, Frank. 2018. “Does Social Media Promote Civic Activism? A Field Experiment with a Civic Campaign.” King’s College London. Retrieved June 18,2018. www.florianfoos.net/research/activism/activism.html
Foster, Ian, Rayid Ghani, Ron S. Jarmin, Frauke Kreuter, and Lane, Julia. 2017. Big Data and Social Science. London: Taylor & Francis.
Frenkel, Shera. 2018. “How a Fake Group on Facebook Created Real Protests.” New York Times, August 14. Retrieved September 5, 2018. https://nyti.ms/2WJSHlE
Gaby, Sarah and Caren, Neil. 2012. “Occupy Online: How Cute Old Men and Malcolm X Recruited 400,000 U.S. Users to OWS on Facebook.Social Movement Studies 11: 367374.
Garrett, R. Kelly. 2006. “Protest in an Information Society: A Review of Literature on Social Movements and New ICTs.Information, Communication & Society 9: 202224.
Garrett, R. Kelly. 2009. “Politically Motivated Reinforcement Seeking: Reframing the Selective Exposure Debate.Journal of Communication 59(4): 676699.
Gentzkow, Matthew, Shapiro, Jesse M., and Taddy, Matt. 2017. “Measuring Polarization in High-Dimensional Data: Method and Application to Congressional Speech.” Department of Economics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. Retrieved July 7, 2018. http://web.stanford.edu/~gentzkow/research/politext.pdf
Gladwell, Malcolm. 2010. “Annals of Innovation – Small Change – Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted.” The New Yorker, October 4. Retrieved January 12, 2018. https://bit.ly/1Csy7XO
Goel, Sarad, Anderson, Ashton, Hofman, Jake, and Watts, Duncan J.. 2016. “The Structural Virality of Online Diffusion.Management Science 62(1): 180196.
Golder, Scott A. and Macy, Michael W.. 2014. “Digital Footprints: Opportunities and Challenges for Online Social Research.Annual Review of Sociology 40(1): 129152.
Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra, Borge-Holthoefer, Javier, and Moreno, Yamir. 2013. “Broadcasters and Hidden Influentials in Online Protest Diffusion.American Behavioral Scientist 57(7): 943965.
Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra, Borge-Holthoefer, Javier, Rivero, Alejandro, and Moreno, Yamir. 2011. “The Dynamics of Protest Recruitment through an Online Network.Scientific Reports 1, Article no. 197. Retrieved June 11, 2017. www.nature.com/articles/srep00197
Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra and Wang, Ning. 2016. “Networked Discontent: The Anatomy of Protest Campaigns.Social Networks 44: 95104.
Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.American Journal of Sociology 78(6): 13601380.
Griepentrog, Brian, Sean Marsh, Sidney C. Turner, and Evans, Sarah. 2016. “Using Social Marketing and Data Science to Make Government Smarter” pp. 246265 in Michael Alvarez, R. (ed.) Computational Social Science. N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Grimmer, Justin. 2013. Representational Style in Congress: What Legislators Say and Why It Matters. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grimmer, Justin and King, Gary. 2011. “General Purpose Computer-Assisted Clustering and Conceptualization.Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108(7): 26432650.
Grimmer, Justin and Stewart, Brandon. 2013. “Texts as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic Content Analysis Methods for Political Texts.Political Analysis 21(3): 267297.
Han, Hahrie. 2016. “The Organizational Roots of Political Activism: Field Experiments on Creating a Relational Context.American Political Science Review 110(2): 296307.
Hargittai, Eszter and Sandvig, Christian (eds.). 2015. Digital Research Confidential: The Secrets of Studying Behavior Online. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Hooghe, Marc, Vissers, Sara, Stolle, Dietlind, and Maheo, Valerie-Anne. 2010. “The Potential of Internet Mobilization: An Experimental Study on the Effect of Internet and Face-to-Face Mobilization Efforts.Political Communication 27(4): 406431.
Hopkins, Daniel J. and King, Gary. 2010. “A Method of Automated Nonparametric Content Analysis for Social Science.American Journal of Political Science 54(1): 229247.
Howard, Philip N. and Hussain, Muzammil. 2011. “The Role of Digital Media.Journal of Democracy 22(3): 3548.
Hussain, Muzammil M. and Howard, Philip. 2013a. “What Best Explains Successful Protest Cascades? ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring.International Studies Review 15: 4866.
Hussain, Muzammil M. and Howard, Philip. 2013b. Democracies’ Fourth Wave? Digital Media and the Arab Spring. New York: Oxford University Press.
InternetWorldStats. 2019. “Internet Growth Statistics.” Retrieved June 15, 2019. www.internetworldstats.com/emarketing.htm
Japec, Lilli, Kreuter, Frauke, Berg, Marcus, et al. 2015. AAPOR Report on Big Data. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: American Association of Public Opinion Research.
Jenkins, J. Craig, Charles Lewis Taylor, Marianne Abbott, Maher, Thomas V., and Peterson, Lindsey. 2012. “The World Handbook of Political Indicators iv: An Introduction and Codebook.” Columbus, OH: Mershon Center for International Security Studies, The Ohio State University. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://sociology.osu.edu/worldhandbook
Jenkins, J. Craig, Charles Lewis Taylor, Marianne Abbott, Maher, Thomas V., and Peterson, Lindsey. 2018a. “Global Conflict Data: Introducing the World Handbook of Political Indicators iv.” SocArXiv Papers. DOI:10.17605/OSF.IO/MXB9P
Jenkins, J. Craig, Charles Lewis Taylor, Marianne Abbott, Maher, Thomas V., and Peterson, Lindsey. 2018b. “Constructing Reliable Event Data: Human and Machine-Coding of World Handbook of Political Indicators iv.” Department of Sociology, Ohio State University.
Jenkins, J. Craig and Maher, Thomas V.. 2016. “What Should We Do about Source Selection in Event Data? Challenges, Progress, and Possible Solutions.International Journal of Sociology 46: 4257.
Jewkes, Stephen and Vukmanovic, Oleg. 2017. “Insight-Suspected Russian-backed Hackers Target Baltic Energy Networks.” Reuters, May 11. Retrieved June 18. 2019. https://reut.rs/2WeuT4X
Jost, John T., Barbera, Pablo, Bonneau, Richard, et al. 2018. “How Social Media Facilitates Political Protest: Information, Motivation and Social Networks.Advances in Political Psychology 39(1): 85118.
Karpf, David. 2012. The MoveOn Effect: The Unexpected Transformation of American Political Advocacy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Katz, Eli and Lazarsfeld, Paul F.. 1955. Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
King, Gary and Lowe, Will. 2003. “An Automated Information Extraction Tool for International Conflict Data with Performance as Good as Human Coders: A Rare Events Evaluation Design.International Interactions 57(3): 617642.
King, Gary, Pan, Jennifer, and Roberts, Margaret E.. 2013. “How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression.American Political Science Review 107(2): 326343.
King, Gary, Pan, Jennifer, and Roberts, Margaret E.. 2014. “Reverse-Engineering Censorship in China: Randomized Experimentation and Participant Observation.Science 345(6199): 110.
King, Gary, Pan, Jennifer, and Roberts, Margaret E.. 2017. “How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, not Engaged Argument.American Political Science Review 111(3): 484501.
Kitchin, Rob. 2014. The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences. London: SAGE.
Kitchin, Rob and Gavin McArdle. 2016. “What Makes Big Data, Big Data? Exploring the Ontological Characteristics of 26 Datasets.” Big Data & Society January–June: 110.
Kriesi, Hanspeter, Lorenzini, Jasmine, Wuest, Bruno, and Makarov, Peter. 2017. “Protesting Europeans in Time of Crisis: A Thirty Countries Study.” Paper presented at the “Democracy, the State and Protest” conference. Mershon Center for International Security Studies, Ohio State University, Columbus. May 1112.
Lazer, David and Wojcik, Stefan. 2017. “Political Networks and Computational Social Science” in Victor, Jennifer N., Montgomery, Alexander H., and Lubell, Mark (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Political Networks. New York: Oxford University Press. DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190228217.013.9
Lazer, David and Radford, Jason. 2017. “Data Ex Machina: Introduction to Big Data.Annual Review of Sociology 43: 1939.
Lewis, Kevin, Gray, Kurt, and Meierenrich, Jens. 2014. “The Structure of Online Activism.Sociological Science 1: 19.
Lohmann, Suzanne. 1994. “The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig East Germany, 1989–91.World Politics 47(1): 42101.
Luo, Jiebo, Amit Singhal, Stephen P. Etz, and Gray, Robert T.. 2004. “A Computational Approach to Determination of Main Subject Regions in Photographic Images.Image and Vision Computing 22: 227241.
Macfarquhar, Neil. 2016. “A Powerful Russian Weapon: The Spread of False Stories.” New York Times, August 18. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://nyti.ms/2bP9J94
Macintosh, Ann. 2004. “Characterizing E-Participation in Policy-Making.” Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://bit.ly/2WbnHqg
Maher, Thomas V. and Jenkins, J. Craig. 2018. “Getting Attention: Explaining the Difference Between National and International New Coverage of Contentious Events.” Department of Sociology, Purdue University, IN.
Marwell, Gerald and Oliver, Pamela. 1993. The Critical Mass in Collective Action: A Micro-Social Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McCaughey, Martha and Michael Ayers, D.. 2003. Cyberactivism: Online Activism in Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge.
Meier, Patrick. 2015. Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.
Meraz, Sharon and Papacharissi, Zizi. 2013. “Networked Gatekeeping and Networked Framing on #Egypt.International Journal of Press/Politics 18(2): 138166.
Metzger, Megan M. and Tucker, Joshua A.. 2017. “Social Media and EuroMaidan: A Review Essay.Slavic Review 76(1): 169191.
Meyer, David. 2015. The Politics of Protest: Social Movements in America, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mian, Atif and Rosenthal, Howard. 2016. “Introduction: Big Data in Political Economy.RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 2(7): 110.
Mohr, John W. and Bogdanov, Petko. 2013. “Introduction: Topic Models: What They Are and Why They Matter.Poetics 41: 545569.
Morozov, Evgeny. 2011. The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. New York: Public Affairs.
Morozov, Evgeny. 2013. To Save Everything Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism. New York: Public Affairs.
Murdie, Amanda. 2013. “The Ties that Bind: A Network Analysis of Human Rights International Nongovernmental Organizations.British Journal of Political Science 44: 127.
Musawi, Mohammed Ali. 2010. Cheering for Osama: How Jihadists Use Internet Discussion Forums. London: Quilliam Foundation.
Nakashima, Ellen and Warrick, Joby. 2012. “Stuxnet Was the Work of U.S. and Israeli Experts.” Washington Post, June 2. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://wapo.st/2HVXgRi
Nardulli, Peter F., Althaus, Scott L., and Hayes, Matthew. 2015. “A Progressive Supervised-Learning Approach to Generating Rich Civil Strife Data.Sociological Methodology 45: 148183.
Nekmat, Elmie, Gower, Karla K., Gonzenbach, William J., and Flanagin, Andrew J.. 2015. “Source Effects in the Micro-Mobilization of Collective Action via Social Media.Information, Communication & Society 18(9): 10761091.
Norris, Pippa. 2000. A Virtuous Circle: Political Communications in Postindustrial Societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
O’Brien, Sean P. 2010. “Crisis Early Warning and Decision Support: Contemporary Approaches and Thoughts on Future Research.International Studies Review 12(1): 87104.
O’Halloran, Sharyn, Samir Maskey, Geraldine McAllister, David K. Park, and Kaiping Chen. 2016. “Data Science and Political Economy: Applications to Financial Regulatory Structure.RSF 2(7): 87109.
Olson, Mancur. 1966. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Oser, Jennifer, Hooghe, Marc, and Marien, Sofie. 2013. “Is Online Participation Distinct from Offline Participation? A Latent Class Analysis of Participation Types and Their Stratification.Political Research Quarterly 66(1): 91101.
Parmeggiani, Paolo. 2009. “Going Digital: Using New Technologies in Visual Sociology.Visual Sociology 24: 7181.
Pearce, Katy. 2015. “Democratizing Kompromat: The Affordances of Social Media for State-sponsored Harassment.Information, Communication & Society 18: 11581174.
Perlroth, Nicole. 2017. “Russian Hackers Who Targeted Clinton Appear to Attack France’s Macron.” New York Times, April 24. Retrieved September 5, 2018. https://nyti.ms/2Mtmaw1
Perlroth, Nicole and Corkery, Michael. 2016. “North Korea Linked to Digital Attacks on Global Banks.” New York Times, 26 May. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://nyti.ms/27UI1Og
Polletta, Francesca, Chen, Pang Ching Bobby, Gardner, Beth Gharrity, and Motes, Alice. 2013. “Is the Internet Creating New Reasons to Protest?” pp. 1736 in van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien, Roggeband, Conny, and Klandermans, Bert (eds.) The Future of Social Movement Research: Dynamics, Mechanisms, and Processes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Raleigh, Clionagh, Linke, Andrew, Hegre, Havard, and Karisen, Joakim. 2010. “Introducing ACLED: An Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset.Journal of Peace Research 47: 651660.
Roberts, Margaret E., Stewart, Brandon M. and Tingley, Dustin. 2016. “Navigating the Local Modes of Big Data: The Case of Topic Models” in Michael Alarvez, R. (ed.) Computational Social Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rohlinger, Deanna A. and Bunnage, Leslie. 2015. “Connecting People to Politics Over Time? Internet Communication Technology and Activist Persistence in MoveOn and the Tea Party Movement.Information, Communication & Society 18(5): 539552.
Salehyan, Idean, Hendrix, Cullen S., Hamner, Jesse, Case, Christina, Linebarger, Christopher, Stull, Emily, and Williams, Jennifer. 2012. “Social Conflict in Africa: A New Database.International Interactions 38(4): 503511.
Sanger, David E. 2017. The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage and Fear. New York: Crown.
Sanovich, Sergey, Stukal, Denis, and Tucker, Joshua A.. 2018. “Turning the Virtual Tables: Government Strategies for Addressing Online Opposition with an Application to Russia.Comparative Politics 50(3): 435482.
Schrodt, Philip A. 2012. “Precedents, Progress and Prospects in Political Event Data.International Interactions 38(4): 546569.
Schrodt, Philip A. and Gerner, Deborah J.. 2000Cluster-based Early Warning Indicators for Political Change in the Contemporary Levant.American Political Science Review 94: 803817.
Schrodt, Philip A., Gerner, Deborah J., and Yilmaz, Olmer. 2009. “Conflict and Mediation Event Observations (CAMEO): An Event Data Framework for a Post-Cold War World” pp. 287304 in Bercovitch, Jacob and Gartner, Scott (eds.) International Conflict Mediation: New Approaches and Findings. New York: Routledge.
Seber, George A. F. 1982. The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters, 2nd ed. Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn Press.
Shumate, Michelle and Dewitt, Lori. 2008. “The North/South Divide in NGO Hyperlink Networks.Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 13: 405428.
Shumate, Michelle and Lipp, Justin. 2008. “Connective Collective Action Online: An Examination of the Hyperlink Network Structure of an NGO Issue Network.Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14(1): 178201.
Shumate, Michelle and Weber, Matthew S.. 2015. “The Art of Web Crawling for Social Science Research” pp. 201222 in Hargittai, E. and Sandvig, C. (eds.) Digital Research Confidential: The Secrets of Studying Behavior Online. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Sifry, Micah L. 2014. The Big Disconnect: Why the Internet Hasn’t Transformed Politics (Yet). New York: OR Books.
Singh, Abhishek N. and Vigneswara Ilavarasan, P.. 2016. “New Media, Governance and Transparency in India” pp. 122142 in Narayan, Sunetra Sen and Narayanan, Shalini (eds.) India Connected: Mapping the Impact of New Media. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Skirky, Clay. 2008. Here Comes Everybody. London: Penguin.
Skocpol, Theda and Williamson, Vanessa. 2012. The Tea Party and the Remaking of the Republican Party. New York: Oxford University Press.
Slomczynski, , Kazimirez, J. Jenkins, Craig, Tomescu-Dubrow, Irina, et al. 2017. “SDR Master Box.” Retrieved June 15, 2019. https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/VWGF5Q, Harvard Dataverse, V1, UNF:6:HIWud4wueVRsU8wTN+lySg==
Slomcyznski, Kazimirez, Tomescu-Dubrow, Irina, and Craig Jenkins, J.. 2016. Democratic Values and Protest Behavior: Harmonization of Data from International Survey Projects. Warsaw, Poland: IFiS.
Slomczynski, Kazimirez, Tomescu-Dubrow, Irina, and Craig Jenkins, J.. 2019. The Survey Data Recycling Project. Retrieved June 15, 2019. https://bit.ly/2ZC1xQe
Stearmer, S. Matthew. 2016. “Diaspora Social Movements in Cyberspace: Epistemological and Ethnographic Considerations.” PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University.
Suh, Chan S., Vasi, Ion Bogdan, and Chang, Paul Y.. 2017. “How Social Media Matter: Repression and the Diffusion of the Occupy Wall Street Movement.Social Science Research 65: 282293.
Sunstein, Cass R. 2002. “The Law of Group Polarization.Journal of Political Philosophy 10(2): 175195.
Sunstein, Cass R.. 2007. Republic-com 2.0. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sutherland, William J. 1996. Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tamkin, Emily. 2017. “Ten Years After the Landmark Attack on Estonia, Is the World Better Prepared for Cyber Threats?” Foreign Policy, April 27. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://bit.ly/2HCvY4 H
Theocharis, Yannis, Lowe, Will, van Deth, Jan, and Gema Garcia-Albacete, G. 2015. “Using Twitter to Mobilize Protest Action: Online Mobilization Patterns and Action Repertoires in the Occupy Wall Street, Indignados, and Aganaktismenoi Movements.Information, Communication & Society 18(2): 202220.
Theocharis, Yannis and Jan, van Deth. 2018. “The Continuous Expansion of Citizen Participation: A New Taxonomy.European Political Science Review 10(1): 165189.
Tomescu-Dubrow, Irina and Slomczynski, Kazimirez. 2016. “Harmonization of Cross-National Survey Projects on Political Behavior: Developing the Analytic Framework of Survey Data Recycling.International Journal of Sociology 46(1): 5872.
Tsai, Chun-Wei, Lai, Chin-Feng, Chao, Han-Chieh and Vasilokos, Athanasios V.. 2015. “Big Data Analytics: A Survey.Journal of Big Data 2(21). DOI:10.1186/s40537-015-0030-3
Tsur, Oren, Calacci, Dan, and Lazer, David. 2015. “A Frame of Mind: Using Statistical Models for Detection of Framing and Agenda Setting Campaigns.” Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://aclweb.org/anthology/papers/P/P15/P15-1157/
Tucker, Joshua A., Yannis Theocharis, M. E. Roberts, and Barbera, Pablo. 2017. “From Liberation to Turmoil: Social Media and Democracy.Journal of Democracy 28(4): 4659.
Tufecki, Zeynep. 2014. “Big Questions for Social Media Big Data: Representativeness, Validity and Other Methodological Pitfalls” pp. 505–514 in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, ICWSM 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1403/1403.7400.pdf
Tufecki, Zeynep. 2017. Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Tufecki, Zeynep and Wilson, Christopher. 2012. “Social Media and the Decision to Participate in Political Protest: Observations from Tahrir Square.Journal of Communication 62(2): 363379.
Unknown author. 2014. “GDELT and the Problem of Decontextualized Data.” Posted May 14. Retrieved June 15, 2019. https://bit.ly/2Omlhl4
Vaccari, Cristian, Valeriani, Augusto, Barbera, Pablo, et al. 2015. “Political Expressions and Action on Social Media: Exploring the Relationships Between Lower- and Higher-Threshold Political Activities among Twitter Users in Italy.Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 20: 221239.
Vaillant, Gabriela G., Tyagi, Juhi, Akin, Idil Afife, Poma, Fernanda, Schwartz, Michael, and Arnout, van de Rijt. 2015. “A Field-Experimental Study of Emergent Mobilization in Online Collective Action.Mobilization 21(3): 281303.
van Aelst, Peter and Walgrave, Stefaan. 2002. “New Media, New Movements? The Role of the Internet in Shaping the ‘Anti-Globalization’ Movement.Information, Communication & Society 5(4): 465493.
van Laer, Jeroen. 2010. “Activists Online and Offline: The Internet as an Information Channel for Protest Demonstrations.Mobilization 15(3): 347366.
Vasi, Ion B., Strang, David, and Arnout, van de Rijt. 2014. “Tea and Sympathy: The Tea Party Movement and Republican Precommitment to Radical Conservatism in the 2011 Debt-Limit Crisis.Mobilization 19(1): 122.
Vasi, Ion B. and Suh, Chan S.. 2016. “Online Activities, Spatial Proximity, and the Diffusion of the Occupy Wall Street Movement in the United States.Mobilization 21(2): 139154.
Veltri, Giuseppe Alessandro. 2017. “Big Data Is Not Only About Data: The Two Cultures of Modelling.” Big Data & Society January–June: 14.
Vissers, Sara, Hooghe, Marc, Stolle, Dietlind, and Maheo, Valerie-Anne. 2012. “The Impact of Mobilization Media and Off-Line and Online Participation: Are Mobilization Effects Medium Specific?Social Science Computer Review 30(2): 152169.
Vissers, Sara and Stolle, Dietlind. 2014. “The Internet and New Modes of Political Participation: Online versus Offline Participation.Information, Communication & Society 17(8): 937955.
Wagner-Pacifici, Robin, Mohr, John W., and Breiger, Ronald L.. 2015. “Ontologies, Methodologies and New Uses of Big Data in the Social and Cultural Sciences.” Big Data & Society July–December: 115.
, Walgrave, Stefaan, W. Lance Bennett, Jeroen van Laer, and Breunig, Christian. 2011. “Multiple Engagements and Network Bridging in Contentious Politics: Digital Media Use of Protest Participants.Mobilization 16(3): 325349.
Walgrave, Steffan and Wouters, Ruud. 2014. “The Missing Link in the Diffusion of Protest: Asking Others.American Journal of Sociology 109(6): 16701709.
Ward, Michael D., Andreas Beger, J. Cutler, and Radford, Benjamin. 2013. “Comparing GDELT and ICEWS Event Data.Analysis 21: 267297.
Warshaw, Christopher. 2016. “The Application of Big Data in Surveys to the Study of Elections, Public Opinion and Representation” pp. 2751 in Michael Alvarez, R. (ed.) Computational Social Science: Discovery and Prediction. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia. 2018. “Russian Interference in the 2016 Elections.” Retrieved September 5, 2018. https://bit.ly/2QKAsXM
Wikipedia. 2019. “Stormfront (website).” Retrieved June 18, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormfront_(website)
Zeitzoff, Thomas. 2017. “How Social Media Is Changing Conflict.Journal of Conflict Resolution 61(9): 19701991.