Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: March 2013

Chapter 14 - Functional neuroimaging of human REM sleep

from Section 2 - Neuroimaging of wakefulness and sleep


Radiotracer imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are well suited to provide information about the functional, metabolic, and molecular status of tissues and organs. Brain SPECT has a well-established role for a number of clinical indications. Cerebral perfusion studies are used in the evaluation of dementias, epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease, trauma, brain death, and to assist with neuropsychiatric evaluation. Brain function is evaluated at baseline, before and after pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy, and following a number of activation tasks to examine a large number of psychiatric conditions. The integration of SPECT and CT in a single imaging device facilitates anatomical localization of the radiopharmaceutical to differentiate physiological uptake from that associated with disease. SPECT and SPECT/CT is continuing to evolve with the introduction of new technologies that have the potential to improve performance beyond that possible with Anger's pioneering approach.


1. SteriadeM, McCarleyRW. Brain Control of Wakefulness and Sleep. New York, Kluwer Academic, 2005.
2. MaquetP, DiveD, SalmonE, et al. Cerebral glucose utilization during sleep-wake cycle in man determined by positron emission tomography and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose method. Brain Res. 1990;513(1):136–43.
3. MadsenPL, HolmS, VorstrupS, et al. Human regional cerebral blood flow during rapid-eye-movement sleep. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991;11(3):502–7.
4. RammP, FrostBJ. Cerebral and local cerebral metabolism in the cat during slow wave and REM sleep. Brain Res. 1986;365(1):112–24.
5. LydicR, BaghdoyanHA, HibbardL, et al. Regional brain glucose metabolism is altered during rapid eye movement sleep in the cat: a preliminary study. J Comp Neurol. 1991;304(4):517–29.
6. NofzingerEA, MintunMA, WisemanM, KupferDJ, MooreRY. Forebrain activation in REM sleep: an FDG PET study. Brain Res. 1997;770(1–2):192–201.
7. MaquetP, PetersJ, AertsJ, et al. Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming. Nature. 1996;383(6596):163–6.
8. BraunAR, BalkinTJ, WesentenNJ, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2(15)O PET study. Brain. 1997;120(Pt 7):1173–97.
9. JonesBE. Neurobiology of waking and sleeping. In: MontagnaP, ChokrovertyS, eds. Sleep Disorders, Part I, 3rd edn. Amsterdam, Elsevier. 2010; 131–49.
10. SteriadeM, DattaS, PareD, OaksonG, Curro DossiRC. Neuronal activities in brain-stem cholinergic nuclei related to tonic activation processes in thalamocortical systems. J Neurosci. 1990;10(8):2541–59.
11. RammP, FrostBJ. Regional metabolic activity in the rat brain during sleep-wake activity. Sleep. 1983;6(3):196–216.
12. MaquetP, LaureysS, PeigneuxP, et al. Experience-dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3(8):831–6.
13. MaquetP, RubyP, MaudouxA, et al. Human cognition during REM sleep and the activity profile within the frontal and parietal cortices: a reappraisal of functional neuroimaging data. In: LaureysS, ed.Progess in Brain Research. Amsterdam, Elsevier. 2005; 219–27.
14. BraunAR, BalkinTJ, WesenstenNJ, et al. Dissociated pattern of activity in visual cortices and their projections during human rapid eye movement sleep. Science. 1998;279(5347):91–5.
15. MaquetP, PhillipsC.Functional brain imaging of human sleep. J Sleep Res. 1998;7(Suppl 1):42–7.
16. PeigneuxP, LaureysS, FuchsS, et al. Generation of rapid eye movements during paradoxical sleep in humans. Neuroimage. 2001;14(3):701–8.
17. WehrleR, CzischM, Kaufmann et al. Rapid eye movement-related brain activation in human sleep: a Functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroreport. 2005;16(8):853–7.
18. HongCC, MarieJC, PearlsonGD, et al. FMRI evidence for multisensory recruitment associated with rapid eye movements during sleeps. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(5): 1705–22.
19. MiyauchiS, MisakiM, KanS, FukunagaT, KoikeT.Human brain activity time-locked to rapid eye movements during REM sleep. Exp Brain Res. 2009; 192(4):657–67. Epub 2008 Oct 2.
20. GoutagnyR, VerretL, FortP, et al. Posterior hypothalamus and regulation of vigilance states. Arch Ital Biol. 2004;142(4):487–500.
21. HobsonJA, Pace-SchottEF, StickgoldR.Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Behav Brain Sci. 2000;23(6):793–842; discussion 904–1121.
22. MaquetP, FranckG.REM sleep and amygdala. Mol Psychiatry. 1997;2(3):195–6.
23. SchwartzS, MaquetP.Sleep imaging and the neuro-psychological assessment of dreams. Trends Cogn Sci. 2002;6(1):23–30.
24. SolmsM.The Neuropsychology of Dreams. A Clinico-Anatomical Study. Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum Assocaites, 1997.
25. MaquetP.Functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep by positron emission tomography. J Sleep Res. 2000;9(3):207–31.
26. RuggMD, OttenLJ, HensonRN. The neural basis of episodic memory: evidence from functional neuroimaging. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2002;357(1424):1097–110.
27. FosseMJ, FosseR, HobsonJA, StickgoldRJ. Dreaming and episodic memory: a functional dissociation? J Cogn Neurosci. 2003;15(1):1–9.
28. SchwindelCD, McNaughtonBL. Hippocampal-cortical interactions and the dynamics of memory trace reactivation. Prog Brain Res. 2011;193:163–77.
29. DiekelmannS, BornJ.The memory function of sleep. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010;11(2):114–26.
30. HuberR, GhilardiMF, MassiminiM, TononiG.Local sleep and learning. Nature. 2004;430(6995):78–81.
31. LouieK, WilsonMA.Temporally structured replay of awake hippocampal ensemble activity during rapid eye movement sleep. Neuron. 2001;29(1):145–56.
32. CleeremansA, McClellandJL. Learning the structure of event sequences. J Exp Psychol Gen. 1991;120(3):235–53.
33. LaureysS, PeigneuxP, PhillipsC, et al. Experience-dependent changes in cerebral functional connectivity during human rapid eye movement sleep. Neuroscience. 2001;105(3):521–5.
34. PeigneuxP, LaureysS, FuchsS, et al. Learned material content and acquisition level modulate cerebral reactivation during posttraining rapid-eye-movements sleep. Neuroimage. 2003;20(1):125–34.
35. HennevinE, LeconteP. [The function of paradoxical sleep: facts and theories]. Annee Psychol. 1971;71(2):489–519.
36. HennevinE, MahoC, HarsB, DutrieuxG.Learning-induced plasticity in the medial geniculate nucleus is expressed during paradoxical sleep. Behav Neurosci. 1993;107(6):1018–30.
37. SchubotzRI, von CramonDY. Interval and ordinal properties of sequences are associated with distinct premotor areas. Cereb Cortex. 2001;11(3):210–22.
38. PeigneuxP, MaquetP, MeulemansT, et al. Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: a random effect analysis of PET data. Hum Brain Mapp. 2000;10(4):179–94.
39. RaichleME, GusnardDA. Intrinsic brain activity sets the stage for expression of motivated behavior. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493(1):167–76.
40. VincentJL, PatelGH, FoxMD, et al. Intrinsic functional architecture in the anaesthetized monkey brain. Nature. 2007;447(7140):83–6.
41. HoneyCJ, SpornsO, CammounL, et al. Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural connectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(6):2035–40.
42. ChristoffK, GordonAM, SmallwoodJ, SmithR, SchoolerJW. Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(21):8719–24.
43. StawarczykD, MajerusS, MaquetP, D’ArgembeauA.Neural correlates of ongoing conscious experience: both task-unrelatedness and stimulus-independence are related to default network activity. PLoS One. 2011;6(2):e16997.
44. Dang-VuTT, BonjeanM, SchabusM, et al. Interplay between spontaneous and induced brain activity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108(37):15438–43.
45. Dang-VuTT, SchabusM, DesseillesM, et al. Spontaneous neural activity during human slow wave sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(39):15160–5.
46. SchabusM, Dang-VuTT, AlbouyG, et al. Hemodynamic cerebral correlates of sleep spindles during human non-rapid eye movement sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(32):13164–9.
47. DreslerM, KochSP, WehrleR, et al. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Curr Biol. 2011;21(21):1833–7.
48. MassiminiM, FerrarelliF, HuberR, et al. Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep. Science. 2005;309(5744):2228–32.
49. BolyM, PerlbargV, MarrelecG, et al. Hierarchical clustering of brain activity during human non rapid eye movement sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(15):5856–61.
50. Spoormaker VI, CzischM, MaquetP, JanckeL.Large-scale functional brain networks in human non-rapid eye movement sleep: insights from combined electroencephalographic/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2011;369(1952):3708–29.