Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Print publication year: 2003
  • Online publication date: August 2009

18 - Genesis and Epigenesis of Psychopathology in Children with Depressed Mothers: Toward an Integrative Biopsychosocial Perspective

Summary

Even if scientists uncover a single, powerful determinant of behavior, whether it be a gene linked to a disorder, a toxic biological event that goes awry during fetal development, or an aspect of parental caregiving that interferes with the development of healthy relationships, it is now clear that not all individuals who share such risks will emerge with the same degree of mental health or disorder nor stay on the same, predicted developmental trajectory. In particular, little attention has been paid to the role of neurodevelopmental processes in enhancing or decreasing the opportunity for healthy development in individuals with environmental or genetic risks and vice versa. If we accept that neither environmental qualities nor genes or other biological mechanisms directly determine behavior or developmental course, then we are challenged to consider the potential explanatory power of the complexities of their possible interplay.

It is the purpose of this chapter to accept the challenge of such an integrative perspective for the understanding of risk for the development of psychopathology or other adverse outcomes in children with depressed mothers. Specifically, this chapter will examine current knowledge on outcomes and mechanisms of risk to children with depressed mothers from this perspective and propose future directions for such integrative research. An effort will be made to explore the influences on outcomes not only as a static event but also on alternative developmental pathways.

It needs to be stated at the outset that ideas about complex determinants of behavior are not new.

References
Abrams, S. M., Field, T., Scafidi, F., & Prodromidis, M. (1995). Newborns of depressed mothers. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16, 233–239
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association
Angold, A., & Rutter, M. (1992). Effects of age and pubertal status on depression in a large clinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 5–28
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182
Beach, S. R., Fincham, F. D., & Katz, J. (1998). Marital therapy in the treatment of depression: Toward a third generation of therapy and research. Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 635–661
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1997). Beck Depression Inventory, 2d edition. San Antonio, Tex., The Psychological Corporation
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory. Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. E., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571
Beiderman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hirshfeld, D. R., Faraone, S. V., Bolduc, E. A., Gersten, M., Meminger, S. R., Kagan, J., Snidman, N., & Reznick, S. (1990). Psychiatric correlates of behavioral inhibition in young children of parents with and without psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 21–26
Belle, D. (1982). Lives in stress. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications
Belsher, G., & Costello, C. G. (1988). Relapse after recovery from unipolar depression: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 84–96
Belsky, J., Hsieh, K-H, & Crnic, K. (1998). Mothering, fathering, and infant negativity as antecedents of boys' externalizing problems and inhibition at age 3 years: Differential susceptibility to rearing experience? Development and Psychopathology, 10, 301–319
Bettes, B. A. (1988). Maternal depression and motherese: Temporal and intonational features. Child Development, 59, 1089–1096
Blazer, D., Kessler, R., McGonagle, K., & Swartz, M. (1994). The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: The National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 979–986
Breznitz, Z., & Friedman, S. L. (1988). Toddlers' concentration: Does maternal depression make a difference? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29, 267–279
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1992). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 187–249). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Bugental, D. B., Blue, J., Cortez, V., Fleck, K., & Rodriguez, A. (1992). Influences of witnessed affect on information processing in children. Child Development, 63, 774–786
Burge, D., & Hammen, C. (1991). Maternal communication: A predictor of children's outcomes at follow-up in a high risk sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 174–180
Campbell, S. B., & Cohn, J. F. (1997). The timing and chronicity of postpartum depression: Implications for infant development. In P. Murray (Ed.), Postpartum depression and child development (pp. 165–197). New York: Guilford Press
Chambers, C. D., Johnson, K. A., Dick, L. M., Felix, R. J., & Jones, K. L. (1996). Birth outcomes in pregnant women taking fluoxetine. New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 1010–1015
Cherny, S. S., Fulker, D. W., Corley, R. P., Plomin, R., & DeFries, J. C. (1994). Continuity and change in infant shyness from 14 to 20 months. Behavior Genetics, 24, 365–379
Cicchetti, D. (1989) (Ed). The emergence of a discipline: Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum
Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward an ecological/transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment: Consequences for children's development. Psychiatry, 56, 96–118
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597–600
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2000). The efficacy of toddler-parent psychotherapy for fostering cognitive development in offspring of depressed mothers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 135–148
Cicchetti, D., & Schneider-Rosen, K. (1984). Toward a transactional model of childhood depression. New Directions for Child Development. No. 26, 5–27
Cicchetti, D., & Schneider-Rosen, K. (1986). An organizational approach to childhood depression. In M. Rutter, C. Izard, & P. Read (Eds.), Depression in young people: Clinical and developmental perspectives (pp. 71–134). New York: Guilford Press
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221–241
Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., & Rogosch, F. A. (1999). Toddler-parent psychotherapy as a preventive intervention to alter attachment organization in offspring of depressed mothers. Attachment and Human Development, 1, 34–66
Cicchetti, D., & Tucker, D. (1994). Development and self-regulatory structures of the mind. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 533–549
Clarke, A. S., & Schneider, M. L. (1993). Prenatal stress has long-term effects on behavioral responses to stress in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 26, 296–304
Clarke, A. S., Wittwer, D. J., Abbott, D. H., & Schneider, M. L. (1994). Long-term effects of prenatal stress on HPA axis activity in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 27, 256–269
Coccaro, E. F., Silverman, J. M., Klar, H. M., Horvath, T. B., & Siever, L. J. (1994). Familial correlates of reduced central serotonergic system function in patients with personality disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 318–324
Cogill, S. R., Caplan, H. L., Alexandra, H., Robson, K. M., & Kumar, R. (1986). Impact of maternal depression on cognitive development of young children. British Medical Journal, 292, 1165–1167
Cohn, J., & Campbell, S. (1992). Influence of maternal depression on infant affect regulation. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.), Developmental perspectives on depression, Vol. 4 (pp. 103–130). Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press
Cohn, J., & Tronick, E. J. (1983). Three-month-old infants' reaction to simulated maternal depression. Child Development, 54, 185–190
Compas, B. E., Langrock, A. M., Keller, G., Merchant, M. J., & Copeland, M. E. (2002). Children coping with parental depression: Processes of adaptation to family stress. In S. Goodman & I. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Alternative pathways to risk for psychopathology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press
Copper, R. L., Goldenberg, R. L., Das, A., Elder, N., Swain, M., Norman, G., Ramsey, R., Cotroneo, P., Collins, B. A., Johnson, F., Jones, P., & Meier, A. M. (1996). The preterm prediction study: maternal stress is associated with spontaneous preterm birth at less than thirty-five weeks' gestation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 175, 1286–1292
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101
Cummings, E. M., & Cicchetti, D. (1990). Toward a transactional model of relations between attachment and depression. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation series on mental health and development (pp. 339–372). Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–112
Davidson, R. J. & Fox, N. A. (1988). Cerebral asymmetry and emotion: Development and individual differences. In D. L. Molfese & S. J. Segalowitz (Eds.), Brain lateralization in children: Developmental implications (pp. 191–206). New York: Guilford Press
Dawson, G., Frey, K., Panagiotides, H., Osterling, J., & Hessl, D. (1997). Infants of depressed mothers exhibit atypical frontal brain activity: A replication and extension of previous findings. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 38, 179–186
Dawson, G., Hessl, D., & Frey, K. (1994). Social influences on early developing biological and behavioral systems related to risk for affective disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 759–779
Deater-Deckard, K., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Spare the rod, spoil the authors: Emerging themes in research on parenting and child development. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 230–235
Dickey, M. H. (1996). Methods for single-case experiments in family therapy. In D. H. Sprenkle & S. M. Moon (Eds.), Research methods in family therapy (pp. 264–285). New York: Guilford Press
Dishion, T. J., & McMahon, R. J. (1998). Parental monitoring and the prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior: A conceptual and empirical formulation. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1, 61–75
Emery, R., Weintraub, S., & Neale, J. M. (1982). Effects of marital discord on the children of schizophrenic, affectively disordered, and normal parents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 215–228
Emory, E., Walker, E., & Cruz, A. (1983). Fetal heart rate: II. Behavioral correlates. Psychophysiology, 19, 680–686
Erel, O., & Berman, B. (1995). Interrelatedness of marital relations and parent-child relations: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 108–132
Fendrich, M., Warner, V., & Weissman, M. M. (1990). Family risk factors, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring. Developmental Psychology, 26, 40–50
Field, T. (1984). Early interactions between infants and their postpartum depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 517–522
Field, T. (1992). Infants of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 9–66
Field, T., (1994). The effects of mother's physical and emotional unavailability on emotion regulation. In N. A. Fox (Ed.). The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 208–227
Field, T. M. (1998). Depressed mothers and their newborns. Paper presented at the 11th Biennial Conference on Infant Studies, Atlanta, GA, April 2–5
Field, T., Bendell-Estroff, D., Yando, R., Del Valle, C., Malphurs, J., & Hart, S. (1996). “Depressed” mothers' perceptions of infant vulnerability are related to later development. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 27, 43–53
Field, T., Healy, B., Goldstein, S., & Guthertz, M. (1990). Behavior state matching and synchrony in mother-infant interactions of nondepressed versus depressed dyads. Developmental Psychology, 26, 7–14
Field, T., Healy, J. B., Goldstein, S.Perry, S., Bendell, D. J., Schanberg, S., Zimmerman, E. A., & Kuhn, C. (1988). Infants of depressed mothers show “depressed” behavior even with non-depressed adults. Child Development, 59, 1569–1579
Field, T., Pickens, J., Fox, N. A., Nawrocki, T., & Gonzalez, J. (1995). Vagal tone in infants of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 227–231
Field, T., Sandberg, D., Garcia, R., Vega-Lahr, N., Goldstein, S., & Guy, L. (1985). Prenatal problems, postpartum depression, and early mother-infant interactions. Developmental Psychology, 12, 1152–1156
Fleming, A., Ruble, D., Flett, G., & Shaul, D. (1988). Postpartum adjustment in first-time mothers: Relations between mood, maternal attitudes, and mother-infant interactions. Developmental Psychology, 24, 71–81
Forehand, R., Lautenschlager, G. J., Faust, J., & Graziano, W. G. (1986). Parent perceptions and parent-child interactions in clinic-referred children: A preliminary investigation of the effects of maternal depressive moods. Behavior Research and Therapy, 24, 73–75
Fox, N. A. (1994). Dynamic cerebral processes underlying emotion regulation. In N. A. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2–3, Serial No. 240) (pp. 152–166)
Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1993). Multiple-measure approaches to the study of infant emotion. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions. (pp. 167–184). New York: Guilford Press
Frank, E., Carpenter, L. L., & Kupfer, D. J. (1988). Sex differences in recurrent depression: Are there any that are significant? American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 41–45
Garber, J. & Martin, N. C. (2002). Negative cognitions in offspring of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk. In S. Goodman & I. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: alternative pathways to risk for psychopathology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press
Gianino, A., & Tronick, E. (1985). The mutual regulation model: The infant's self and interactive regulation and coping and defensive capacities. In T. Field, P. McCabe, & N. Schneiderman (Eds.), Stress and coping (pp. 47–68). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum
Gitau, R., Cameron, A., Fisk, N. M., & Glover, V. (1998). Fetal exposure to maternal cortisol. Lancet, 352, 707–708
Gladstone, T. R. G., & Beardslee, W. R. (2002). Treatment, intervention and prevention with children of depressed parents: A developmental perspective. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Alternative pathways to risk for psychopathology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press
Glover, V., Teixeira, J., Gitau, R., & Fisk, N. (1998). Links between antenatal maternal anxiety and the fetus. Paper presented at the 11th Biennial Conference on Infant Studies, Atlanta, GA, April2–5
Goldsmith, H. H., Buss, K. A., & Lemery, K. S. (1997). Toddler and childhood temperament: expanded content, stronger genetic evidence, new evidence for the importance of environment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 891–905
Goldsmith, H. H., Gottesman, I. I., & Lemery, K. S. (1997). Epigenetic approaches to developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 365–387
Goldsmith, D. F., & Rogoff, B. (1997). Mothers' and toddlers' coordinated joint focus of attention: Variations with maternal dysphoric symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 33, 113–119
Goodman, S. H., Adamson, L. B., Riniti, J., & Cole, S. (1994). Mothers' expressed attitudes: Associations with maternal depression and children's self-esteem and psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1265–1274
Goodman, S. H., Brogan, D., Lynch, M. E., & Fielding, B. (1993). Social and emotional competence in children of depressed mothers. Child Development, 64, 516–531
Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed parents: A developmental approach to the understanding of mechanisms. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490
Gotlib, I. H., & Beach, S. R. H. (1995). A marital/family discord model of depression: Implications for therapeutic intervention. In N. S. Jacobson & A. S. Gurman (Eds.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy (pp. 411–436). New York: Guilford Press
Gotlib, I. H., & Goodman, S. H. (1999). Children of parents with depression. In W. K. Silverman & T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), Developmental issues in the clinical treatment of children and adolescents (pp. 415–432). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Gotlib, I. H., Ranganath, C., & Rosenfeld, J. P. (1998). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry, depression, and cognitive functioning. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 449–478
Graham, Y. P., Heim, C., Goodman, S. H., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1999). The effects of neonatal stress on brain development: Implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 545–565
Hammen, C. (1997). Children of depressed parents: The stress context. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children's coping: Linking theory and intervention. Issues in clinical child psychology (pp. 131–157). New York: Plenum
Hammen, C. (2002). The context of stress in families of children with depressed parents. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment, Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press
Hammen, C., Adrian, C., & Hiroto, D. (1988). A longitudinal test of the attributional vulnerability model in children at risk for depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 37–46
Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Stansbury, K. (1990). Relationship of mother and child variables to child outcomes in a high risk sample: A causal modeling analysis. Developmental Psychology, 26, 24–30
Hammen, C., Gordon, D., Burge, D., Adrian, C., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, D. (1987). Maternal affective disorders, illness, and stress: Risk for children's psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 736–741
Handley, S. L., Dunn, T. L., Waldron, G., & Baker, J. M. (1980). Tryptophan, cortisol and puerperal mood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 498–508
Harrington, R., Rutter, M., & Fombonne, E. (1996). Developmental pathways in depression: Multiple meanings, antecedents, and endpoints. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 601–616
Hart, S., Jones, N. A., Field, T., & Lundy, B. (1999). One-year-old infants of intrusive and withdrawn depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30, 111–120
Hay, D. F. (1997). Postpartum depression and cognitive development. In L. Murray & P. J. Cooper (Eds.), Postpartum depression and child development (pp. 85–110). New York: Guilford Press
Holmbeck, G. N. (1997). Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: examples from the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 599–610
Hops, H., Biglan, A., Sherman, L., Arthur, J., Friedman, L., & Osteen, V. (1987). Home observations of family interactions of depressed women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 341–346
Jaenicke, C., Hammen, C., Zupan, B., Hiroto, D., Gordon, D., Adrian, C., & Burge, D. (1987). Cognitive vulnerability in children at risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 559–572
Joiner, T. E., & Wagner, K. D. (1995). Attributional style and depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 15, 777–798
Jones, N., Field, T., Davalos, M. & Pickens, J. (1997). Brain electrical activity stability in infants/children of depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 28, 326–339
Kagan, J. (1994). On the nature of emotion. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (Nos. 2–3), pp. 7–24
Kagan, J., Arcus, D., & Snidman, N. (1993). The idea of temperament: Where do we go from here? In R. Plomin, G. E. McClearn, et al., (Eds.), Nature, nurture and psychology (pp. 197–210). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Kagan, J., & Snidman, N. (1991). Temperamental factors in human development. American Psychologist, 46, 856–862
Kay, G., Tarcic, N., Poltyrev, T., & Weinstock, M. (1998). Prenatal stress depresses immune function in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 63, 397–402
Keller, M. B., & Shapiro, R. W. (1981). Major depressive disorder: Initial results from a one-year prospective naturalistic follow-up study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 169, 761–768
Kendler, K. S., Kessler, R. C., Walters, E. E., MacLean, C. J., Sham, P. C., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1995). Stressful life events, genetic liability and onset of an episode of major depression in women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 833–842
Kessler, R., McGonagle, K., Zhao, S., Nelson, C., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H.-U., & Kendler, K. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19
Kochanska, G., Kuczynski, L., & Maguire, M. (1989). Patterns of mutual influence between well and depressed mothers and their 5-year-old children. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, April 27–30. Kansas City, Missouri
Kochanska, G., Kuczynski, L., Radke-Yarrow, M., & Welsh, J. D. (1987). Resolutions of control episodes between well and affectively ill mothers and their young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 441–456
Kovacs, M., Devlin, B., Pollock, M., Richards, C., & Mukerji, P. (1997). A controlled family history study of childhood-onset depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 613–623
Livingood, A. B., Daen, P., & Smith, B. D. (1983). The depressed mother as a source of stimulation for her infant. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 369–375
Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Genes and environment in personality development. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications
Loehlin, J. C., & Nichols, R. C. (1976). Heredity, environment, and personality. Austin: University of Texas Press
Lundy, B. L., Jones, N. A., Field, T., Nearing, G., Davalos, M., Pietro, P. A., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (1999). Prenatal depression effects on neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 22, 119–129
Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189
Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D., Grunebaum, H., & Botein, S. (1990). Infants at social risk: Maternal depression and family support services as mediators of infant development and security of attachment. Child Development, 61, 85–98
McGuffin, P., & Katz, R. (1993). Genes, adversity, and depression. In R. Plomin & G. E. McClearn (Eds.), Nature and nurture and psychology (pp. 217–230). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association
Meehl, P. E. (1972). Specific genetic etiology, psychodynamics, and therapeutic nihilism. International Journal of Mental Health, 1, 10–27
Meehl, P. E. (1990). Toward an integrated theory of schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia. Journal of Personality Disorders, 4, 1–99
Merikangas, K. R., Prusoff, B. A., & Weissman, M. M. (1988). Parental concordance for affective disorders: Psychopathology in offspring. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 279–290
Milberger, S., Beiderman, J., Faraone, S. V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1138–1142
Monroe, S. M., & Simons, A. D. (1991). Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life-stress research: Implications for depressive disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 406–425
Murray, K. T., & Sines, J. O. (1996). Parsing the genetic and nongenetic variance in children's depressive behavior. Journal of Affective Disorders, 36, 23–34
Murray, L. (1992). The impact of postnatal depression on infant development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 543–561
Nemeroff, C. (1996). The corticotropin-releasing factor hypothesis of depression: New findings and new directions. Molecular Psychiatry, 1, 336–342
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 424–443
Nulman, I., Rovet, J., Stewart, D. E., Wolpin, J., Gardner, H. A., Theis, J. G., Kulin, N., & Koren, G. (1997). Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to antidepressant drugs. New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 258–262
Nurnberger, J., Goldin, L. R., & Gershon, E. S. (1986). Genetics of psychiatric disorders. In G. Winokur & P. Clayton (Eds.), The medical basis of psychiatry (pp. 486–521). Philadelphia: WB Saunders
O'Hara, M. W. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the post partum. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 569–573
Pasamanick, B., & Knobloch, H. (1966). Retrospective studies on the epidemiology of reproductive casualty: Old and new. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 12, 7–26
Pastuszak, A., Schick-Boschetto, B., Zuber, C., Feldkamp, M., Pinelli, M.. (1993). Pregnancy outcome following first-trimester exposure to fluoxetine (Prozac). Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 2246–2248
Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, Ore.: Castalia
Petersen, A. C. (1988). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 583–607
Plomin, R. (1990). The role of inheritance in behavior. Science, 248, 183–188
Plomin, R. (1994). Genetics and experience: The interplay between nature and nurture. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Loehlin, J. C. (1977). Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 309–322
Plomin, R., Emde, R. N., Braungart, J. M., Campos, J., Corley, R., Fulker, D. W., Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., Robinson, J., Zahn-Waxler, C.. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376
Poltyrev, T., Keshet, G. I., Kay, G., & Weinstock, M. (1996). Role of experimental conditions in determining differences in exploratory behavior of prenatally stressed rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 453–462
Pound, A., Cox, A., Puckering, C., & Mills, M. (1985). The impact of maternal depression on young children. In J. E. Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology (pp. 3-10). Oxford: Pergamon Press
Radke-Yarrow, M. (1998). Children of depressed mothers: From early childhood to maturity. New York: Cambridge University Press
Radke-Yarrow, M., Belmont, B., Nottelmann, E., & Bottomly, L. (1990). Young children's self-conceptions: Origins in the natural discourse of depressed and normal mothers and their children. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), The self in transition: Infancy to childhood (pp. 345–361). Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Radke-Yarrow, M., Cummings, E. M., Kuczynski, L., & Chapman, M. (1985). Patterns of attachment in two- and three-year-olds in normal families and families with parental depression. Child Development, 56, 884–893
Radke-Yarrow, M., Nottelmann, E., Martinez, P., & Fox, M. B. (1992). Young children of affectively ill parents: A longitudinal study of psychosocial development. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 68–77
Radke-Yarrow, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Richardson, D. T., & Susman, A. (1994). Caring behavior in children of clinically depressed and well mothers. Child Development, 65, 1405–1414
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401
Rende, R. D., Plomin, R., Reiss, D., & Hetherington, E. M. (1993). Genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptomatology in adolescence: Individual differences and extreme scores. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1387–1398
Rende, R., Warner, V., Wickramarante, P., & Weissman, M. M. (1999). Sibling aggregation for psychiatric disorders in offspring at high and low risk for depression: 10-year follow up. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1291–1298
Rubin, K. H., & Lollis, S. P. (1988). Origins and consequences of social withdrawal. In J. Belsky, T. Nezworski, et al. (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment. Child psychology (pp. 219–252). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum
Rutter, M., Dunn, J., Plomin, R., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Maughan, B., Ormel, J., Meyer, J., & Eaves, L. (1997). Integrating nature and nurture: Implications of person-environment correlations and interactions for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 335–364
Rutter, M., & Quinton, P. (1984). Parental psychiatric disorder: Effects on children. Psychological Medicine, 14, 853–880
Sameroff, A. J. (1975). Transactional models in early social relations. Human Development, 18, 65–79
Sameroff, A. J. (1995). General systems theories and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.) (1995). Developmental psychopathology, Vol. 1: Theory and methods (pp. 659–695). New York: Wiley
Scarr, S., & Deater-Deckard, K. (1997). Family effects on individual differences in development. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Burack, et al. (Eds.). Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 115–136). New York: Cambridge University Press
Schaughency, E. A., & Lahey, B. B. (1985). Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of child deviance: Roles of child behavior, parental depression, and marital satisfaction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 718–723
Schneider, M. L. (1992). Prenatal stress exposure alters postnatal behavioral expressions under conditions of novelty challenge in rhesus monkey infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 25, 529–540
Sharp, D., Hay, D. F., Pawlby, S., Schmucker, G., Allen, H., & Humar, R. (1995). The impact of postnatal depression on boys' intellectual development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 36, 1315–1336
Sheeber, L., Davis, B., & Hops, H. (2002). Gender specific vulnerability to depression in children of depressed mothers. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Alternative pathways to risk for psychopathology, Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press
Silberg, J., & Rutter, M. (2002). Nature-nurture interplay in the risks associated with parental depression. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment, Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press
Singer, J. M., & Fagen, J. W. (1992). Negative affect, emotional expression, and forgetting in young infants. Developmental Psychology, 28, 43–57
Smith, R., Cubis, J., Brinsmead, M., Lewin, T., Singh, B., Owens, P., Eng-Cheng, C., Hall, C., Adler, R., Lovelock, M., Hurt, D., Rowley, M., & Nolan, M. (1990). Mood changes, obstetric experience and alterations in plasma cortisol, beta-endorphin and corticotrophin releasing hormone during pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34, 53–69
Snyder, J. (1991). Discipline as a mediator of the impact of maternal stress and mood on child conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 263–276
Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17–29
Suomi, S. J. (1995). Influence of attachment theory on ethological studies of biobehavioral development in nonhuman primates. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir, et al. (Eds.), Attachment theory: Social, developmental, and clinical perspectives (pp. 185–201). Hillsdale, N.J.: Analytic Press
Teixeira, J. M., Fisk, N. M., & Glover, V. (1999). Association between maternal anxiety in pregnancy and increased uterine artery resistance index: cohort based study. British Medical Journal, 318, 153–157
Tellegen, A., Lykken, D. T., Bouchard, T. J.., Wilcox, K. J., Segal, N. L., & Rich, S. (1988). Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1031–1039
Teti, D. M., & Gelfand, D. M. (1991). Behavioral competence among mothers of infants in the first year: The mediational role of maternal self-efficacy. Child Development, 62, 918–929
Teti, D. M., & Gelfand, D. M. (1997). Maternal cognitions as mediators of child outcomes in the context of postpartum depression. In L. Murray & P. J. Cooper, (Eds.), Postpartum depression and child development (pp. 136–164). New York: Guilford Press
Teti, D. M., Gelfand, D. M., Messinger, D. S., & Isabella, R. (1995). Maternal depression and the quality of early attachment: An examination of infants, preschoolers, and their mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31, 364–376
Todd, R. D., Neuman, R., Geller, B., Fox, L. W., & Hickok, J. (1993). Genetic studies of affective disorders: Should we be starting with childhood onset probands? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 1164–1171
Tronick, E. Z., & Gianino, A. F. (1986). The transmission of maternal disturbance to the infant. In E. Z. Tronick & T. Field (Eds.), Maternal depression and infant disturbance (pp. 5–12). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Tsuang, M. T., & Faraone, S. V. (1990). The genetics of mood disorders. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Wadhwa, P. D., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Chicz-DeMet, A., & Porto, M. (1996). Prenatal psychosocial factors and the neuroendocrine axis in human pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 432–446
Walker, E., Neumann, C. C., Baum, K., Davis, D. M., DiForio, D., & Bergman, A. (1996). The developmental pathways to schizophrenia: Potential moderated effects of stress. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 647–666
Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (1988). Maternal depression and its relationship to life stress, perceptions of child behavior problems, parenting behaviors, and child conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 299–315
Weissman, M. M. (1984). The epidemiology of depression: An update on sex differences in rats. Journal of Affective Disorders, 7, 179–188
Weissman, M. M., Bland, R. C., Canino, G. J., Faravelli, C., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H. G., Joyce, P. R., Karam, E. G., Lee, C. K., Lellouch, J., Lepine, J. P., Newman, S. C., Rubio-Stipec, M., Wells, J. E., Wickramaratne, P. J., Wittchen, H., & Yeh, E. K. (1996). Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 24–31
Weissman, M. M., Gammon, G. D., John, K., Merikangas, K. R., Warner, V., Prusoff, B., & Sholomskas, D. (1987). Children of depressed parents: Increased psychopathology and early onset of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 847–853
Whiffen, V. E., & Gottlib, I. M. (1989). Infants of postpartum depressed mothers: Temperament and cognitive status. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 274–279
Whisman, M. A., & Uebelacker, L. A. (1999). Integrating couple therapy with individual therapies and antidepressant medications in the treatment of depression. Clinical Psychology-Science and Practice, 6, 415–429
Williams, M. T., Hennessy, M. B., & Davis, H. N. (1998). Stress during pregnancy alters rat offspring morphology and ultrasonic vocalizations. Physiology and Behavior, 63, 337–343
Williamson, D. E., Ryan, N. D., Birmaher, B., Dahl, R. E.. (1995). A case-control family history study of depression in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1596–1607
Zahn-Waxler, C., Denham, S., Iannotti, R. J., & Cummings, E. M. (1992). Peer relations in children with a depressed caregiver. In R. D. Parke, G. W. Ladd, et al. (Eds.), Family-peer relationships: Modes of linkage (pp. 317–344). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum
Zahn-Waxler, C., Iannotti, R. J., Cummings, E. M., & Denham, S. (1990). Antecedents of problem behaviors in children of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 271–291
Zuckerman, B. S., Bauchner, H., Parker, S., & Cabral, H. (1990). Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and newborn irritability. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 11, 190–194