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  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: July 2013

8 - Greening the charcoal chain in Tanzania

Summary

Introduction

With a population of 34 million and an extremely high reliance on charcoal, Tanzania is a classic example of the social and environmental risks faced by many developing countries. About 85% of the total urban population uses charcoal for household cooking and energy provision for small and medium enterprises (Sawe 2004). In 1992 the total amount of charcoal consumed nationwide was estimated to be about 1.2 million tons (Sawe 2004). In 2002, the charcoal business generated revenues of more than 200 billion TShs (US$ 200 million), with more than 70 000 people from rural and urban areas employed in the industry (TaTEDO 2002b). Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s largest city, accounts for more than 50% of all charcoal consumed in the country.

The charcoal sector is far from sustainable. The forest resources that the industry is relying on are disappearing rapidly and the productivity of the sector has not seen any improvement either. The charcoal sector in Tanzania is operating economically, socially and environmentally in a suboptimal manner. However, solutions that safeguard the charcoal sector’s future are not straightforward.

References
Burgess, N. D. and Muir, C. (eds.) (1994). Coastal forests of Eastern Africa: biodiversity and conservation. Proceedings of a workshop held at the University of Dar es Salaam, August 9–11, 1993. Society for Environmental Exploration/Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, UK.
CHAPOSA (2002). Final report CHAPOSA research project-Tanzania. Swedish Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm.
Napendaeli, S. (2004). Supply-demand chain analysis of charcoal and firewood in Dar es Salaam and Coast Region. Tanzania Traditional Energy Development and Environment Organization (TaTEDO), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Palmula, S. and Beaudin, M. (2007). Greening the charcoal chain – substituting for charcoal as a household cooking fuel in Dar es Salaam. Poverty reduction and environmental management (PREM), IVM Institute for Environmental Studies, VU UniversityAmsterdam, the Netherlands.
Sawe, E. (2004). An overview of charcoal industry in Tanzania – issues and challenges; prepared for the national R&D committee on industry and energy. Tanzania Traditional Energy Development and Environment Organization (TaTEDO), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
TaTEDO (2002a). Charcoal industry in Tanzania. Report, Tanzania Traditional Energy Development and Environment Organization (TaTEDO), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
TaTEDO (2002b). The true cost of charcoal. Report, Tanzania Traditional Energy Development and Environment Organization (TaTEDO), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
World Bank (2009). Environmental crisis or sustainable development opportunity? Transforming the charcoal sector in Tanzania: A Policy Note # 50207. World Bank, Washington DC.
World Bank (2010). Enabling reforms: a stakeholder-based analysis of the political economy of Tanzania’s charcoal sector and the poverty and social impacts of proposed reforms. #55140. World Bank, Washington DC.