This chapter outlines the ways of identifying women at risk and/or women who already show signs and symptoms of depression/anxiety associated with childbearing; and suggest treatment options and preventive measures. Depression during pregnancy is common, with reports suggesting that approximately 10-20" of pregnant women meet criteria for a major or minor depressive disorder. Postpartum psychosis may have any of the features of acute schizophreniform disorder, but most frequently resembles an episode of bipolar disorder, with an early manic phase and later depressive swing. Prevention is considered to be the first line of treatment for postpartum depression. A majority of women have significant psychological issues associated with their transition to motherhood. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has also shown promise in the treatment of depression, both during pregnancy and in the postnatal period. A number of studies have looked at hormonal treatment and prevention of perinatal psychiatric disorders.