1. , , Cerebral edema, intracranial pressure, and herniation syndromes. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1999;8:183–191.
2. , Normal pressure “herniation.” Neurocrit Care 2005;2:172–175.
3. Large hemispheric infarction, deterioration, and intracranial pressure. Neurology 1995;45:1286–1290.
4. , , , Intracranial pressure monitoring and outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Can J Surg 2000;43:442–448.
5. , , , et al. Multivariable prognostic analysis in traumatic brain injury: results from the impact study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:329–337.
6. . Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2007;24 Suppl 1:S1–106.
7. Fundamentals of Operative Techniques in Neurosurgery. New York, Thieme, 2002.
8. , , , , Ventriculostomy-related infections in critically ill patients: a 6-year experience. J Neurosurg 2005;103:468–472.
9. , , , et al. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in a neurology intensive care unit. J Neurol 2001;248:959–964.
10. , , , et al. Nosocomial infections in a neurosurgery intensive care unit. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1999;141:1303–1308.
11. , , , et al. Impact of nosocomial infectious complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 2008;62:80–87; discussion 87.
12. , , , , , Periodic surveillance of nosocomial infections in a neurosurgery intensive care unit. Infection 2005;33:115–121.
13. , , , et al. Ventriculostomy infections: the effect of monitoring duration and catheter exchange in 584 patients. J Neurosurg 1996;85:419–424.
14. , , , Risk of infection with prolonged ventricular catheterization. Neurosurgery 2004;55:594–599; discussion 599–601.
15. , , , , , Failure of regular external ventricular drain exchange to reduce cerebrospinal fluid infection: result of a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;73:759–761.
16. , Jr., , The efficacy and cost of prophylactic and perioprocedural antibiotics in patients with external ventricular drains. Neurosurgery 2000;47:1124–1127; discussion 1127–1129.
17. , , CSF antibiotic prophylaxis for neurosurgical patients with ventriculostomy: a randomised study. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1998;71:146–148.
18. , Jr, , et al. Initial CT findings in 753 patients with severe head injury. A report from the NIH Traumatic Coma Data Bank. J Neurosurg 1990;73:688–698.
19. , , , et al. Assessment: transcranial Doppler ultrasonography: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2004;62:1468–1481.
20. , , , et al. Symptomatic vasospasm diagnosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage: Evaluation of transcranial Doppler ultrasound and cerebral angiography as related to compromised vascular distribution. Crit Care Med 2002;30:1348–1355.
21. , , , , Role of transcranial Doppler monitoring in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 1999;44:1237–1247; discussion 1247–1248.
22. , , , , Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage investigated by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1988;42:81–84.
23. , , Relative changes in flow velocities in vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a transcranial Doppler study. Neurocrit Care 2005;2:133–140.
24. , , , et al. Cerebrovascular reactivity and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a pilot study. Neurology 2006;66:727–729.
25. , , Cerebral autoregulation testing after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: The phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Crit Care Med 2001;29:158–163.
26. , , , Continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Anesth Analg 2004;98:1133–1139.
27. , , , , Detection of electrographic seizures with continuous EEG monitoring in critically ill patients. Neurology 2004;62:1743–1748.
28. Neurophysiologic monitoring in the neuroscience intensive care unit. Neurol Clin 1995;13:579–626.
29. , , , et al. Prevalence of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in comatose patients. Neurology 2000;54:340–345.
30. , , , , Prognostic value of EEG monitoring after status epilepticus: A prospective adult study. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997;14:326–334.
31. , , An assessment of nonconvulsive seizures in the intensive care unit using continuous EEG monitoring: An investigation of variables associated with mortality. Neurology 1996;47:83–89.
32. , , Continuous EEG monitoring in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Clin Neurophysiol 2005;22:92–98.
33. , , , et al. Early and persistent impaired percent alpha variability on continuous electroencephalography monitoring as predictive of poor outcome after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2002;97:84–92.
34. , , , et al. Early detection of vasospasm after acute subarachnoid hemorrhage using continuous EEG ICU monitoring. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1997;103:607–615.
35. 3rd, , , , Carbon dioxide reactivity and pressure autoregulation of brain tissue oxygen. Neurosurgery 2001;48:377–383; discussion 383–384.
36. , , , et al. The role of lung function in brain tissue oxygenation following traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2008;108:59–65
37. , , Does tissue oxygen-tension reliably reflect cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption? Anesth Analg 2002;95:1042–1048.
38. , , , Brain tissue PO2 related to SjvO2, ICP, and CPP in severe brain injury. Neurosurg Rev 2000;23:94–97.
39. , Advanced monitoring in the intensive care unit: brain tissue oxygen tension. Curr Opin Crit Care 2002;8:115–120.
40. , , , et al. Effect of cerebral perfusion pressure augmentation on regional oxygenation and metabolism after head injury. Crit Care Med 2005;33:189–195; discussion 255–257.
41. , , 3rd. Continuous monitoring of the microcirculation in neurocritical care: an update on brain tissue oxygenation. Curr Opin Crit Care 2006;12:97–102.
42. , , , et al. Astrocyte-mediated control of cerebral blood flow. Nat Neurosci 2006;9:260–267.
43. , 3rd, , et al. Brain tissue oxygen tension is more indicative of oxygen diffusion than oxygen delivery and metabolism in patients with traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2008;36:1917–1924.
44. , , , , , Increased inspired oxygen concentration as a factor in improved brain tissue oxygenation and tissue lactate levels after severe human head injury. J Neurosurg 1999;91:1–10.
45. , , , et al. Lack of improvement in cerebral metabolism after hyperoxia in severe head injury: A microdialysis study. J Neurosurg 2003;98:952–958.
46. , , , , Effect of hyperoxia on cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen measured using positron emission tomography in patients with acute severe head injury. J Neurosurg 2007;106:526–529.
47. , , , et al. Reduced mortality rate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury treated with brain tissue oxygen monitoring. J Neurosurg 2005;103:805–811.
48. , , , , , Brain tissue oxygen guided treatment supplementing ICP/CPP therapy after traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:760–764.
49. , , , , , Influence of cerebral oxygenation following severe head injury on neuropsychological testing. Neurol Res 2004;26:414–417.
50. , , , et al. Brain oxygen tension in severe head injury. Neurosurgery 2000;46:868–876; discussion 876–878.
51. , , , , , Monitoring of brain tissue PO2 in traumatic brain injury: effect of cerebral hypoxia on outcome. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1998;71:153–156.
52. , , , , Multimodal cerebral monitoring in comatose head-injured patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140:357–365.
53. , , , , Relationship of brain tissue PO2 to outcome after severe head injury. Crit Care Med 1998;26:1576–1581.
54. , , , , , Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries. Neurosurgery 1997;41:1082–1091; discussion 1091–1093.
55. , , , , , Adverse cerebral events detected after subarachnoid hemorrhage using brain oxygen and microdialysis probes. Neurosurgery 2002;50:1213–1221; discussion 1221–1222.
56. , , , Brain tissue PO(2), PCO(2), and pH during cerebral vasospasm. Surg Neurol 2000;54:432–437; discussion 438.
57. , , , Therapeutic aspects of brain tissue PO2 monitoring after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2002;81:307–309.
58. , , , Effect of hypothermia on brain tissue oxygenation in patients with severe head injury. Br J Anaesth 2002;88:188–192.
59. Brain microdialysis. J Neurochem 1989;52:1667–1679.
60. , , , et al. Consensus meeting on microdialysis in neurointensive care. Intensive Care Med 2004;30:2166–2169.
61. , Advanced monitoring in the neurology intensive care unit: Microdialysis. Curr Opin Crit Care 2002;8:121–127.
62. , , Multimodality monitoring in neurocritical care. Crit Care Clin 2007;23:507–538.
63. , , Neuromonitoring: brain oxygenation and microdialysis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2003;3:517–523.
64. , , , , Extracellular lactate and glucose alterations in the brain after head injury measured by microdialysis. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1965–1973.
65. , , , , Detection of secondary insults by brain tissue PO2 and bedside microdialysis in severe head injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2002;81:319–321.
66. , , Cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring in intensive care by thermal diffusion. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1993;59:43–46.
67. , , , Principles of cerebral oxygenation and blood flow in the neurological critical care unit. Neurocrit Care 2006;4:77–82.
68. , , , Extracellular glutamate and aspartate in head-injured patients. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2000;76:437–438.
69. , , , , , High extracellular potassium and its correlates after severe head injury: Relationship to high intracranial pressure. Neurosurg Focus 2000;8:e10
70. , , , et al. Persistently low extracellular glucose correlates with poor outcome 6 months after human traumatic brain injury despite a lack of increased lactate: a microdialysis study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2003;23:865–877.
71. , , , Bedside detection of brain ischemia using intracerebral microdialysis: Subarachnoid hemorrhage and delayed ischemic deterioration. Neurosurgery 1999;45:1176–1184; discussion 1184–1185.
72. , , , , , , Neurochemical monitoring using intracerebral microdialysis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 1996;84:606–616.
73. , , , , , Bedside microdialysis: a tool to monitor cerebral metabolism in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients? Crit Care Med 2002;30:1062–1070.
74. , , , , Role of bedside microdialysis in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 2001;94:740–749.
75. , , , , Poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship of cerebral metabolism to outcome. J Neurosurg 2004;100:400–406.
76. , , , , Frameless stereotactic aspiration and thrombolysis of deep intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with reduced levels of extracellular cerebral glutamate and unchanged lactate pyruvate ratios. Neurocrit Care 2007;6:22–29.
77. , , , Neurochemical monitoring of glycerol therapy in patients with ischemic brain edema. Stroke 2005;36:e4–6.
78. , , , , , Effects of hypothermia on excitatory amino acids and metabolism in stroke patients: a microdialysis study. Stroke 2002;33:519–524.
79. , , , et al. Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Stroke 2007;38:56–61.
80. , , , et al. Predictive value of neurochemical monitoring in large middle cerebral artery infarction. Stroke 2001;32:1863–1867.
81. , , , , , Microdialytic monitoring during cerebrovascular surgery. Neurol Res 1996;18:370–376.
82. , , , , , Biochemical changes related to hypoxia during cerebral aneurysm surgery: combined microdialysis and tissue oxygen monitoring: case report. Neurosurgery 2000;46:201–205; discussion 205–206.
83. , , , et al. An increase in extracellular glutamate is a sensitive method of detecting ischaemic neuronal damage during cranial base and cerebrovascular surgery. An in vivo microdialysis study. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140:349–355; discussion 356.
84. , , , Local changes in cerebral energy metabolism due to brain retraction during routine neurosurgical procedures. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2002;144:679–683.
85. , , , , , Increased blood-brain barrier permeability of morphine in a patient with severe brain lesions as determined by microdialysis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2001;45:390–392.
86. , , Microdialysis. A novel tool for clinical studies of anti-infective agents. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001;57:211–219.
87. , , Rifampin concentrations in various compartments of the human brain: a novel method for determining drug levels in the cerebral extracellular space. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42:2626–2629.
88. , , , et al. Free phenytoin concentration measurement in brain extracellular fluid: A pilot study. Br J Neurosurg 2006;20:285–289.
89. , Jugular bulb catheterization: experience with 123 patients. Crit Care Med 1990;18:1220–1223.
90. , , , Comparison of jugular venous oxygen saturation and brain tissue PO2 as monitors of cerebral ischemia after head injury. Crit Care Med 1999;27:2337–2345.
91. , , Elevated jugular venous oxygen saturation after severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1999;90:9–15.
92. , , , et al. Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994;57:717–723.
93. , , Increased jugular bulb saturation is associated with poor outcome in traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;70:101–104.
94. The first decade of continuous monitoring of jugular bulb oxyhemoglobin saturation: management strategies and clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 1998;26:344–351.
95. , , , et al. Prevention of secondary ischemic insults after severe head injury. Crit Care Med 1999;27:2086–2095.
96. , , , Accuracy of continuous jugular bulb venous oximetry during intracranial surgery. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1995;7:174–177.
97. , , Limitations of jugular bulb oxyhemoglobin saturation without intracranial pressure monitoring in subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1996;8:21–25.
98. , The determination of cerebral blood flow in man by the use of nitrous oxide in low concentrations. Am J Physiol 1945;143:53–66.