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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: July 2019

Part IV - Participating in Group Activities


Criminal responsibility for contributing to a group acting with a common purpose is a key – yet controversial – issue in ICL. On the one hand, it is well-known that international crimes are normally committed by groups of people acting pursuant to joint plans or agreements. This calls for liability theories that establish responsibility based on the accused’s participation in a collective criminal effort. On the other hand, the principles of individual criminal responsibility and personal guilt proscribe the attribution of crimes committed by others to the accused merely because of his/her membership in a group or organization.