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1 - Minerals and Meteorites

Historical Foundations and Current Status

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 August 2021

Alan Rubin
Affiliation:
University of California, Los Angeles
Chi Ma
Affiliation:
Caltech

Summary

The use of minerals and rocks by primates for making primitive tools is not confined to our species. Some chimpanzees, long-tailed macaques, and wild bearded capuchin monkeys use stone tools to crack open nuts and fruits, and in the case of coastal-dwelling macaques, shuck oysters. Hominins were using stone tools to scrape flesh from ungulate carcasses 3.4 million years ago. By 1.6 million years ago, hominins had discovered that some rocks (e.g., flint, chert, rhyolite, quartzite) were more suitable than others (e.g., limestone, sandstone, shale) for making hand axes; they presumably developed crude criteria (e.g., color, heft, friability, location) for distinguishing them.

Type
Chapter
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

The use of minerals and rocks by primates for making primitive tools is not confined to our species. Some chimpanzees, long-tailed macaques, and wild bearded capuchin monkeys use stone tools to crack open nuts and fruits, and in the case of coastal-dwelling macaques, shuck oysters. Hominins were using stone tools to scrape flesh from ungulate carcasses 3.4 million years ago. By 1.6 million years ago, hominins had discovered that some rocks (e.g., flint, chert, rhyolite, quartzite) were more suitable than others (e.g., limestone, sandstone, shale) for making hand axes; they presumably developed crude criteria (e.g., color, heft, friability, location) for distinguishing them.

In the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic eras, modern humans began to produce tools made of flint (opal and chalcedony) and jade (jadeite and nephrite) to manufacture arrowheads and spearpoints. They used gold for ornaments, and native copper for knives, bowls, and cups. Mineral pigments for cave painting and body decoration were made from hematite, red and yellow ocher (hematite mixed with clay), and white chalk. These materials were often used in conjunction with charcoal (from burnt wood) or carbon black (from charred wood, bone, ivory, vines, and stems). The oldest known cave painting (dating more than 40,000 years before the present) is of a four-footed animal, perhaps a banteng (a species of wild cattle), drawn in red ocher on the wall of a cave in Borneo.

Copper mining had begun in Europe by 5400 BCE – there is evidence that miners of the Vinča culture had sunk 20-m shafts at a site at Rudna Glava in Serbia. Within the limestone at that site, miners worked veins of copper ore, mainly malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2) and azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2), formed by the gradual weathering and decomposition of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) associated with magnetite (Fe3O4). The availability of copper in the Balkans and other regions helped usher in the Bronze Age. On the Iranian Plateau, the Bronze Age began in the fifth millennium BCE when arsenic-laden copper ore was smelted to make arsenical bronze. It took another 2,000 years before bronze was commonly made with tin. [Tin ore, primarily cassiterite (SnO2), was smelted and added to molten copper to make tin bronze.] The advantage of tin over arsenic is twofold: arsenical bronze had to be work-hardened to become as strong as tin bronze, and it was easier to add specific amounts of tin to molten copper to achieve desired results than to rely on chemically heterogeneous arsenic-bearing copper ore. Both types of bronze are harder than copper and were used to make durable tools, weapons, and armor. New mineral pigments were also adopted: malachite (green), azurite (blue), and cinnabar (red).

There are several examples of metallic iron artifacts from the Bronze Age; specimens that have been analyzed appear to have been manufactured from meteoritic metal. These relics include knives, blades, and axes from China (Figure 1.1), Tutankhamun’s dagger from Egypt, an axe from Syria, and needles and bracelets from Europe.

Figure 1.1 A Chinese early Chou Dynasty bronze weapon with meteoritic iron blade.

Photo from Gettens et al. (Reference Gettens, Clarke and Chase1971); used with permission from the Smithsonian Institution.

Toward the end of the second millennium BCE, craftsmen began smelting terrestrial iron ore (magnetite, hematite, goethite, limonite,Footnote 1 and siderite) and adding small amounts of carbon via local plants to make pig iron. Because iron ores tend to be impure, fluxing agents such as limestone were often used to remove slag. Iron tools and weapons proved superior to those made of bronze and within a few hundred years the technology spread through much of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

The Hebrew Scriptures (the earliest parts of which were probably written down in about the sixth century BCE) mention six metals (gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron) and one metallic alloy (bronze) as well as about a dozen precious and semiprecious gems (including emerald, topaz, ruby, beryl, turquoise, and several varieties of silica – carnelian, amethyst, agate, onyx, jasper) (New International Version translation).

As humans learned to utilize the resources of their geological environment more effectively, it eventually became apparent to scholars that a systematic approach was necessary to classify minerals and rocks. The more inquisitive yearned to understand the origin of these materials.

The earliest detailed discussions of minerals came from the Greeks. In the fourth century BCE, Aristotle wrote Meteorologica (Meteorology) and presented his ideas on how metals and minerals were formed: after being heated by the Sun, the Earth produced both moist and dry exhalations. Moist exhalations congealed within dry rocks to form metals such as iron, gold, and copper; dry effluvia may have caused certain rocks to burn and form infusible materials such as realgar, cinnabar, sulfur, and ocher. The idea that Earth emitted gases was well supported by observations of steam and smoke from volcanoes, hot springs, and fumaroles.

Aristotle’s student, Theophrastus of Eresus, wrote the first mineralogical treatise, Peri Lithon (On Stones), in about 314 BCE. He cataloged numerous minerals that were being used and traded in Attica; he also characterized minerals by such physical properties as color, luster, transparency, fracture patterns, hardness, weight (density), and fusibility. He described contemporary techniques for extracting metals and testing their purity.

In the first century CE, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder wrote Naturalis Historia (Natural History), a compendium of the knowledge of the ancient world. In the last five volumes of this massive work, he listed numerous minerals and gemstones, reported their crystal shapes, physical properties, and practical uses, and discussed the mining of metals. He cited numerous authorities who had previously written treatises on precious stones, but of these, only Theophrastus’s work has survived.

The next known major mineralogical text is Aljamahir fi Maerifat Aljawahir (known in English as Gems), written 1,000 years later (in the eleventh century CE) by the Persian polymath, Abu Rayhan Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni. Al-Biruni discussed the physical properties of minerals and explained how he had constructed a device for measuring specific gravity. He detailed the sources of metals and gemstones, reported their prices, and related anecdotes about specific specimens.

During the 1250s, Albertus Magnus, a German Catholic Dominican friar (later canonized a saint), wrote a monumental work, Book of Minerals, covering such topics as the hardness, porosity, density, and fissility of rocks (i.e., their propensity to split along planes of weakness), the properties of gems, the distribution of stones, and the taste, smell, color, and malleability of metals. He discussed whether stones have mystical powers such as curing abscesses, ridding the body of poison, bringing victory to soldiers, and reconciling the hearts of men.

Georgius Agricola (the Latinized name of Georg Bauer) was a sixteenth-century German physician, often called “The Father of Mineralogy.” Agricola wrote De natura fossilium (The Natural Minerals) in 1548, which is essentially the first comprehensive mineralogy textbook. He introduced a systematic classification of minerals, described many new species, and discussed their physical properties and relationships. (The word fossil is from the Latin fossilis meaning “obtained by digging”; it was often used in this period in reference to minerals.) Agricola’s most famous work is De re metallica (On the Nature of Metals),Footnote 2 which was published posthumously in 1556; it covered all aspects of mining including mineral exploration, mine construction, metal extraction, smelting, and refining; he even discussed the legal issues involving mine ownership and labor management. The metals included gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, iron, and mercury. The other mineral categories in Agricola’s system were “earths” (mainly powdery argillaceous soils that turned into mud when moistened), “stones” (all manner of hard dry rocks, specifically including limestone, marble, gems, and geodes), and “congealed juices” (consisting of “salts” such as rock salt and alum, and “sulfurs” such as coal and bitumen).

Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish naturalist known as the “Father of Modern Taxonomy,” introduced binomial nomenclature for living organisms in the first edition of Systema Naturae (System of Nature) in 1735. In the ensuing decades, expanded editions were published, eventually leading to the classification of more than 10,000 species. Linnaeus divided the natural world into the animal, plant, and mineral kingdoms. In the 10th edition of his great work (1758), the mineral kingdom was itself divided into three classes: (1) rocks, (2) minerals and ores, and (3) fossils and aggregates. He applied the binomial scheme to minerals, classifying quartz, for example, into white quartz (Quartzum album), colored quartz (Quartzum tinctum), and clear quartz (Quartzum aqueum).

Linnaeus was held in high regard by his contemporaries. The Genevan political philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote that he (Rousseau) knew of “no greater man on Earth.” Linnaeus appears to have shared this view. He often proclaimed “Deus creavit, Linnaeus disposuit” (“God created, Linneaus organized”) and wrote in his autobiography that “No one has more completely changed a whole science and initiated a new epoch.” Linnaeus was ennobled in 1761 and assumed the name Carl von Linné.

One of Linnaeus’ most ardent devotees was Abraham Gottlob Werner,Footnote 3 a German geologist best known for his theory of neptunism, the subsequently discredited idea that all rocks on the Earth’s surface precipitated successively from a deep, hot, viscous, mineral-laden globe-encircling ocean. Rocks of each type were envisioned by Werner as having been deposited all over the Earth at the same time; for example, granites in North America were supposed to be the same age as granites in Europe, Africa and Asia. However, stratigraphic relationships (and, much later, radiometric dating) showed this was not the case. Werner also maintained that basalt had an aqueous origin despite field studies demonstrating it erupted from volcanoes.

Werner’s first important work was Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien (On the External Characteristics of Minerals), published in 1774. In that treatise he developed a mineral classification scheme, which allowed field geologists to identify minerals accurately by using only qualitative measurements of their external physical properties, e.g., color, hardness, shape, luster, specific gravity, odor, etc. He divided the subject of mineralogy into three major fields of study: (1) identification and classification, (2) distribution, and (3) formation. The book was translated into several languages and used as a field manual by many European and American geologists.

Throughout the eighteenth century, scholars became well acquainted with the physical properties of a wide range of mineral specimens, but the modern science of mineralogy could not flourish until further advances were made in petrography, crystallography, and mineral chemistry. The pioneers in these fields are often honored as founding fathers.

Petrography. The Scottish geologist, William Nicol, invented the polarizing microscope in the early nineteenth entury using Iceland spar (a transparent form of calcite); in 1815 he developed a technique for making thin sections of rocks and minerals. These advances were put to good use by British geologist Henry Clifton Sorby, sometimes called “The Father of Microscopic Petrography” for his detailed studies of terrestrial-rock thin sections in transmitted light with the polarizing microscope (Marvin Reference Ma and Rossman2006). Sorby also earned the sobriquet “The Father of Metallography” for his reflected-light microscopic studies of acid-etched iron and steel. He is best known in the meteoritics community for suggesting in 1877 that one possible origin for chondrules is as “droplets of fiery rain” that condensed from interplanetary gas early in the history of the Solar System.

Crystallography. Abbé René-Just Haüy, an eighteenth-century French mineralogist, is often called “The Father of Crystallography.” In his seminal 1801 work, Traité de Minéralogie (Treatise on Mineralogy), he reported examining some crystals that were broken and other crystals that had been deliberately cut into smaller indivisible chunks. He noted their congruent shapes and compared the primitive crystal forms of different classes of minerals. He studied cleavage planes, measured interfacial angles, and explored pyroelectricity. Haüy explained that “A casual glance at crystals may lead to the idea that they were pure sports of nature, but this is simply an elegant way of declaring one’s ignorance. With a thoughtful examination of them, we discover laws of arrangement” (Levin Reference Levin1990). Ultimately, Haüy described all known minerals by crystal class and chemical composition. It was not until the early twenthieth century that the British father-and-son team of William Henry Bragg and Lawrence Bragg developed X-ray crystallography and explored the structures of crystals in unprecedented detail.

Mineral chemistry. The Swedish chemist, Torbern Bergman, made great advances in the quantitative chemical analysis of mineral species. His 1774 study of a magnesian ankerite (Ca(Fe,Mg)(CO3)2) may be the first complete chemical analysis of an individual mineral (Hey Reference Hey1973). Over the next decade, Bergman analyzed other phases and developed a mineral classification scheme based on their chemical and physical properties. In 1784 (the year of Bergman’s death), Irish geologist Richard Kirwan published his first edition of Elements of Mineralogy, in which he listed the bulk chemical analyses of 74 rocks and minerals. As advances in inorganic chemistry led to an increase in the number of recognized elements (from 23 in 1789 – excluding 10 erroneous entries from a list published by Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier – to 42 in 1800), mineral analyses became more accurate. The first full textbook on mineral chemistry –Handbuch zur chemischen Analyse der Mineralkörper (Handbook on the Chemical Analysis of Mineral Bodies) – was published in 1801 by the German pharmacist and chemist, Wilhelm August Lampadius.

The Swedish chemist Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius was the first to designate chemical elements by one- or two-letter symbols (e.g., H, O, Fe, Au), create molecular formulas (e.g., H2O in modern form), and discover that the constituent elements of pure mineral phases are in constant proportions (e.g., Ca1C1O3). He used the formulas to denote chemical reactions, e.g., H2SO4 + Cu → CuSO4 + H2. By 1824 he had recognized that the chemical behavior of minerals was influenced more by their anion components (e.g., CO3, O, S) than their cations (e.g., Ca, Fe, Mg) and divided minerals into groups accordingly, e.g. carbonates, oxides, sulfides, etc. He also identified the elements silicon, selenium, thorium, and cesium. Johan August Arfwedson, a Swedish chemist working in Berzelius’s lab, discovered lithium in petalite ore (castorite, LiAlSi4O10) in 1817.

The American mineralogist James Dwight Dana published the first edition of his System of Mineralogy in 1837, adopting Linnaean binomial nomenclature (e.g., Adamas octahedrus for diamond) and grouping minerals by superficial appearance into higher orders [e.g., diamond, quartz, sapphire, and beryl were lumped into the order Hyalinea (hyaline means glassy or transparent)]. However, by the third (1850) and fourth (1854) editions, Dana had revised the nomenclature, coupling the approaches of Berzelius and Haüy. He formulated primary mineral groups: native elements, sulfides, halides, and oxides, and divided oxides into silicates, phosphates, sulfates, and carbonates. This system had been universally adopted by the 1870s, and an expanded version is used today in every mineralogy textbook.

With the development of modern analytical techniques (see McSween and Huss Reference McSween and Huss2010), the number of recognized mineral species jumped from about 200 in 1750 to more than 5670 in early 2021. A periodically updated list of approved minerals is currently available online from the International Mineralogical Association (IAU): www.ima-mineralogy.org; click on “List of Minerals.”

Comprehensive mineralogical studies of meteorites had to wait until meteorites were recognized as genuine extraterrestrial objects. There had long been reports of rocks falling from the sky. Joshua 10:11 (New Revised Standard Version) (written in the sixth or seventh century BCE) states: “As [the Amorites] fled before Israel, while they were going down the slope of Beth-horon, the Lord threw down huge stones from heaven on them as far as Azekah, and they died…” The passage conflates these huge stones with hailstones: “There were more who died because of the hailstones than the Israelites killed with the sword.” Revelations 16:21 (NRSV) (first century CE) states that “And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent…” (King James Version) (i.e., in the range of 33 to 50 kg). The largest authenticated hailstones are only ~1 kg, so stones much more massive than this could not be hail. In the play, Prometheus Unbound (attributed to the fifth-century BCE Greek tragedian Aeschylus), an enraged Zeus hurls a shower of stones down to Earth. Falling stones were later discussed by Livy (64 or 59 BCE to 12 or 17 CE), Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) and Plutarch (46–120 CE). In his book, Liber Prodigiorum (Book of Prodigies), the pseudonymous fourth-century CE Roman historian, Julius Obsequens, described six events of stones raining on the Italian peninsula between 188 BCE and 94 BCE (Franza and Pratesi Reference Franza and Pratesi2020).

The idea of rocks falling from the sky was bolstered by numerous observations of meteors and fireballs, but most eighteenth-century CE scientists remained unconvinced. There were reasons for their skepticism. No less an authority than Isaac Newton had declared in 1704 in Opticks that interplanetary space was devoid of small solid objects: “…to make way for the regular and lasting Motions of the Planets and Comets, it’s necessary to empty the Heavens of all Matter, except perhaps some very thin Vapours, Steams, or Effluvia, arising from the Atmospheres of the Earth, Planets, and Comets.” Newton’s views on the barrenness of space were similar to those of Aristotle and were widely accepted. Also muddling the situation was the fact that actual observations of falling rocks (some with good documentation) were mixed in with fantastic reports of all sorts of objects dropping from the sky: flesh, blood, milk, wool, bricks, paper, money, and gelatin (Burke Reference Burke1986). It was hard to separate the wheat from the chaff (neither of which was reported to have fallen to Earth).

Some scientists accepted the idea that rocks fell from the sky but averred that they were terrestrial rocks ejected from volcanoes (akin to volcanic bombs), borne aloft by hurricanes, generated by the Northern Lights, or, following Aristotle, precipitated in cold regions of the atmosphere. In 1789, Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, often called “The Father of Modern Chemistry,” published his seminal textbook, Traité élémentaire de chimie (Elementary Treatise on Chemistry). He suggested that dust (consisting of stony and metallic particles), entrained in gas, emanated from the Earth and rose high into the atmosphere. There it was ignited by electricity and fused into solid bodies that fell to the ground. [American polymath and Founding Father, Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), had shown decades earlier that lightning was an electrical phenomenon.]

Five developments in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries finally established the reality that extraterrestrial rocks fall to Earth.
  1. (1) In 1794, the German physicist, Ernst Chladni (already famous as “The Father of Acoustics”) published a monograph, Über den Ursprung der von Pallas gefundenen und anderer ihr ähnlicher Eisenmassen und über einige damit in Verbindung stehende Naturerscheinungen (On the Origin of the Iron Masses Found by Pallas and Others Similar to it, and on Some Associated Natural Phenomena), postulating that material from space entered the Earth’s atmosphere, produced fireballs and dropped meteorites. The book was widely discussed but initially received mixed reviews.

  2. (2) At the suggestion of Chladni, two German physicists, Johann Benzenberg and Heinrich Brandes, simultaneously observed the sky in September and October 1798 from sites 15.6 km apart to determine the height and speed of meteors (Marvin Reference Ma and Rossman2006). They made numerous simultaneous observations and concluded that meteors are visible at altitudes ranging from 170 to 26 km and travel at 29–44 km s−1. (In modern usage, the bodies traversing the atmosphere are meteoroids, not meteors.) It was hard to imagine rocks lofted from the Earth reaching those heights or matching those speeds.

  3. (3) In 1802, the British chemist, Edward Charles Howard, published a groundbreaking report in Philosophical Transactions titled “Experiments and Observations on Certain Stony and Metalline Substances, Which at Different Times are Said to Have Fallen on the Earth; Also on Various Kinds of Native Iron”,Footnote 4 showing that several meteoritic stones had similar compositions; they all contained nickel as did all meteoritic irons. This indicated a common origin. [Nickel had been discovered in 1751 in niccolite (NiAs) by the Swedish mineralogist and chemist Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. The mineral cronstedtite (Fe22+Fe3+(SiFe3+)O5(OH)4) (found intergrown with tochilinite in many CM chondrites) was named after him.]

  4. (4) There was a spate of well-documented meteorite falls including Siena (Italy, 1794), Wold Cottage (England, 1795), Portugal (from the town of Évora Monte, 1796), Salles (France, 1798), Benares (India, 1798), L’Aigle (France, 1803), and Weston (Connecticut, USA, 1807).

  5. (5) The discovery of asteroids proved that interplanetary space was not empty of small bodies after all: Ceres in 1801, Pallas in 1802, Juno in 1804, and Vesta in 1807. Along with the Moon, asteroids provided a potential source of extraterrestrial material. This idea became more plausible after Wilhelm Olbers suggested in 1803 that Ceres and Pallas were remnants of a planet that had been destroyed after suffering an internal explosion or a catastrophic collision with a comet.

A few scholars acknowledged the existence of extraterrestrial rocks and theorized that they had been blasted out of lunar volcanoes. (At the time, most scientists thought lunar craters were volcanic.) These workers cited the English physicist Robert Hooke who had concluded (after some hesitation) in Micrographia in 1665 that lunar craters were volcanic after he examined pits formed at the surface of boiled alabaster. This idea was consistent with sporadic observations of short-lived luminous events on the Moon. The great British astronomer William Herschel (discoverer of Uranus in 1781) reported seeing three luminous red spots beyond the terminator on the night side of the Moon on 19 April 1787; he suggested these were glowing gases disgorged from active lunar volcanoes. Other British, French, and German astronomers made similar observations in this time period. Two centuries after Hooke’s monograph, English amateur-astronomer and media personality Patrick Moore termed such luminous events lunar transient phenomena (LTPs).

To nineteenth-century scientists, a lunar origin for meteorites was consistent with their chemical similarities (all contained Ni and were presumed to be from a common source) and the fact that the average specific gravity of stony meteorites (~3.34 g cm−3) is the same as that of the bulk Moon.Footnote 5

But there were problems with the suggestion that meteorites were all derived from lunar volcanoes: (1) The velocities of meteors (i.e., meteoroids) were observed to be tens of kilometers per second, seemingly far too great for those objects to have been disgorged from lunar volcanoes. (2) In 1859, American astronomer Benjamin Gould calculated that only 0.00006 percent of rock fragments from lunar volcanoes were likely to reach Earth (and of those few fragments, more than 70 percent would fall in the ocean). The paltry number of expected lunar volcanic ejecta fragments in the hands of scientists seemed grossly inconsistent with the relatively large number of meteorites known at the time (~160). (3) The German physician and astronomer, Franz von Paula Gruithuisen, suggested in 1828 that lunar craters formed by collisions. Grove Karl Gilbert, senior geologist at the United States Geological Survey, wrote an article in 1893 titled “The Moon’s Face: A Study of the Origin of its Features,” endorsing the impact theory. He measured lunar-crater depth/diameter ratios and explained central peaks as rebounded target material, crater rays as impact ejecta, and terraces inside craters as slumped crater walls.

There are volcanic features on the Moon. These include the maria (vast plains of flood basalt), sinuous rilles (collapsed lava tubes), and the Marius Hills (small volcanic domes). But major volcanism on the Moon probably ended more than a billion years ago. No meteorites have been hurled to Earth from lunar volcanoes; the lunar meteorites in our collections (~0.5 percent of samples) were launched by high-velocity collisions of asteroids with the Moon.

Modern explanations for LTPs include small meteorite impacts (but most are relatively faint and last less than a second as observed in Earth-based telescopes),Footnote 6 outgassing through fractures, electrostatic forces, thermoluminescence, terrestrial atmospheric turbulence, bad telescopic optics, and overactive imaginations.

In 1857, the German chemist, Karl Ludwig von Reichenbach, became the first to study meteoritic minerals in the microscope. By 1870, British geologist, Mervyn Herbert Nevil Story-Maskelyne, and his assistant, Austrian chemist Viktor von Lang, had studied the microscopic properties of more than 140 meteorites. Six years later, Austrian mineralogist Gustav Tschermak von Seysenegg initiated a project of photomicroscopy of meteorite thin sections, resulting a decade later in his monograph, Die mikroskopische Beschaffenheit der Meteoriten (The Microscopic Properties of Meteorites). In that work, Tschermak identified 16 meteoritic minerals as well as maskelynite and igneous glass.

By the middle of the twentieth century, the list of recognized meteoritic minerals had expanded only modestly, reaching 26 in 1960 and 38 in 1962 (Rubin Reference Rubin1997a). In the following decades, the widespread use of reflected light microscopy, the development and continual improvement of analytical techniques down to micro- and nanoscales (e.g., X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy), the recovery of tens of thousands of meteorites from hot and cold deserts, and a sharp increase in the number of meteorite researchers led to the identification of numerous minerals in meteorites. Toward the end of the twentieth century, Rubin (Reference Rubin1997a, Reference Rubin1997b) compiled a list of about 300 meteoritic minerals. Two decades later, Rubin and Ma (Reference Rubin and Ma2017) added another ~135 species to the list.

The number of meteoritic minerals is large because meteorites are derived from many different bodies, each with a distinctive geochemical character. Meteorites are now thought to come from about 100 to 150 asteroidsFootnote 7 as well as from the Moon and Mars. Micrometeorites are derived mostly from asteroids; a minority (particularly those with ultracarbonaceous compositions) are likely from comets. Because interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) (also known as cosmic dust) are also meteoritic materials, the number of source bodies delivering extraterrestrial material to Earth may be several hundred to several thousand. But these are not the only bodies represented among meteoritic materials: primitive chondrites contain tiny presolar grains that formed in the outflows of evolved stars and as supernova ejecta. Most of these particles appear to predate the Solar System by a few hundred million years, but at least 8 percent of the largest grains are more than a billion years older than the Sun (Heck et al. Reference Heck, Greer, Kööp, Trappitsch, Gyngard, Busemann, Maden, Ávila, Davis and Wieler2020).

Meteorites formed under a variety of conditions: primitive chondrites are interpreted to be products of the processes that occurred in the solar nebula (modified by impact-induced compaction and minor to extensive alteration on their parent asteroids), most iron meteorites formed deep within the cores of differentiated asteroids, regolith breccias formed near the surface of their (atmosphere-less) parent bodies and contain solar-wind-implanted noble gases, most eucrites formed from basaltic lava in the near-surface regions of a single differentiated asteroid (probably 4 Vesta), and martian and lunar meteorites formed as igneous rocks on substantially larger planetary and subplanetary bodies.

Meteorites exhibit diverse oxidation states, ranging from highly oxidized CI carbonaceous chondrites (which contain ~11 wt% H2O+ (indigenous water), mainly bound in fine-grained phyllosilicates) to highly reduced enstatite chondrites and aubrites (which contain graphite, Si-bearing metallic Fe-Ni, sulfides bearing Na, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, and Fe, and enstatite with very low FeO). The diversity in oxidation state among meteorites is reflected in the set of meteoritic minerals: e.g., elemental C, carbides, and carbonates; alloyed metallic Mo and molybdates; phosphides and phosphates; alloyed metallic Si, silicides, and silicates; elemental S, sulfides, and sulfates; and metallic Fe, wüstite (containing ferrous iron), magnetite (containing both ferrous and ferric iron), and hematite (containing ferric iron).

About 470 minerals have so far been identified in meteorites (Tables 1.1 and 1.2) and more are in the pipeline; this is about 8.3 percent of the total number of well-characterized mineral phases. Meteorite mineral species include native elements, metals and metallic alloys, carbides, nitrides and oxynitrides, phosphides, silicides, sulfides and hydroxysulfides, tellurides, arsenides and sulfarsenides, halides, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulfates, molybdates, tungstates, phosphates and silico phosphates, oxalates, and silicates from all six structural groups (Table 1.1).

Table 1.1 Minerals in Meteorites

MineralSynonyms and VarietiesFormulaSpace GroupSelected References
Native Elements and Metals
AluminiumAlFm3mMa et al. (Reference Ma, Lin, Bindi and Steinhardt2017b)
Antitaenite (not approved)Fe3NiunknownRancourt and Scorzelli (Reference Rancourt and Scorzelli1995), Wojnarowska et al. (Reference Wojnarowska, Dziel and Gałązka-Friedman2008)
AwaruiteNi3FePm3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Kimura and Ikeda (Reference Kimura and Ikeda1995), McSween (Reference McSween1977), Rubin (Reference Rubin1990)
ChaoiteCP6/mmmVdovykin (Reference Vdovykin1969), Vdovykin (Reference Vdovykin1972)
CopperCuFm3mRamdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963), Rubin (Reference Rubin1994b)
CupaliteCuAlunknownHollister et al. (Reference Hollister, Bindi, Yao, Poirier, Andronicos, MacPherson, Lin, Distler, Eddy, Kostin, Kryachko, Steinhardt, Yudovskaya, Eiler, Guan, Clarke and Steinhardt P2014)
DecagoniteAl71Ni24Fe5~ P105/mmcBindi et al. (Reference Bindi, Yao, Lin, Hollister, Andronicos, Distler, Eddy, Kostin, Kryachko, MacPherson, Steinhardt, Yudovskaya and Steinhardt2015)
DiamondCFd3mAnders and Zinner (Reference Anders and Zinner1993), Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1975), Ksanda and Henderson (Reference Ksanda and Henderson1939), Russell et al. (Reference Russell, Pillinger, Arden, Lee and Ott1992)
Electrum (not approved)Au-AgFm3mMcCanta et al. (Reference McCanta, Treiman, Dyar, Alexander, Rumble and Essene2008)
GoldAuFm3mRubin (Reference Rubin2014)
Gold-dominated alloys(Au,Ag,Fe,Ni,Pt)Fm3mBischoff et al. (Reference Bischoff, Geiger, Palme, Spettel, Schultz, Scherer, Loeken, Bland, Clayton, Mayeda, Herpers, Meltzow, Michel and Dittrich-Hannen1994), Geiger and Bischoff (Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995), Schulze et al. (Reference Schulze, Bischoff, Palme, Spettel, Dreibus and Otto1994)
Graphite-2HCliftoniteCP63/mmcAnder and Zinner (Reference Anders and Zinner1993), Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1975), Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
Graphite-3RCR3mNakamuta and Aoki (Reference Nakamuta and Aoki2000)
Hexaferrum(Fe,Os,Ir,Mo)P63/mmcMa (Reference Ma2012)
Hexamolybdenum(Mo,Ru,Fe)P63/mmcMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2014a)
Hollisteriteλ-(Al-Cu-Fe)Al3FeC2/mMa et al. (Reference Ma, Lin, Bindi and Steinhardt2017b)
IcosahedriteAl63Cu24Fe13Fm3¯5¯Bindi et al. (Reference Bindi, Steinhardt, Yao and Lu2011)
Icosahedrite IIi-phase IIAl62Cu31Fe7Fm3¯5¯Bindi et al. (Reference Bindi, Lin, Ma and Steinhardt2016)
Indium-dominated Alloys(In,Sn,Pb)I4/mmmWampler et al. (2020)
IronKamacite; Ferriteα-FeIm3mAfiatalab and Wasson (Reference Afiattalab and Wasson1980), Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963), Rubin (Reference Rubin1990)
KhatyrkiteCuAl2I4/mcmHollister et al. (Reference Hollister, Bindi, Yao, Poirier, Andronicos, MacPherson, Lin, Distler, Eddy, Kostin, Kryachko, Steinhardt, Yudovskaya, Eiler, Guan, Clarke and Steinhardt P2014), Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Lin, Bindi and Steinhardt2017b)
Kryachkoiteα-(Al-Cu-Fe)(Al,Cu)6(Fe,Cu)Cmc21Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Lin, Bindi and Steinhardt2017b)
Martensite (not approved)α2-(Fe,Ni)Dodd (Reference Dodd1981)
MercuryHgR3mCaillet Komorowski et al. (Reference Caillet Komorowski, El Goresy, Miyahara, Boudouma and Ma2012)
Molybdenum (not approved)MoEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978)
NickelNiP63/mmcNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
Niobium (not approved)NbEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978)
OsmiumOsP63/mmcMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2014a)
PlatinumPtFm3mEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978)
PGE-dominated alloys(Pt,Os,Ir,Ru,Re,Rh,Mo,Nb,Ta,Ge,W,V,Pb,Cr,Fe,Ni,Co)Fm3mArmstrong et al. (Reference Armstrong, Hutcheon and Wasserburg1987), Bischoff and Palme (Reference Bischoff and Palme1987), El Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978), Wark and Lovering (Reference Wark and Lovering1978)
ProxidecagoniteAl34Ni9Fe2PnmaBindi et al. (Reference Bindi and Steinhardt2018)
Rhenium (not approved)ReP63/mmcEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978)
Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3SnFm3mKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Schulze et al. (Reference Schulze, Bischoff, Palme, Spettel, Dreibus and Otto1994)
Ruthenium(Ru,Os,Ir)P63/mmcEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978)
Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)P63/mmcMcSween and Huss (Reference McSween and Huss2010)
SeleniumSeP3121 or P3221Simpson (Reference Simpson1938), Greenland (Reference Greenland1965), Akaiwa (Reference Akaiwa1966), www.mindat.org
Steinhardtite(Al,Ni,Fe)Im3¯mBindi et al. (Reference Bindi, Yao, Lin, Hollister, MacPherson, Poirier, Andronicos, Distler, Eddy, Kostin, Kryachko, Steinhardt and Yudovskaya2014)
Stolperiteβ-(A-Cu-Fe)AlCuPm3¯mMa et al. (Reference Ma, Lin, Bindi and Steinhardt2017b)
SulfurSFdddBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
TaeniteAusteniteγ-(Fe,Ni)Fm3mRamdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
TetrataeniteFeNiP4/mmmClarke and Scott (Reference Clarke and Scott1980)
WairauiteCoFePm3mHua et al. Reference Hua, Eisenhour and Buseck1995
Zhanghengite(Cu,Zn)Im3mWang (Reference Wang1986)

Carbides
MoissaniteSiCP63/mcAlexander et al. (Reference Alexander, Prombo, Swan and Walker1991), Anders and Zinner (Reference Anders and Zinner1993), Bernatowicz et al. (Reference Bernatowicz, Amari, Zinner and Lewis1991), Huss (Reference Huss1990)
Cohenite(Fe,Ni)3CPbnmBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1975), Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
EdscottiteFe5C2C2/cScott and Agrell (Reference Scott and Agrell1971), Ma and Rubin (Reference Ma and Rubin2019)
Haxonite(Fe,Ni)23C6Fm3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1975), Scott and Agrell (Reference Scott and Agrell1971)
Molybdenum carbide (not approved)MoCBernatowicz et al. (Reference Bernatowicz, Amari, Zinner and Lewis1991)
KhamrabaeviteTiCFm3mMa and Rossman (Reference Ma and Rossman2009a)
Ruthenium carbide (not approved)RuCBernatowicz et al. (Reference Bernatowicz, Cowsik, Gibbons, Lodders, Fegley, Amari and Lewis1996)
Zirconium carbide (not approved)ZrCBernatowicz et al. (Reference Bernatowicz, Amari, Zinner and Lewis1991), Ott (Reference Ott1996)

Nitrides and Oxynitrides
CarlsbergiteCrNFm3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1975), Buchwald and Scott (Reference Buchwald and Scott1971)
Nieritea-Si3N4P31CAlexander et al. (Reference Alexander, Barber and Hutchison1989), Alexander et al. (Reference Alexander, Swan and Prombo1994), Lee et al. (Reference Lee, Russell, Arden and Pillinger1995)
OsborniteTiNFm3mBischoff et al. (Reference Bischoff, Palme, Schultz, Weber, Weber and Spettel1993), Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
Roaldite(Fe,Ni)4NP4¯3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1975), Nielsen and Buchwald (Reference Nielsen and Buchwald1981)
β-Silicon nitride (not approved)β-Si3N4Lee et al. (Reference Lee, Russell, Arden and Pillinger1995)
SinoiteSi2N2OCmc21Andersen et al. (Reference Andersen, Keil and Mason1964)
UakititeVNFm3mSharygin et al. (Reference Sharygin, Ripp, Yakovlev, Seryotkin, Karmanov, Izbrodin, Grokhovsky and Khromova2020)

Phosphides
Allabogdanite(Fe,Ni)2PPnmaBritvin et al. (Reference Britvin, Rudashevsky, Krivovichev, Burns and Polekhovsky2002)
AndreyivanoviteFeCrPPnmaZolensky et al. (Reference Zolensky, Gounelle, Mikouchi, Ohsumi, Le, Hagiya and Tachikawa2008)
Barringerite(Fe,Ni)2PP6¯2mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Buseck (Reference Buseck1977)
Florenskyite(Fe,Ni)TiPPnmaIvanov et al. (Reference Ivanov, Zolensky, Saito, Ohsumi, Yang, Kononkova and Mikouchi2000)
Melliniite(Ni,Fe)4PP213Pratesi et al. (Reference Pratesi, Bindi and Moggi-Cecchi2006)
MonipiteMoNiPP6¯2mMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2014b)
NickelphosphideNi3PI4¯Britvin et al. (Reference Britvin, Kolomensky, Boldyreva, Bogdanova, Kretser, Boldyreva and Rudashesky1999)
Ni-Ge phosphideNi4Ge0.33P1.17P1¯Garvie et al. (2021b)
SchreibersiteRhabdite(Fe,Ni)3PI4¯Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
TransjordaniteNi2PP6¯2mBritvin et al. (Reference Britvin, Murashko, Vapnik, Polekhovsky, Krivovichev, Krzhizhanovskaya, Vereshchagin, Shilovskikh and Vlasenko2020b)

Silicides
BrownleeiteMnSiP213Nakamura-Messenger et al. (Reference Nakamura-Messenger, Keller, Clemett, Messenger, Jones, Palma, Pepin, Klöck, Zolensky and Tatsuoka2010)
CarletonmooreiteNi3SiPm3mMa et al. (Reference Ma2018a), Garvie et al. (2021a)
GupeiiteFe3SiFm3mYu (Reference Yu1984)
HapkeiteFe2SiPm3mAnand et al. (Reference Anand, Taylor, Nazarov, Shu, Mao and Hemley2004)
LinzhiiteFeSi2P4/mmmAnand et al. (Reference Anand, Taylor, Nazarov, Shu, Mao and Hemley2004)
NaquiteFeSiP213Anand et al. (Reference Anand, Taylor, Nazarov, Shu, Mao and Hemley2004); Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Lin, Bindi and Steinhardt2017b)
Perryite(Ni,Fe)8(Si,P)3R3cWasson and Wai (Reference Wasson and Wai1970), Okada et al. (Reference Okada, Kobayashi, Ito and Sakurai1991)
SuessiteFe3SiIm3mKeil et al. (Reference Keil, Berkley and Fuchs L1982)
XifengiteFe5Si3P63/mcmYu (Reference Yu1984), Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Lin, Bindi and Steinhardt2017b)

Sulfides and Hydroxysulfides
AlabanditeMnSFm3mMason and Jarosewich (Reference Mason and Jarosewich1967)
BorniteCu5FeS4PbcaEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Yabuki, Ehlers, Woolum and Pernicka1988)
BrezinaiteCr3S4I2/mSatterwhite et al. (Reference Satterwhite, Mason and MacPherson1993), Warren and Kallemeyn (Reference Warren and Kallemeyn1994)
BrowneiteMnSF43mMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2012b)
Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)SP63mcMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2012a)
ButianiteNi6SnS2I4/mmmMa and Beckett (Reference Ma and Beckett2018)
CaswellsilveriteNaCrS2R3mOkada and Keil (Reference Okada and Keil1982)
ChalcociteCu2SP21cYudin and Kolomenskiy (Reference Yudin and Kolomenskiy1987)
ChalcopyriteCuFeS2I42dGeiger and Bischoff (Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995), Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
CinnabarHgSP3121, P3221Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
CooperitePtSP41/mmcGeiger and Bischoff (Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995)
CovelliteCuSP63/mmcEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Yabuki, Ehlers, Woolum and Pernicka1988)
CronusiteCa0.2CrS22H2ORm, R3m or R32Britvin et al. Reference Britvin, Guo, Kolomensky, Boldyreva, Kretser and Yagovkina2001
Cu-Cr-sulfide (not approved)CuCrS2Bevan et al. (Reference Bevan, Downes, Henry, Verrall and Haines2019)
CubaniteCuFe2S3PcmnDodd (Reference Dodd1981), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
DaubréeliteFeCr2S4Fd3mKeil (Reference Keil1968), Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
DigeniteCu1.8SR3mKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Kimura et al. (Reference Kimura, Tsuchiyama, Fukuoka and Iimura1992)
DjerfisheriteK6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26ClPm3mFuchs (Reference Fuchs1966a)
ErlichmaniteOsS2Pa3Geiger and Bischoff (Reference Geiger and Bischoff1989, Reference Geiger and Bischoff1990, Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995)
Ferroan alabandite(Mn,Fe)SFm3mKeil (Reference Keil1968)
GalenaPbSFm3mNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
Gentnerite (not approved)Cuprian DaubréeliteCu8Fe3Cr11S18El Goresy and Ottemann (Reference El Goresy and Ottemann1966), Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
GreigiteFe3S4Fd3mEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Yabuki, Ehlers, Woolum and Pernicka1988)
HeazlewooditeNi3S2R32Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), McSween (Reference McSween1977)
Heideite(Fe,Cr)1.15(Ti,Fe)2S4I2/mKeil and Brett (Reference Keil and Brett1974)
IdaiteCu5FeS6P63/mmcEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Yabuki, Ehlers, Woolum and Pernicka1988)
IsocubaniteChalcopyrrhotiteCuFe2S3Fm3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1975)
JoegoldsteiniteMnCr2S4Fd3mIsa et al. (Reference Isa, Ma and Rubin2016)
KalininiteZnCr2S4Fd3mSharygin et al. (Reference Sharygin, Ripp, Yakovlev, Seryotkin, Karmanov, Izbrodin, Grokhovsky and Khromova2020)
Keilite(Fe,Mg)SFm3mShimizu et al. (Reference Shimizu, Yoshida and Mandarino2002), Keil (Reference Keil2007)
LauriteRuS2Pa3Geiger and Bischoff (Reference Geiger and Bischoff1989, Reference Geiger and Bischoff1990, Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995)
Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)1+xS (x = 0-0.07)P4/nmmBuseck (Reference Buseck1968)
MarcasiteFeS2PnnmMcSween (Reference McSween1994)
MilleriteNiSR3mGeiger and Bischoff (Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995)
MolybdeniteMoS2P63/mmcEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978)
MurchisiteCr5S6P31cMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2011a)
NiningeriteMgSFm3mKeil (Reference Keil1968), Keil and Snetsinger (Reference Keil and Snetsinger1967)
NuwaiteNi6GeS214/mmmMa and Beckett (Reference Ma and Beckett2018)
OldhamiteCaSFm3mKeil (Reference Keil1968)
Pentlandite(Fe,Ni)9S8Fm3mRamdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963), Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
PlagionitePb5Sb8S17C2/cWatters and Prinz (Reference Watters and Prinz1979), www.mindat.org
PyriteFeS2Pa3Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963), Nyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
PyrrhotiteFe1-xSA2/aZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Rudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)SF4¯3mBritvin et al. (Reference Britvin, Bogdanova, Boldyreva and Aksenova2008)
SchöllhorniteNa0.3CrS2·H2OR3m?Okada et al. (Reference Okada, Keil, Leonard and Hutcheon1985)
ShenzhuangiteNiFeS2I4¯2dBindi and Xie (Reference Bindi and Xie2018)
Smythite(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x = 0-0.3)R3mEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Yabuki, Ehlers, Woolum and Pernicka1988)
SphaleriteZnSF43mDodd (Reference Dodd1981), El Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Yabuki, Ehlers, Woolum and Pernicka1988)
Tochilinite Group
Tochilinite6(Fe0.9S)5[(Mg,Fe,Ni)(OH)2]P2, Pm, or P2/mZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988), Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2011a)
Haapalaite2[(Fe,Ni)S]⋅1.6[(Mg,Fe)(OH)2]R3m?Buseck and Hua (Reference Buseck and Hua1993)
Valleriite2[(Fe,Cu)S]·1.53[(Mg,Al)(OH)2]R3mAckermand and Raase (Reference Ackermand and Raase1973)
TroiliteFeSP63/mmcRamdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963)
TungsteniteWS2P63/mmcEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Nagel and Ramdohr1978)
V,Fe,Cr-rich sulfide(V,Fe,Cr)4S5hexagonalIvanova et al. (Reference Ivanova, Ma, Lorenz, Franchi and Kononkova2019b)
V-rich brezinaite(Cr,V,Fe)3S4I 2/mIvanova et al. (Reference Ivanova, Ma, Lorenz, Franchi and Kononkova2019b)
V-rich daubréeliteFe(Cr,V)2S4Fd3mIvanova et al. (Reference Ivanova, Ma, Lorenz, Franchi and Kononkova2019b)
ViolariteFeNi2S4Fd3mUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
WassoniteTiSR3mNakamura-Messenger et al. (Reference Nakamura-Messenger, Clemett, Rubin, Choi, Zhang, Rahman, Oikawa and Keller2012)
WurtziteZnSP63mcYudin and Kolomenskiy (Reference Yudin and Kolomenskiy1987)
ZolenskyiteFeCr2S4C2/mMa (2021)

Tellurides
AltaitePbTeFm3mKarwowski and Muszyński (Reference Karwowski and Muszyński2008)
MoncheiteChengbolite (PtTe2)Pt(Te,Bi)2P3m1Geiger and Bischoff Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995, Connolly et al. (Reference Connolly, Zipfel, Grossman, Folco, Smith, Jones, Righter, Zolensky, Russell and Benedix2006), Grady et al. (Reference Grady, Pratesi and Moggi-Cecchi2015), www.mindat.org

Arsenides and Sulfarsenides
CobaltiteCoAsSPca21Nyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
GersdorffiteNiAsSP213Nyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSPa3Kimura (Reference Kimura1996); Schulze et al. (Reference Schulze, Bischoff, Palme, Spettel, Dreibus and Otto1994)
Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2P21/cGeiger and Bischoff Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995
LöllingiteFeAs2PnnmGeiger and Bischoff Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995
MaucheriteNi11As8P41212, P 43212Nyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
NickelineNiAsP63/mmcNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2PnnmGeiger and Bischoff Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995
OrceliteNi4.77As2P63cmNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
RammelsbergiteNiAs2PnnmNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
SaffloriteCoAs2PnnmNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
SperrylitePtAs2Pa3Geiger and Bischoff Reference Geiger and Bischoff1995

halides
Bismuth chloride (not approved)BiCl3McCanta et al. (Reference McCanta, Treiman, Dyar, Alexander, Rumble and Essene2008)
DroninoiteNi6Fe3+2Cl2(OH)164H2OR3mChukanov et al. (Reference Chukanov, Pekov, Levitskaya and Zadov2009)
HaliteNaClFm3mBarber (Reference Barber1981), Berkley et al. (Reference Berkley, Taylor, Keil, Harlow and Prinz1980)
Lawrencite(Fe+2,Ni)Cl2R3mKeil (Reference Keil1968)
SylviteKClFm3mBarber (Reference Barber1981), Berkley et al. (Reference Berkley, Taylor, Keil, Harlow and Prinz1980)

Oxides
AddibischoffiteCa2Al6Al6O20P1Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Krot and Nagashima2017a)
AllendeiteSc4Zr3O12R3Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2014a)
AnataseTiO2I41/amdWopenka and Swan (Reference Wopenka and Swan1985)
Anosovite (not approved)(Ti4+,Ti3+,Mg,Sc,Al)3O5BbmmZhang et al. (Reference Zhang, Ma, Sakamoto, Wang, Hsu and Yurimoto2015)
Armalcolite(Mg,Fe)Ti2O5BbmmLin and Kimura (Reference Lin and Kimura1996)
BaddeleyiteZrO2P21cDavis (Reference Davis1991), Delaney et al. (Reference Delaney, Prinz and Takeda1984), Krot and Wasson (Reference Krot and Rubin1994)
BeckettiteCa2V6Al6O20P1¯Ma et al. (Reference Ma and Beckett2016a)
BunseniteNiOFm3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
CalzirtiteCa2Zr5Ti2O16I41/acdMa (Reference Ma2020), Xiong et al. (2020)
ChenmingiteCF-FeCr2O4FeCr2O4PnmaMa et al. (Reference Ma, Tschauner, Beckett, Liu, Greenberg and Prakapenka2019c)
ChlormayeniteBrearleyiteCa12Al14O32Cl2I43dMa et al. (Reference Ma, Connolly, Beckett, Tschauner, Rossman, Kampf, Zega, Smith and Schrader2011c)
ChromiteFeCr2O4Fd3mRamdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
CorundumAl2O3R3cGreshake et al. (Reference Greshake, Bischoff and Putnis1996a), Greshake et al. (Reference Greshake, Bischoff, Putnis and Palme1996b), MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
CoulsoniteFeV2O4Fd3mArmstrong et al. (Reference Armstrong, Hutcheon and Wasserburg1987), Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
CupriteCu2OPn3mUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
DmitryivanoviteCaAl2O4P21bMikouchi et al. (Reference Mikouchi, Zolensky, Ivanova, Tachikawa, Komatsu, Le and Gounelle2009)
EskolaiteCr2O3R3cGreshake and Bischoff (Reference Endress and Bischoff1996)
FeiiteFe2+2(Fe2+Ti4+)O5CmcmMa and Tschauner (Reference Ma and Tschauner2018a), Ma et al. (2021b)
FerropseudobrookiteFeTi2O5CmcmKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Fujimaki et al. (Reference Fujimaki, Matsu-ura, Sunagawa and Aoki1981)
GeikieliteMgTiO3R3Lin and Kimura (Reference Lin and Kimura1996)
GrossiteCaAl4O7c 2/cWeber and Bischoff (Reference Weber and Bischoff1994a, Reference Weber and Bischoff1994b)
HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4I41/amdNakamura et al. (2020)
Hematiteα-Fe2O3R3¯cBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
HercyniteFeAl2O4Fd3mTreiman (Reference Treiman1985), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
HiboniteCaAl12O19P63/mmcDodd (Reference Dodd1981), MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Hibonite-(Fe)(Fe,Mg)Al12O19P63/mmcMa (Reference Ma2010)
IlmeniteFeTiO3R3Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963), Snetsinger and Keil (Reference Snetsinger and Keil1969)
KaitianiteTi3+2Ti4+O5C2/cMa (Reference Ma2019), Ma and Beckett (2020)
KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8P63mcMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2014b)
Kangite(Sc,Ti,Al,Zr,Mg,Ca,□)2O3Ia3Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Tschauner, Beckett, Rossman and Liu2013c)
KrotiteCaAl2O4P21/nMa et al. (Reference Ma, Kampf, Connolly, Beckett, Rossman, Smith and Schrader2011d)
LakargiiteCaZrO3PbnmMa (Reference Ma2011)
LimeCaOFm3mGreshake et al. (Reference Greshake, Bischoff and Putnis1996a), Greshake et al. (Reference Greshake, Bischoff, Putnis and Palme1996b), MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
LiuiteFeTiO3PnmaMa and Tschauner (Reference Ma and Tschauner2018b), Ma et al. (2021b)
LoveringiteCa(Ti,Fe,Cr,Mg)21O38R3Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett, Connolly and Rossman2013a), Zhang et al. (2020)
MachiiteAl2Ti3O9C2/cKrot (Reference Krot2016), Krot et al. (Reference Krot, Nagashima and Rossman2020)
MaghemiteFe2.67O4P213Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Magnéli phasesTi5O9 and Ti8O15P1Brearley (Reference Brearley1993b, Reference Brearley1995)
MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Fd3mGreshake and Bischoff (Reference Endress and Bischoff1996)
MagnesioferriteMgFe2O4Fd3mYudin and Kolomenskiy (Reference Yudin and Kolomenskiy1987)
Magnesiowüstite(Fe,Mg)OFm3mChen et al. (Reference Chen, Sharp, El Goresy, Wopenka and Xie1996)
MagnetiteFe3O4Fd3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Kerridge et al. (Reference Kerridge, MacKay and Boynton1979), Ramdohr (Reference Ramdohr1963), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8P63mcMa and Beckett (Reference Ma and Beckett2016b)
Nb-oxide(Nb,V,Fe)O2Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2014b)
OlkhonskiteCr2Ti3O9unknownSchmitz et al. (Reference Schmitz, Yin, Sanborn, Tassinari, Caplan and Huss2016)
Panguite(Ti,Al,Sc,Mg,Zr,Ca)1.8O3PbcaMa et al. (Reference Ma, Tshauner, Beckett, Rossman and Liu2012c)
PericlaseMgOFm3mGreshake et al. (Reference Greshake, Bischoff and Putnis1996a, Reference Greshake, Bischoff, Putnis and Palme1996b), MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
PerovskiteCaTiO3PnmaLin and Kimura (Reference Lin and Kimura1996), MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5BbmmRamdohr (Reference Ramdohr1967)
PyrolusiteMnO2P42/mnmNakamura et al. (2020)
PyrophaniteMnTiO3R3Krot et al. (Reference Krot and Rubin1993)
RutileTiO2P4/mnmGreshake et al. (Reference Greshake, Bischoff and Putnis1996a, Reference Greshake, Bischoff, Putnis and Palme1996b), Lin and Kimura (Reference Lin and Kimura1996), MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
SpinelMgAl2O4Fd3mMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Tazheranite(Zr,Ti,Ca,Y)O1.75Fm3mMa and Rossman (Reference Ma and Rossman2008)
ThorianiteThO2Fm3mMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Ti3+,Al,Zr-oxide (not approved)(Ti3+,Al,Zr,Si,Mg)1.95O3unknownMa and Beckett (2020)
Ti-oxide (not approved)Ti3O5C2/mBrearley (Reference Brearley1993b)
Ti-rich magnetite(Fe,Mg)(Fe,Al,Ti)2O4Fd3mDodd (Reference Dodd1981)
TistariteTi2O3R3cMa and Rossman (Reference Ma and Rossman2009a)
TrevoriteNiFe2O4Fd3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
TschauneriteFe2+(Fe2+Ti4+)O4CmcmMa and Prakapenka (Reference Ma and Prakapenka2018), Ma et al. (2021a)
TugarinoviteMoO2P21/nMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett and Rossman2014b)
UlvöspinelFe2TiO4Fd3mPapike et al. (Reference Papike, Taylor, Simon, Heiken, Vaniman and French1991)
V-rich magnetite(Fe,Mg)(Fe,Al,V)2O4Fd3mBischoff and Palme (Reference Bischoff and Palme1987), El Goresy (Reference El Goresy and Rumble1976), Wark and Lovering (Reference Wark and Lovering1978)
Vestaite(Ti4+Fe2+)Ti4+3O9C2/cPang et al. (Reference Pang, Harries, Pollok, Zhang and Langenhorst2018)
WangdaodeiteFeTiO3R3cXie et al. (Reference Xie, Gu, Yang, Chen and Li2016)
WarkiteCa2Sc6Al6O20P1Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Krot, Beckett, Nagashima and Tschauner2015a, Reference Ma, Krot, Beckett, Nagashima, Tschauner, Rossman, Simon and Bischoff2020a)
WüstiteFeOFm3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
XieiteCT-FeCr2O4FeCr2O4BbmmChen et al. (Reference Chen, Shu and Mao2008)
ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7C2/cMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988), Ma and Rossman (Reference Ma and Rossman2008)
Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-xFm3mKimura (Reference Kimura1996); MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)

Hydroxides
Akaganéiteβ-FeO(OH,Cl)I2/mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Buchwald and Clarke (Reference Buchwald and Clarke1988), Buchwald and Clarke (Reference Buchwald and Clarke1989)
Amakinite(Fe,Mg)(OH)2P3m1Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
BöhmiteAlO(OH)CmcmBevan et al. (Reference Bevan, Downes, Henry, Verrall and Haines2019)
BruciteMg(OH)2P3m1Barber (Reference Barber1981)
ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2∙3 H2OP63/mcmIvanova et al. (Reference Ivanova, Lorenz, Ma and Ivanov2016)
Feroxyhyteδ-FeO(OH)P3¯m1Kimura (Reference Kimura1996); Gooding (Reference Gooding1981); Buseck and Hua (Reference Buseck and Hua1993)
FerrihydriteFe3+10O14(OH)2hexagonalTomeoka and Buseck (Reference Tomeoka and Buseck1988)
Goethiteα-FeO(OH)PbnmBarber (Reference Barber1981), Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
Hibbingiteγ-Fe2(OH)3ClPnamBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1989), Saini-Eidukat et al. (Reference Saini-Eidukat, Kucha and Keppler1994)
Lepidocrociteγ-FeO(OH)AmamBarber (Reference Barber1981), Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
ManganiteMn3+OOHB21/dNakamura et al. (2020)
PortlanditeCa(OH)2P3m1Okada et al. (Reference Okada, Keil and Taylor1981)
Pyrochlore(Na,Ca)2Nb2O6(OH,F)Fd3mLovering et al. (Reference Lovering, Wark and Sewell1979)
ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)44H2OisometricBuddhue (Reference Buddhue1957)

Carbonates
AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg,Mn)(CO3)2R3Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
AragoniteCaCO3PmcnEndress and Bischoff (Reference Endress and Bischoff1996)
BarringtoniteMgCO32H2OP1 or P-1Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
Breunnerite(Mg,Fe)CO3R3cLee et al. (Reference Lee, Lindgren and Sofe2014)
CalciteCaCO3R3cDodd (Reference Dodd1981), Okada et al. (Reference Okada, Keil and Taylor1981), Zolensky and Krot (Reference Zolensky and Krot1996)
ChukanoviteFe2(CO3)(OH)2P21/aPekov et al. (Reference Pekov, Perchiazzi, Merlino, Kalachev, Merlini and Zadov2007)
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2R3Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)24H2OP21/cVelbel (Reference Velbel1988), Zolensky and Gooding (Reference Zolensky and Gooding1986)
KutnohoriteCaMn(CO3)2R3Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Magnesite(Mg,Fe)CO3R3cZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
NesquehoniteMg(CO3)⋅3H2OP21/nVelbel (Reference Velbel1988), Zolensky and Gooding (Reference Zolensky and Gooding1986)
NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2Pmc21Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
ReevesiteNi6Fe3+2(CO3)(OH)164H2OR3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), White et al. (Reference White, Henderson and Mason1967)
RhodochrositeMnCO3R3cUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
SideriteFeCO3R3cBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
VateriteCaCO3P63/mmcOkada et al. (Reference Okada, Keil and Taylor1981)
ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)44H2Ounknown (in part amorphous)Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)

Sulfates
AnhydriteCaSO4AmmaBrearley (Reference Brearley1993a, Reference Brearley1995)
BaryteBariteBaSO4PbnmNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
BassaniteCaSO4½H2OB2Okada et al. (Reference Okada, Keil and Taylor1981), Wentworth and Gooding (Reference Wentworth and Gooding1994)
BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)24H2OP21/aZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
CelestineSrSO4PnmaShukolyukov et al. (Reference Shukolyukov, Nazarov and Schultz2002)
CopiapiteFe5(SO4)6(OH)220H2OP1Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
CoquimbiteFe2(SO4)39H2OP3cKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Gooding (Reference Gooding1981)
EpsomiteMgSO47H2OP212121Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
GypsumCaSO42H2OA2/aZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
HexahydriteMgSO46H2OA2/aZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Honessite(Ni,Fe)8SO4(OH)16nH2OR3mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
JarositeKFe3(SO4)2(OH)6R3Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
KieseriteMgSO4H2OC2/cKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Gooding et al. (Reference Gooding, Wentworth and Zolensky1991)
MelanteriteFeSO47H2OP21/cUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2-11H2OC2/cwww.mindat.org
Ni-rich blöditeNa2(Mg,Ni)(SO4)2·4H2OP21/aBrearley (Reference Brearley, Lauretta and McSween2006)
ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5xPmZubkova et al. (Reference Zubkova, Pekov, Chukanov, Pushcharovsky and Kazantsev2008), Nickel and Graham (Reference Nickel and Graham1987)
SchwertmanniteFe3+16O16(OH,SO4)13-14·10H2OP4/mPederson (Reference Pederson1999)
SlavikiteNaMg2Fe3+5(SO4)7(OH)633H2OR3Kimura (Reference Kimura1996); Gooding (Reference Gooding1981)
StarkeyiteMgSO4.4H2OP21/nVelbel (Reference Velbel1988), Zolensky and Gooding (Reference Zolensky and Gooding1986)
SzomolnokiteFeSO4H2OA2/aKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Gooding (Reference Gooding1981)
ThénarditeNa2SO4FdddBrearley (Reference Brearley, Lauretta and McSween2006)
VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)1218H2OFd3cKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Gooding (Reference Gooding1981)

Molybdates
PowelliteCaMoO4I41/aUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)

Tungstates
ScheeliteCaWO4I41/aMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)

Phosphates
ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(F,OH,Cl)P63/mMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988), Nyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
ArupiteNi3(PO4)28H2OI2/mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
Beusite(Mn,Fe,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2P21/cUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
BrianiteNa2CaMg(PO4)2P21/aBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Bunch et al. (Reference Bunch, Keil and Olsen1970), Fuchs et al. (Reference Fuchs, Olsen and Henderson1967)
BuchwalditeNaCaPO4Pmn21Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Olsen et al. (Reference Olsen, Erlichman, Bunch and Moore1977)
Carbonate-fluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3FP63/mNyström and Wickman (Reference Nyström and Wickman1991)
CassidyiteCa2(Ni,Mg)(PO4)22H2OP1Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), White et al. (Reference White, Henderson and Mason1967)
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClP63/mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Fuchs and Olsen (Reference Fuchs and Olsen1965)
ChladniiteNa2CaMg7(PO4)6R3McCoy et al. (Reference McCoy, Steele, Keil, Leonard and Endress1994)
ChopiniteMg3(PO4)2P21/bGrew et al. (Reference Grew, Yates, Beane, Floss and Gerbi2010)
CollinsiteCa2(Mg,Fe,Ni)(PO4)22H2OP1Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
CzochralskiiteNa4Ca3Mg(PO4)4PnmaKarwowski et al. (Reference Karwowski, Kryza, Muszyński, Kusz, Helios, Drożdżewski and Galuskin2016)
FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2P21/aBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Buseck (Reference Buseck1977)
FerromerrilliteCa9NaFe2+(PO4)7R3cBritvin et al. (Reference Britvin, Krivovichev and Armbruster2016)
FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FP63/mKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Kimura et al. (Reference Kimura, Tsuchiyama, Fukuoka and Iimura1992)
GalileiiteNaFe4(PO4)3R3Olsen and Steele (Reference Olsen and Steele1997)
Graftonite(Fe,Mn)3(PO4)2P21/cBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Olsen and Fredriksson (Reference Olsen and Fredriksson1966)
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3OHP63/mFuchs (Reference Fuchs1969)
JohnsomervilleiteNa2Ca(Fe,Mg,Mn)7(PO4)6R3Olsen and Fredriksson (Reference Olsen and Fredriksson1966)
K-Na-Fe phosphate(K,Na)Fe4(PO4)3Olsen and Steele (Reference Olsen and Steele1997)
KepleriteCa9(Ca0.50.5)Mg(PO4)7R3cBritvin et al. (Reference Britvin, Galuskina, Vlasenko, Vereshchagin, Bocharov, Krzhizhanovskaya, Shilovskikh, Galuskin, Vapnik and Obolonskaya2020a)
Lipscombite(Fe2+,Mn)Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2P41212Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
MariciteNaFePO4PmnbClarke et al. (Reference Clarke, Buchwald and Olsen1990)
MatyhiteCa9(Ca0.50.5)Fe2+(PO4)7R3cHwang et al. (Reference Hwang, Shen, Chu, Yui, Varela and Iizuka2016a)
MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7R3cBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Buseck (Reference Buseck1977)
Monazite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Th)PO4P21/nYagi et al. (Reference Yagi, Lovering, Shima and Okada1978)
MoraskoiteNa2Mg(PO4)FPbcnKarwowski et al. (Reference Karwowski, Kusz, Muszyński, Kryza, Sitarz and Galuskin2015)
Na-Ca-Cr phosphateNa4CaCr(PO4)3Kracher et al. (Reference Kracher, Kurat and Buchwald1977)
Na-Ca-Fe phosphateNa4Ca3Fe(PO4)4Kracher et al. (Reference Kracher, Kurat and Buchwald1977)
Na-Mn-Fe phosphateNa4(Mn,Fe)(PO4)2Kracher et al. (Reference Kracher, Kurat and Buchwald1977)
Na-Fe-Mg phosphateNa2Fe(Mg,Ca)(PO4)2Litasov and Podgornykh (Reference Litasov and Podgornykh2017)
Panethite(Na,Ca,K)1-x(Mg,Fe,Mn)PO4P21/nBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Bunch et al. (Reference Bunch, Keil and Olsen1970), Fuchs et al. (Reference Fuchs, Olsen and Henderson1967)
Sarcopside(Fe,Mn)3(PO4)2P21/aBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Olsen and Fredriksson (Reference Olsen and Fredriksson1966)
StanfielditeCa4(Mg,Fe)5(PO4)6P2/CBuseck (Reference Buseck1977)
Tuiteγ-Ca3(PO4)2R3¯mXie et al. (Reference Xie, Minitti, Chen, Mao, Wang, Shu and Fei2003)
VivianiteFe3(PO4)28H2OC2/mBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
XenophylliteNa4Fe7(PO4)6P1www.mindat.org
Xenotime-(Y)YPO4I41/amdLiu et al. (Reference Liu, Ma, Beckett, Chen and Guan2016)

Silicates
Nesosilicates (independent SiO4 tetrahedra)
AdrianiteCa12(Al4Mg3Si7)O32Cl6I4¯3dMa and Krot (Reference Ma and Krot2018)
AhrensiteFe2SiO4Fd3¯mMa et al. (Reference Ma and Beckett2016b)
AlmandineFe3Al2(SiO4)3Ia3dUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
AndraditeCa3Fe2(SiO4)3Ia3dKimura and Ikeda (Reference Kimura and Ikeda1995)
BridgmaniteMg-silicate perovskiteMgSiO3PnmaTschauner et al. (Reference Tschauner, Ma, Beckett, Prescher, Prakapenka and Rossman2014)
Britholite-(Ce)Beckelite(Ce,Y,Ca)5(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)P63/mMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
EringaiteCa3Sc2Si3O12Ia3dMa (Reference Ma2012)
FayaliteFe2SiO4PbnmKrot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1995)
ForsteriteMg2SiO4PbnmDodd (Reference Dodd1981)
GoldmaniteCa3V2(SiO4)3Ia3dKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Simon and Grossman (Reference Simon and Grossman1992)
GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Ia3dKimura and Ikeda (Reference Kimura and Ikeda1995)
HiroseiteFe-analogue of bridgmaniteFeSiO3PnmaBindi and Xie (Reference Bindi and Xie2019)
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12Ia3dMa and Krot (Reference MacPherson and Krot2014)
KirschsteiniteCaFe(SiO4)PbmnKimura and Ikeda (Reference Kimura and Ikeda1995), Krot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1995)
Laihunite(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,□)2SiO4P21/bNakamura et al. (2020)
LarniteFelite; ShannoniteCa2SiO4P21/nKrot (Reference Krot2016) personal communication
MajoriteMg3(MgSi)Si3O12Ia3dChen et al. (Reference Chen, Sharp, El Goresy, Wopenka and Xie1996), Dodd (Reference Dodd1981)
MonticelliteCaMgSiO4PnmaMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988), Ma and Krot (Reference MacPherson and Krot2014)
MulliteAl6Si2O13PbamMa and Rossman (Reference Ma and Rossman2009a)
OlivinePeridot; Chrysolite(Mg,Fe)2SiO4PbnmBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Dodd (Reference Dodd1981), Rubin (Reference Rubin1990)
PoirieriteMg2SiO4PmmaTomioka et al. (Reference Tomioka, Bindi, Okuchi, Miyahara, Iitaka, Li, Kawatsu, Xie, Purevjav, Tani and Kodama2021)
PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3Ia3dChen et al. (Reference Chen, Sharp, El Goresy, Wopenka and Xie1996)
ReiditeZrSiO4I41/aGlass et al. (Reference Glass, Liu and Leavens2002)
RingwooditeMg2SiO4Ia3dDodd (Reference Dodd1981), Price et al. (Reference Price, Putnis and Agrell1979)
RubiniteCa3Ti3+2Si3O12Ia3dMa et al. (Reference Ma, Yoshizaki, Krot, Beckett, Nakamura, Nagashima, Muto and Ivanova2017d)
Sapphirine(Mg,Al)8(Al,Si)6O20P1¯Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
Spinelloid silicate(Mg,Fe)3Si2O7(Mg,Fe,Si)2(Si,□)O4I41/amdMa et al. (Reference Ma, Tschauner, Bindi, Beckett and Xie2019d)
Spinelloid silicate-II(Fe,Mg,Ti,Ca)3(Si,Cr,Al)2O7(Fe,Mg,Cr,Ti,Ca,□)2(Si,Al)O4I41/amdMa et al. (Reference Ma and Liu2019b)
Sodium-bearing silicate(Na,K,Ca,Fe)0.973(Al,Si)5.08O10El Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Wopenka, Chen, Weinbruch and Sharp1997)
Tetragonal almandine(Fe,Mg,Ca,Na)3(Al,Si,Mg)2Si3O12I41/aMa and Tschauner (Reference Ma and Tschauner2016)
Tetragonal majoriteMg3(MgSi)Si3O12I41/aTomioka et al. (Reference Tomioka, Miyahara and Ito2016)
TitaniteSpheneCaTiSiO5P21/aDelaney et al. (Reference Delaney, Prinz and Takeda1984)
TranquillityiteFe2+8Ti3Zr2Si3O24unknownTaylor et al. (Reference Taylor, Nazarov, Demidova and Patchen2001)
WadaliteCa6Al5Si2O16Cl3I43dIshii et al. (Reference Ishii, Krot and Bradley2010)
ZirconZrSiO4I41/amdBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Ireland and Wlotzka (Reference Ireland and Wlotzka1992), Marvin and Klein (Reference Marvin and Klein1964)
Sorosilicates (two isolated SiO4 tetrahedra sharing one O)
ÅkermaniteCa2MgSi2O7P421mMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
AsimowiteFe2SiO4I2/mBindi et al. (Reference Bindi and Xie2019)
BaghdaditeCa3(Zr,Ti)Si2O9P21/aMa (Reference Ma2018b)
Chevkinite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La,Ca,Th)4(Ti,Fe,Mg)5Si4O22C2/mLiu et al. (Reference Liu, Ma, Beckett, Chen and Guan2016)
GehleniteCa2Al(SiAl)O7P421mMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Melilite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg)(Si,Al)2O7P421mMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
PaqueiteCa3TiSi2(Al,Ti,Si)3O14P321Barber et al. (Reference Barber, Beckett, Paque and Stolper1994), Paque et al. (Reference Paque, Beckett, Barber and Stolper1994), Ma and Beckett (Reference Ma and Beckett2016a)
Perrierite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La,Ca,Th)4(Ti,Fe,Mg)5Si4O22C2/mLiu et al. (Reference Liu, Ma, Beckett, Chen and Guan2016)
Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2H2OA2/mUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
ThortveititeSc2Si2O7C2/mMa et al. (Reference Ma, Beckett, Tschauner and Rossman2011b)
TilleyiteCa5Si2O7(CO3)2P21/aKrot (Reference Krot, Nagashima and Rossman2020) personal communication
WadsleyiteMg2SiO4I2/mUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)

Cyclosilicates (closed rings of SiO4 tetrahedra)
CordieriteMg2Al4Si5O18CccmMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988), Petaev et al. (Reference Petaev, Clarke, Olsen, Jarosewich, Davis, Steele, Lipschutz, Wang, Clayton, Mayeda and Wood1993)
IndialiteMg2Al3(AlSi5O18)P6/mccMikouchi et al. (Reference Mikouchi, Hagiya, Sawa, Kimura, Ohsumi, Komatsu and Zolensky2016)
Merrihueite(K,Na)2Fe5Si12O30P6/mccDodd et al. (Reference Dodd, Van Schmus and Marvin1965, Reference Dodd, Van Schmus and Marvin1966), Krot and Wasson (Reference Krot and Rubin1994)
OsumiliteKFe2(Al5Si10)O30P6/mccUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
Roedderite(K,Na)2Mg5Si12O30P6/mmcBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Fuchs (Reference Fuchs1966b), Krot and Wasson (Reference Krot and Rubin1994)
Yagiite(K,Na)2(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)12O30P6/mmcBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)

Inosilicates (continuous single or double chains of SiO4 tetrahedra)
AenigmatiteNa2Fe2+5TiSi6O20P1
Al-Ti diopsideFassaiteCa(Mg,Ti,Al)(Si,Al)2O6C2/cDodd (Reference Dodd1981), MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Akimotoite(Mg,Fe)SiO3R3¯Tomioka and Fujino (Reference Tomioka and Fujino1999)
Albitic jadeite(Na,Ca,□1/4)(Al,Si)Si2O6C2/cMa et al. (Reference Ma, Tschauner, Kong, Beckett, Greenberg, Prakapenka and Lee2020b)
Anthophyllite(Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2PnmaBrearley (Reference Brearley1996)
Augite(Ca,Mg,Fe)2Si2O6C2/cDodd (Reference Dodd1981)
Barroisite□NaCa(Mg3Al2)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2C2/mDobrica and Brearley (Reference Dobrică and Brearley2014)
BurnettiteCaV3+AlSiO6C2/cMa and Beckett (Reference Ma and Beckett2016a)
ClinoenstatiteMg2Si2O6P 21/cLindstrom (Reference Lindstrom1990), Britvin et al. (Reference Britvin, Bogdanova, Boldyreva and Aksenova2008), Pekov (Reference Pekov1998)
DavisiteSc-fassaiteCaScAlSiO6C2/cMa and Rossman (Reference Ma and Rossman2009b)
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6C2/cDodd (Reference Dodd1981)
Donpeacorite(Mn,Mg)Mg(SiO3)2PbcaKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Kimura and El Goresy (Reference Kimura and El Goresy1989)
EnstatiteMg2Si2O6PbcaDodd (Reference Dodd1981), Keil (Reference Keil1968)
FerrosiliteFe2Si2O6PbcaKrot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1997c)
Fluor-richteriteNa2Ca(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22F2N/ABevan et al. (Reference Bevan, Bevan and Francis1977), Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Olsen et al. (Reference Olsen, Huebner, Douglas and Plant1973)
GrossmaniteCaTi3+AlSiO6C2/cMa and Rossman (Reference Ma and Rossman2009c)
HedenbergiteCaFeSi2O6C2/cKimura and Ikeda (Reference Kimura and Ikeda1995)
HemleyiteFeSiO3R3¯Bindi et al. (Reference Bindi, Chen and Xie2017)
HornblendeCa2[Mg,Fe,Al]5[Si,Al]8O22(OH)2C2/mRubin (Reference Rubin2014)
JadeiteNaAlSi2O6C2/cUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
Jimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2PbcaBrearley (Reference Brearley1996)
Kaersutite(Na,K)Ca2(Mg,Fe,Ti,Al)5(Si6Al2)O22O2C2/mTreiman (Reference Treiman1985)
KanoiteMnMgSi2O6P21/cKimura (Reference Kimura1996); Kimura and El Goresy (Reference Kimura and El Goresy1989)
KosmochlorUreyiteNaCrSi2O6C2/cBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Greshake and Bischoff (Reference Endress and Bischoff1996)
KrinoviteNaMg2CrSi3O10P1Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Olsen and Fuchs (Reference Olsen and Fuchs1968)
KuratiteCa2(Fe2+5Ti)O2[Si4Al2O18]P1Hwang et al. (Reference Hwang, Shen, Chu, Chui, Varela and Iizuka2014)
KushiroiteCaAlAlSiO6C2/cKimura et al. (Reference Kim, Choi and Rubin2009), Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Simon, Rossman and Grossman2009)
Magnesio-arfvedsoniteNaNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2C2/mIvanov et al. (Reference Ivanov, Kononkova, Zolensky, Migdisova and Stroganov2001)
MagnesiohornblendeCa2(Mg4Al)(Si7AlO22)(OH)2C2/mMcCanta et al. (Reference McCanta, Treiman, Dyar, Alexander, Rumble and Essene2008)
Orthopyroxene(Mg,Fe)SiO3PbcaBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977), Dodd (Reference Dodd1981)
Pigeonite(Mg,Fe,Ca)2Si2O6P21/cDodd (Reference Dodd1981)
Potassic-chloro-hastingsiteKCa2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22Cl2B2/mMcCubbin et al. (Reference McCubbin, Tosca, Smirnov, Nekvasil, Steele, Fries and Lindsley2009)
PyroxferroiteFeSiO3P1Papike et al. (Reference Papike, Taylor, Simon, Heiken, Vaniman and French1991)
RhodoniteCaMn4(Si3O15)P1Ulyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991)
RhöniteCa2(Mg,Al,Ti)6(Si,Al)6O20P1Fuchs (Reference Fuchs1971)
Tissintite(Ca,Na,□)AlSi2O6C2/cMa et al. (Reference Ma, Tschauner, Beckett, Liu, Rossman, Zhuravlev, Prakapenka, Dera and Taylor2015b)
WilkinsoniteNa2Fe2+4Fe3+2Si6O20P1Ivanov et al. (Reference Ivanov, Kononkova, Zolensky, Migdisova and Stroganov2001)
Winchite□NaCa(Mg4Al)Si8O22(OH)2C2/mDobrica and Brearley (Reference Dobrică and Brearley2014)
WollastoniteCaSiO3P1Fuchs (Reference Fuchs1971)

Phyllosilicates (continuous sheets of SiO4 tetrahedra)
AspidoliteNaMg3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2B2/mwww.mindat.org
BiotiteK(Mg,Fe)3(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2C2/mFloran et al. (Reference Floran, Prinz, Hlava, Keil, Nehru and Hinthorne1978), Johnson et al. (Reference Johnson, Rutherford and Hess1991)
Chlorite Group
Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8C2/mBarber (Reference Barber1981), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Clinochlore(Mg,Fe2+)5Al(Si3Al)O10(OH)8C2/mBarber (Reference Barber1981)
ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH,F)2C2/mKrot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1995)
Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2B2/mKyte (Reference Kyte1998)
HisingeriteFe2Si2O5(OH)4·2H2OAbreu (Reference Abreu2016)
IlliteK~0.65(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2C2/mGooding (Reference Gooding1992)
MargariteCaAl2(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2C2/cKrot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1995)
Mica(K,Na,Ca)(Al,Mg,Fe)2-3(Si,Al,Fe)4O10(OH,F)2C2/mVelbel (Reference Velbel1988), Zolensky and Gooding (Reference Zolensky and Gooding1986)
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2C2/mKurat et al. (Reference Kurat, Brandstatter, Palme and Michel-Levy1981)
OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2C2/mwww.mindat.org
PecoraiteNi3Si2O5(OH)4C2/mFaust et al. (Reference Faust, Fahey, Mason and Dwornik1973)
Serpentine Group
AmesiteMg2Al(SiAl)O5(OH)4C1Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
AntigoriteMg3Si2O5(OH)4BmBarber (Reference Barber1981)
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Mg)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4CmBarber (Reference Barber1981)
ChrysotileMg3Si2O5(OH)4A2/mBarber (Reference Barber1981)
Cronstedtite(Fe2+,Fe3+)3(Si,Fe3+)2O5(OH)4P31mZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Ferroan Antigorite(Mg,Fe,Mn)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4BmBarber (Reference Barber1981)
Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4unknownBarber (Reference Barber1981)
LizarditeMg3Si2O5(OH)4P1Barber (Reference Barber1981)
Smectite Group
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.3(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2nH2OC2/mKrot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1995), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
NontroniteNa0.3Fe23+(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2.nH2OC2/mZolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Saponite(Ca,Na)0.3(Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)24H2OC2/mBrearley (Reference Brearley1995), Krot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1995)
Sodium-PhlogopiteAspidolite(Na,K)Mg3(Si3Al)O10(F,OH)2B2/mKrot et al. (Reference Krot, Scott and Zolensky1995)
TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2C2/cBarber (Reference Barber1981), Brearley (Reference Brearley1996)
Vermiculite(Mg,Fe,Al)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2·4H2OC2/mUlyanov (Reference Ulyanov1991), Zolensky and McSween (Reference Zolensky, McSween, Kerridge and Matthews1988)

Tectosilicates (continuous framework of SiO4 tetrahedra)
AlbiteNaAlSi3O8C1Keil (Reference Keil1968)
AnorthiteCaAl2Si2O8P1¯MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
CelsianBaAl2Si2O8I21/cMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988), Dodd (Reference Dodd1981)
Chabazite-Na(Na3K)Al4Si8O24·11H2OR3mZolensky and Ivanov (Reference Zolensky and Ivanov2003)
CoesiteSiO2C2/cWeisberg and Kimura (Reference Weisberg and Kimura2010), Kimura et al. (Reference Kimura, Yamaguchi and Miyahara2017)
CristobaliteSiO2P41212Dodd (Reference Dodd1981), Marvin (Reference Marvin1962)
DmisteinbergiteCaAl2Si2O8P6/mmmMa et al. (Reference Ma, Krot and Bizzarro2013b)
DonwilhelmsiteCaAl4Si2O11P63/mmcFritz et al. (Reference Fritz, Greshake, Klementova, Wirth, Palatinus, Assis Fernandes, Böttger and Ferrière2019, 2020)
Feldspar Group(K,Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8Buchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
HaüyneNa3Ca(Si3Al3)O12(SO4)P43nFlight (Reference Flight1887)
LiebermanniteKAlSi3O8I4/mMa et al. (Reference Ma2018b)
LinguniteNaAlSi3O8I4/mGillet et al. (Reference Gillet, Chen, Dubrovinsky and El Goresy2000)
MarialiteNa4(Si,Al)12O24ClI4/mKimura (Reference Kimura1996), Alexander et al. (Reference Alexander, Hutchison, Graham and Yabuki1987)
Maskelynite(Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8amorphousBinns (Reference Binns1967), Rubin (Reference Rubin2015b)
Nepheline(Na,K)AlSiO4P63MacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
OpalSiO2nH2OBuchwald (Reference Buchwald1977)
OrthoclaseKAlSi3O8C2/mKerridge and Matthews (Reference Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Plagioclase(Na,Ca)(Si,Al)3O8C1Dodd (Reference Dodd1981)
QuartzSiO2P31 21, P3232Dodd (Reference Dodd1981), Komatsu (Reference Komatsu, Fagan, Krot, Nagashima, Petaev, Kimura and Yamaguchi2018)
SanidineKAlSi3O8C2/mFloran et al. (Reference Floran, Prinz, Hlava, Keil, Nehru and Hinthorne1978), Johnson et al. (Reference Johnson, Rutherford and Hess1991)
SeifertiteSiO2Pbcn or Pb2nEl Goresy et al. (Reference El Goresy, Dera, Sharp, Prewitt, Chen, Dubrovinsky, Wopenka, Boctor and Hemley2008)
SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12ClP43nMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)
Stilbite-CaNaCa4(Si27Al9)O7230H2OC2/mKimura (Reference Kimura1996), Gooding (Reference Gooding1981)
StishoviteSiO2P4/mnmChao et al. (Reference Chao, Fahey, Littler and Milton1962)
StöffleriteCaAl2Si2O8I4/mTschauner and Ma (Reference Rubin and Ma2017)
TridymiteSiO2F1Dodd (Reference Dodd1981)
ZagamiiteCaAl2Si3.5O11P63/mmcMa and Tschauner (Reference Ma and Tschauner2017), Ma et al. (Reference Ma, Tschauner and Beckett2017c, Reference Ma and Liu2019a)
Zeolite Group(Na,K)0-2(Ca,Mg)1-2(Al,Si)5-10O10-20.nH2OMacPherson et al. (Reference MacPherson, Wark, Armstrong, Kerridge and Matthews1988)

Oxalates
WhewelliteCaC2O4H2OP21/nFuchs et al. (Reference Fuchs, Olsen and Jensen1973)

Phosphate-Silicate
TsangpoiteCa5(PO4)2(SiO4)P63/m, P63, or P6322Hwang et al. (Reference Hwang, Shen, Chu, Varela and Iizu2016b)

In most cases, the listed citations for the minerals are not exhaustive. Many individual minerals formed by different processes and are found in a variety of meteorites.

Table 1.2 Alphabetical list of meteoritic minerals

AddibischoffiteCa2Al6Al6O20
AdrianiteCa12(Al4Mg3Si7)O32Cl6
AenigmatiteNa2Fe2+5TiSi6O20
AhrensiteFe2SiO4
Akaganéiteβ-FeO(OH,Cl)
ÅkermaniteCa2MgSi2O7
Akimotoite(Mg,Fe)SiO3
AlabanditeMnS
AlbiteNaAlSi3O8
Albitic jadeite(Na,Ca,□1/4)(Al,Si)Si2O6
Allabogdanite(Fe,Ni)2P
AllendeiteSc4Zr3O12
AlmandineFe3Al2(SiO4)3
AltaitePbTe
Al-Ti diopsideCa(Mg,Ti,Al)(Si,Al)2O6
AluminiumAl
Amakinite(Fe,Mg)(OH)2
AmesiteMg2Al(SiAl)O5(OH)4
AnataseTiO2
AndraditeCa3Fe2(SiO4)3
AndreyivanoviteFeCrP
AnhydriteCaSO4
AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg,Mn)(CO3)2
AnorthiteCaAl2Si2O8
Anosovite (not approved)(Ti4+,Ti3+,Mg,Sc,Al)3O5
Anthophyllite(Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2
AntigoriteMg3Si2O5(OH)4
Antitaenite (not approved)Fe3Ni
ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(F,OH,Cl)
AragoniteCaCO3
Armalcolite(Mg,Fe)Ti2O5
ArupiteNi3(PO4)28H2O
AsimowiteFe2SiO4
AspidoliteNaMg3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
Augite(Ca,Mg,Fe)2Si2O6
AwaruiteNi3Fe
BaddeleyiteZrO2
BaghdaditeCa3(Zr,Ti)Si2O9
BaryteBaSO4
Barringerite(Fe,Ni)2P
BarringtoniteMgCO32H2O
Barroisite□NaCa(Mg3Al2)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
BassaniteCaSO4½H2O
BeckettiteCa2V6Al6O20
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Mg)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Beusite(Mn,Fe,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
BiotiteK(Mg,Fe)3(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2
Bismuth chloride (not approved)BiCl3
BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)24H2O
BöhmiteAlO(OH)
BorniteCu5FeS4
Breunnerite(Mg,Fe)CO3
BrezinaiteCr3S4
BrianiteNa2CaMg(PO4)2
BridgmaniteMgSiO3
Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Y,Ca)5(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
BrowneiteMnS
BrownleeiteMnSi
BruciteMg(OH)2
β-Silicon nitride (Not Approved)β-Si3N4
BuchwalditeNaCaPO4
BunseniteNiO
BurnettiteCaV3+AlSiO6
Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
ButianiteNi6SnS2
CalciteCaCO3
CalzirtiteCa2Zr5Ti2O16
Carbonate-fluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3F
CarletonmooreiteNi3Si
CarlsbergiteCrN
CassidyiteCa2(Ni,Mg)(PO4)22H2O
CaswellsilveriteNaCrS2
CelestineSrSO4
CelsianBaAl2Si2O8
Chabazite-Na(Na3K)Al4Si8O24·11H2O
ChalcociteCu2S
ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
ChaoiteC
ChenmingiteFeCr2O4
Chevkinite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La,Ca,Th)4(Ti,Fe,Mg)5Si4O22
ChladniiteNa2CaMg7(PO4)6
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2∙3H2O
ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32Cl2
ChopiniteMg3(PO4)2
ChromiteFeCr2O4
ChrysotileMg3Si2O5(OH)4
ChukanoviteFe2(CO3)(OH)2
CinnabarHgS
Clinochlore(Mg,Fe2+)5Al(Si3Al)O10(OH)8
ClinoenstatiteMg2Si2O6
ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH,F)2
CobaltiteCoAsS
CoesiteSiO2
Cohenite(Fe,Ni)3C
CollinsiteCa2(Mg,Fe,Ni)(PO4)22H2O
CooperitePtS
CopiapiteFe5(SO4)6(OH)220H2O
CopperCu
CoquimbiteFe2(SO4)39H2O
CordieriteMg2Al4Si5O18
CorundumAl2O3
CoulsoniteFeV2O4
CovelliteCuS
CristobaliteSiO2
Cronstedtite(Fe2+,Fe3+)3(Si,Fe3+)2O5(OH)4
CronusiteCa0.2CrS22H2O
Cu-Cr-sulfide (not approved)CuCrS2
CubaniteCuFe2S3
CupaliteCuAl
CupriteCu2O
CzochralskiiteNa4Ca3Mg(PO4)4
DaubréeliteFeCr2S4
DavisiteCaScAlSiO6
DecagoniteAl71Ni24Fe5
DiamondC
DigeniteCu1.8S
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
DjerfisheriteK6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl
DmisteinbergiteCaAl2Si2O8
DmitryivanoviteCaAl2O4
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Donpeacorite(Mn,Mg)Mg(SiO3)2
DonwilhelmsiteCaAl4Si2O11
DroninoiteNi6Fe3+2Cl2(OH)164H2O
EdeniteNaCa2Mg5Si7AlO22(OH)2
EdscottiteFe5C2
Electrum (not approved)Au-Ag
EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
EpsomiteMgSO47H2O
EringaiteCa3Sc2Si3O12
ErlichmaniteOsS2
EskolaiteCr2O3
FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2
FayaliteFe2SiO4
FeiiteFe2+2(Fe2+Ti4+)O5
Feldspar group(K,Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8
Feroxyhyteδ-FeO(OH)
FerrihydriteFe3+10O14(OH)2
Ferroan alabandite(Mn,Fe)S
Ferroan antigorite(Mg,Fe,Mn)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
FerromerrilliteCa9NaFe2+(PO4)7
FerropseudobrookiteFeTi2O5
FerrosiliteFe2Si2O6
Florenskyite(Fe,Ni)TiP
FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Fluor-richteriteNa2Ca(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22F2
ForsteriteMg2SiO4
GalenaPbS
GalileiiteNaFe4(PO4)3
GehleniteCa2Al(SiAl)O7
GeikieliteMgTiO3
Gentnerite (not approved)Cu8Fe3Cr11S18
GersdorffiteNiAsS
Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Goethiteα-FeO(OH)
GoldAu
Gold-dominated alloys(Au,Ag,Fe,Ni,Pt)
GoldmaniteCa3V2(SiO4)3
Graftonite(Fe,Mn)3(PO4)2
GraphiteC
Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
GreigiteFe3S4
GrossiteCaAl4O7
GrossmaniteCaTi3+AlSiO6
GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
GupeiiteFe3Si
GypsumCaSO42H2O
Haapalaite2[(Fe,Ni)S]⋅1.6[(Mg,Fe)(OH)2]
HaliteNaCl
HapkeiteFe2Si
HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4
HaüyneNa3Ca(Si3Al3)O12(SO4)
Haxonite(Fe,Ni)23C6
HeazlewooditeNi3S2
HedenbergiteCaFeSi2O6
Heideite(Fe,Cr)1.15(Ti,Fe)2S4
Hematiteα-Fe2O3
HemleyiteFeSiO3
HercyniteFeAl2O4
Hexaferrum(Fe,Os,Ir,Mo)
HexahydriteMgSO46H2O
Hexamolybdenum(Mo,Ru,Fe)
Hibbingiteγ-Fe2(OH)3Cl
HiboniteCaAl12O19
Hibonite-(Fe)(Fe,Mg)Al12O19
HiroseiteFeSiO3
HisingeriteFe2Si2O5(OH)4·2H2O
HollisteriteAl3Fe
Honessite(Ni,Fe)8SO4(OH)16nH2O
HornblendeCa2[Mg,Fe,Al]5[Si,Al]8O22(OH)2
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)24H2O
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3OH
IcosahedriteAl63Cu24Fe13
Icosahedrite IIAl62Cu31Fe7
IdaiteCu5FeS6
IlliteK~0.65(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
IlmeniteFeTiO3
IndialiteMg2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Indium-dominated alloys(In,Sn,Pb)
Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
Ironα-Fe
IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
JadeiteNaAlSi2O6
JarositeKFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2
JoegoldsteiniteMnCr2S4
JohnsomervilleiteNa2Ca(Fe,Mg,Mn)7(PO4)6
Kaersutite(Na,K)Ca2(Mg,Fe,Ti,Al)5(Si6Al2)O22O2
KaitianiteTi3+2Ti4+O5
KalininiteZnCr2S4
KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8
Kangite(Sc,Ti,Al,Zr,Mg,Ca,□)2O3
KanoiteMnMgSi2O6
Keilite(Fe,Mg)S
KepleriteCa9(Ca0.50.5)Mg(PO4)7
KhamrabaeviteTiC
KhatyrkiteCuAl2
KieseriteMgSO4H2O
KirschsteiniteCaFe(SiO4)
K-Na-Fe phosphate(K,Na)Fe4(PO4)3
KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6
KrinoviteNaMg2CrSi3O10
KrotiteCaAl2O4
Kryachkoite(Al,Cu)6(Fe,Cu)
KuratiteCa2(Fe2+5Ti)O2[Si4Al2O18]
KushiroiteCaAlAlSiO6
KutnohoriteCaMn(CO3)2
LakargiiteCaZrO3
Laihunite(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,□)2SiO4
LarniteCa2SiO4
LauriteRuS2
Lawrencite(Fe2+,Ni)Cl2
Lepidocrociteγ-FeO(OH)
LiebermanniteKAlSi3O8
LimeCaO
LinguniteNaAlSi3O8
LinzhiiteFeSi2
Lipscombite(Fe2+,Mn)Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
LiuiteFeTiO3
LizarditeMg3Si2O5(OH)4
LöllingiteFeAs2
LoveringiteCa(Ti,Fe,Cr,Mg)21O38
MachiiteAl2Ti3O9
Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)1+xS (x = 0-0.07)
ManganiteMn3+OOH
MaghemiteFe2.67O4
Magnéli phasesTi5O9 and Ti8O15
Magnesio-arfvedsoniteNaNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4
MagnesioferriteMgFe2O4
MagnesiohornblendeCa2(Mg4Al)(Si7AlO22)(OH)2
Magnesiowüstite(Fe,Mg)O
Magnesite(Mg,Fe)CO3
MagnetiteFe3O4
MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8
MajoriteMg3(MgSi)Si3O12
MarcasiteFeS2
MargariteCaAl2(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
MarialiteNa4(Si,Al)12O24Cl
MariciteNaFePO4
Martensite (not approved)α2-(Fe,Ni)
Maskelynite(Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8
MatyhiteCa9(Ca0.50.5)Fe2+(PO4)7
MaucheriteNi11As8
MelanteriteFeSO47H2O
Melilite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg)(Si,Al)2O7
Melliniite(Ni,Fe)4P
MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2·11H2O
MercuryHg
Merrihueite(K,Na)2(Fe,Mg)5Si12O30
MerrilliteCa9NaMg(PO4)7
Mica(K,Na,Ca)(Al,Mg,Fe)2-3(Si,Al,Fe)4O10(OH,F)2
MilleriteNiS
MoissaniteSiC
MolybdeniteMoS2
Molybdenum (not approved)Mo
Molybdenum carbide (not approved)MoC
Monazite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Th)PO4
MoncheitePt(Te,Bi)2
MonipiteMoNiP
MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.3(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2nH2O
MoraskoiteNa2Mg(PO4)F
MulliteAl6Si2O13
MurchisiteCr5S6
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Na-Ca-Cr phosphateNa4CaCr(PO4)3
Na-Ca-Fe phosphateNa4Ca3Fe(PO4)4
Na-Fe-Mg phosphateNa2Fe(Mg,Ca)(PO4)2
Na-Mn-Fe phosphateNa4(Mn,Fe)(PO4)2
NaquiteFeSi
Nb-oxide(Nb,V,Fe)O2
Nepheline(Na,K)AlSiO4
NesquehoniteMg(CO3)⋅3H2O
NickelNi
Ni-Ge phosphideNi4Ge0.33P1.17
Ni-rich blöditeNa2(Mg,Ni)(SO4)2⋅4H2O
NickelineNiAs
NickelphosphideNi3P
Nieriteα-Si3N4
NiningeriteMgS
Niobium (not approved)Nb
NontroniteNa0.3Fe23+(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2·nH2O
NuwaiteNi6GeS2
NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
OldhamiteCaS
Olivine(Mg,Fe)2SiO4
OlkhonskiteCr2Ti3O9
Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2
Omphacite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)Si2O6
OpalSiO2nH2O
OrceliteNi4.77As2
OrthoclaseKAlSi3O8
Orthopyroxene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
OsborniteTiN
OsmiumOs
OsumiliteKFe2(Al5Si10)O30
OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
Panethite(Na,Ca,K)1-x(Mg,Fe,Mn)PO4
Panguite(Ti,Al,Sc,Mg,Zr,Ca)1.8O3
PaqueiteCa3TiSi2(Al,Ti,Si)3O14
ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5x
PecoraiteNi3Si2O5(OH)4
Pentlandite(Fe,Ni)9S8
PericlaseMgO
PerovskiteCaTiO3
Perrierite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La,Ca,Th)4(Ti,Fe,Mg)5Si4O22
Perryite(Ni,Fe)8(Si,P)3
PGE-dominated alloys(Pt,Os,Ir,Ru,Re,Rh,Mo,Nb,Ta,Ge,W,V,Pb,Cr,Fe,Ni,Co)
PhlogopiteKMg3(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2
Pigeonite(Mg,Fe,Ca)2Si2O6
Plagioclase(Na,Ca)(Si,Al)3O8
PlagionitePb5Sb8S17
PlatinumPt
PoirieriteMg2SiO4
PortlanditeCa(OH)2
Potassic-chloro-hastingsiteKCa2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22Cl2
PowelliteCaMoO4
ProxidecagoniteAl34Ni9Fe2
PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2H2O
PyriteFeS2
Pyrochlore(Na,Ca)2Nb2O6(OH,F)
PyrolusiteMnO2
PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
PyrophaniteMnTiO3
PyroxferroiteFeSiO3
PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
QuartzSiO2
RammelsbergiteNiAs2
ReevesiteNi6Fe3+2(CO3)(OH)164H2O
ReiditeZrSiO4
Rhenium (not approved)Re
RhodochrositeMnCO3
RhodoniteCaMn4(Si3O15)
RhöniteCa2(Mg,Al,Ti)6(Si,Al)6O20
RingwooditeMg2SiO4
Roaldite(Fe,Ni)4N
Roedderite(K,Na)2Mg5Si12O30
RubiniteCa3Ti3+2Si3O12
Rudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)S
Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
Ruthenium(Ru,Os,Ir)
Ruthenium carbide (not approved)RuC
Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)
RutileTiO2
SaffloriteCoAs2
SanidineKAlSi3O8
Saponite(Ca,Na)0.3(Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)24H2O
Sapphirine(Mg,Al)8(Al,Si)6O20
Sarcopside(Fe,Mn)3(PO4)2
ScheeliteCaWO4
SchöllhorniteNa0.3CrS2·H2O
Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
SchwertmanniteFe3+16O16(OH,SO4)13-14·10H2O
SeifertiteSiO2
SeleniumSe
ShenzhuangiteNiFeS2
SideriteFeCO3
Silica with ZrO2-like structure (not approved)SiO2
SinoiteSi2N2O
SlavikiteNaMg2Fe3+5(SO4)7(OH)633H2O
Smythite(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x = 0-0.3)
SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Sodium-bearing silicate(Na,K,Ca,Fe)0.973(Al,Si)5.08O10
Sodium-phlogopite(Na,K)Mg3(Si3Al)O10(F,OH)2
SperrylitePtAs2
SphaleriteZnS
SpinelMgAl2O4
Spinelloid silicate(Mg,Fe,Si)2(Si,□)O4
Spinelloid silicate-II(Fe,Mg,Cr,Ti,Ca,□)2(Si,Al)O4
StanfielditeCa4(Mg,Fe)5(PO4)6
StarkeyiteMgSO4.4H2O
Steinhardtite(Al,Ni,Fe)
Stilbite-CaNaCa4(Si27Al9)O7230H2O
StishoviteSiO2
StöffleriteCaAl2Si2O8
StolperiteAlCu
SuessiteFe3Si
SulfurS
SylviteKCl
SzomolnokiteFeSO4H2O
Taeniteγ-(Fe,Ni)
TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tazheranite(Zr,Ti,Ca,Y)O1.75
Tetragonal almandine(Fe,Mg,Ca,Na)3(Al,Si,Mg)2Si3O12
Tetragonal majoriteMg3(MgSi)Si3O12
TetrataeniteFeNi
ThénarditeNa2SO4
ThorianiteThO2
ThortveititeSc2Si2O7
Ti3+,Al,Zr-oxide(Ti3+,Al,Zr,Si,Mg)1.95O3
Ti-oxideTi3O5
Ti-rich magnetite(Fe,Mg)(Fe,Al,Ti)2O4
TilleyiteCa5Si2O7(CO3)2
Tissintite(Ca,Na,□)AlSi2O6
TistariteTi2O3
TitaniteCaTiSiO5
Tochilinite6(Fe0.9S)5[(Mg,Fe,Ni)(OH)2]
TranquillityiteFe2+8Ti3Zr2Si3O24
TransjordaniteNi2P
TrevoriteNiFe2O4
TridymiteSiO2
TroiliteFeS
TsangpoiteCa5(PO4)2(SiO4)
TschauneriteFe2+(Fe2+Ti4+)O4
TugarinoviteMoO2
Tuiteγ-Ca3(PO4)2
TungsteniteWS2
UakititeVN
UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
V,Fe,Cr-rich sulfide(V,Fe,Cr)4S5
V-rich brezinaite(Cr,V,Fe)3S4
V-rich daubréeliteFe(Cr,V)2S4
V-rich magnetite(Fe,Mg)(Fe,Al,V)2O4
Valleriite2[(Fe,Cu)S]·1.53[(Mg,Al)(OH)2]
VateriteCaCO3
Vermiculite(Mg,Fe,Al)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2·4H2O
Vestaite(Ti4+Fe2+)Ti4+3O9
ViolariteFeNi2S4
VivianiteFe3(PO4)28H2O
VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)1218H2O
WadaliteCa6Al5Si2O16Cl3
WadsleyiteMg2SiO4
WairauiteCoFe
WangdaodeiteFeTiO3
WarkiteCa2Sc6Al6O20
WassoniteTiS
WhewelliteCaC2O4H2O
WilkinsoniteNa2Fe2+4Fe3+2Si6O20
Winchite□NaCa(Mg4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
WollastoniteCaSiO3
WurtziteZnS
WüstiteFeO
XenophylliteNa4Fe7(PO4)6
Xenotime-(Y)YPO4
XieiteFeCr2O4
XifengiteFe5Si3
Yagiite(Na,K)1.5Mg2(Al,Mg)3(Si,Al)12O30
ZagamiiteCaAl2Si3.5O11
ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)44H2O
Zeolite group(Na,K)0-2(Ca,Mg)1-2(Al,Si)5-10O10-20⋅nH2O
Zhanghengite(Cu,Zn)
ZirconZrSiO4
Zirconium carbide (not approved)ZrC
ZirconoliteCaZrTi2O7
Zirkelite(Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x
ZolenskyiteFeCr2S4

Although water ice is not a meteoritic mineral, it may have left traces in the matrices of primitive chondrites in the form of small ultraporous regions. Ice currently occurs on planets (e.g., Earth, Mercury, Mars); dwarf planets (Pluto, Haumea, Eris); moons (e.g., Moon, Europa, Titan); and asteroids. It was detected at the surface of 24 Themis (a 198 km-wide C-asteroid) (Campins et al. Reference Campins, Hargrove, Pinilla-Alonso, Howell, Kelley, Licandro, Mothé-Diniz, Fernández and Ziffer2010; Rivkin and Emery Reference Rivkin and Emery2010) and found within pyroxene grains from 25143 Itokawa (a subkilometer S-asteroid) (Jin and Bose Reference Jin and Bose2019). Because ice would sublimate quickly at the surface of asteroids in the main belt, there has probably been recent outgassing of water vapor from the interior of Themis and condensation of ice around regolith grains (Rivkin and Emery Reference Rivkin and Emery2010).

The astronomical menagerie includes such diverse objects as asymptotic giant branch stars, white dwarfs, black holes, neutron stars, Bok globules, Herbig–Haro objects, and planetary nebulae. Our knowledge of the cosmos deepens with the discovery of new members of the menagerie and the discernment of their interrelationships. Our knowledge of the bodies in the Solar System increases with the discovery of new mineral phases and the determination of their formation histories. The study of meteoritic minerals has broadened our understanding of the solar nebula, the geological history of asteroids and comets, the evolution of the Moon and Mars, impact phenomena, alteration and weathering processes, the physics of dying stars, and the nature of the interstellar medium.

Footnotes

1 Although limonite is not an IMA-approved mineral, it is a commonly used term referring to poorly characterized mixtures of hydrous iron oxides such as goethite. The name is often applied to weathering veins and rinds around metallic Fe-Ni grains in chondritic meteorite finds.

2 The first English translation of De re metallica was made in 1912 by mining engineer and future US President (1929–1933), Herbert Hoover, and his wife, Lou Henry Hoover, a geologist and Latinist. The work was widely acclaimed for its clarity of exposition and informative footnotes.

3 One of Werner’s students was the Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt who eschewed neptunism after studying volcanic rocks and ash in the Andes. Humboldt was among the first to propose that Africa and South America had once been joined, implicitly invoking continental drift. One of Humboldt’s close friends was the great German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (of Faust fame) who had amassed the largest private collection of minerals in Europe. By the time Goethe died in 1832, he had collected nearly 18,000 rock and mineral samples. The mineral goethite (α-FeO(OH)) is named in his honor.

4 Associated with this paper is one by Jacques-Louis, Count de Bournon, “Mineralogical Description of the various Stones said to have fallen upon the Earth,” that contains the first published descriptions of chondrules (“small bodies, some of which are perfectly globular, others rather elongated or elliptical”) as well as fine-grained silicate matrix material (a whitish gray substance with “an earthy consistence”). He also described (although not for the first time) two phases: troilite (characterizing it as nonmagnetic “martial pyrite”) and fine-grained metallic iron.

5 The question may arise as to how nineteenth-century scientists knew the density of the Moon. It is a complicated story. The size of the Earth was determined long ago by Eratosthenes. On the summer solstice in c. 230 BCE at local noon, he observed the Sun close to the zenith, i.e., directly over a deep well in Syene, Egypt (now Aswan); in Alexandria at noon on the same day one year later, a vertical rod (a gnomon) cast a shadow. Eratosthenes measured the length of the shadow, and using geometry found that the Sun was 7.2° south of the zenith. The two Egyptian cities were a known distance apart (5,000 stadia, where 1 stade = 184.8 m) and were approximately on a north–south line. He assumed the Earth was a sphere because it cast a curved shadow on the Moon during total lunar eclipses. He divided 7.2° by 360° and found that the distance between these cities was 2 percent of the Earth’s circumference. He multiplied the linear distance between the cities by 50 to determine the circumference of the Earth to within about 15 percent of the actual value. Of course, by the nineteenth century, the Earth had been circumnavigated (starting with the Magellan–Elcano expedition, 1519–1522), its size was well known, and accurate maps were available.

In 1686 Isaac Newton published his Law of Universal Gravitation [Fgrav = G · ((m1 × m2)/r2)], where Fgrav is the force of gravity, m is mass, r is distance, and G is the gravitational constant; the following year, Newton presented his second law of motion, showing that Fgrav = m × g, where g is the acceleration of gravity at the Earth’s surface. Experiments showed that g is 9.8 m s−2. Using a torsion balance in 1789, Henry Cavendish determined an accurate value for the gravitational constant G. These parameters plus simple algebra allowed measurement of the mass of the Earth.

The distance to the Moon was first estimated by Aristarchus in c. 270 BCE by timing how long it took the Moon to pass through Earth’s shadow during total lunar eclipses. He timed it at about 3 hours and calculated that the Earth’s shadow was approximately 2.5 times the apparent diameter of the Moon. By using simple geometry, he found that the Moon is about 60 Earth radii away, within 1 percent of the actual value. The Earth–Moon distance can also be computed by parallax if two observers situated a long (and known) distance apart observe the Moon against the background stars at the same time and note the apparent shift in perspective. Trigonometry then provides the distance. Subsequent refinements of the Earth–Moon distance allowed nineteenth-century scientists to determine the Moon’s mass from the Law of Universal Gravitation (as the Earth’s mass and the value of g were already known).

The Moon subtends an angle of ~0.5° in the sky; because the distance between the Earth and Moon was known, simple geometry yielded the Moon’s diameter (and hence its volume). Because density = mass/volume, once the latter values were measured, the Moon’s density was easily calculated.

6 On the night of 20–21 January 2019, a small meteorite or comet, modeled as a mass of ~10 kg, crashed into the Moon during a total lunar eclipse. It produced a brief (0.3-second) yellow-white flash observed by multiple telescopes.

7 The inference that the vast majority of meteorites are derived from asteroids is based on more than a dozen links pertaining to parent-body size, orbital characteristics, and physical properties: (1) The metallographic cooling rates of many stony and iron meteorites are in the range of 1–100°C/Ma, suggesting they were derived from bodies a few hundred kilometers in size; (2) the presence of solar-wind-implanted noble gases in regolith breccias indicates that these rocks are from bodies too small to retain significant atmospheres; (3) the relatively high concentrations of solar-wind gas are consistent with implantation at about 3 AU away from the Sun; (4) the old formation ages of most meteorites (~4.56 Ga) indicate they came from small bodies that cooled very early in the history of the Solar System; (5) the gravitational influence of Jupiter is expected to perturb some main belt asteroids into resonances that facilitate transfer to the inner Solar System; (6) the cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of many stony meteorites are in the range of 30 ka to 70 Ma, consistent with the time inferred for bodies in the asteroid belt to achieve Earth-crossing orbits; (7) the orbits of more than a thousand fireballs (including about three dozen that yielded recovered meteorites) were determined to be very similar to those of Earth-crossing asteroids; (8) the spectral reflectivities of some asteroids match those of meteorites measured in the lab; (9) the brecciated nature of many meteorites is consistent with the extensive cratering evident on many asteroids; (10) material returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa matches that of LL chondrites; (11) the Dawn spacecraft’s measurements of the composition and mineralogy of the surface of asteroid 4 Vesta match those of HED meteorites analyzed in the lab; (12) asteroid 2008 TC3, which crashed into the Sudan ~19 hours after its discovery, yielded the Almahata Sitta polymict ureilite breccia; and (13) asteroid 2018 LA, which crashed into Botswana ~8 hours after discovery, yielded about two dozen howardite specimens.

Figure 0

Figure 1.1 A Chinese early Chou Dynasty bronze weapon with meteoritic iron blade.

Photo from Gettens et al. (1971); used with permission from the Smithsonian Institution.
Figure 1

Table 1.1 Minerals in Meteorites

Figure 2

Table 1.2 Alphabetical list of meteoritic minerals

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