Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2007
  • Online publication date: August 2009

6 - The etiology of antisocial behavior: biopsychosocial risk factors across development

Summary

Understanding criminal behavior as a biological or physiological phenomenon has continued in its ascendancy by advances made in the fields of genetics and neuroscience in understanding behavior. The development of criminal behavior is a biopsychosocial phenomenon, and factors that influence its development derive from multiple sources, ranging from genetic heritability to gang participation. Risk factors associated with the development of criminal behavior are found for each developmental phase, with the most significant risk factors for each developmental period being those that influence the achievement of developmental milestones. Thus, during infancy, factors that interfere with the formation of a secure attachment appear to be most detrimental while during adolescence, risks associated with peer relationships are critical. This chapter explores these biological and environmental risk factors and their effect on behavior across development. Given the individual and societal costs associated with antisocial behavior, the benefits of such an investment seem clear.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L. & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 324–348.
Aultman, M. (1980). Group involvement in delinquent acts: a study of offense type and male–female participation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 7, 185–192.
Bates, J. E., Bayles, K., Bennett D. S., Ridge, B. & Brown, M. M. (1991). Origins of externalizing behavior problems at eight years of age. In Pepler, D. J. and Rubin, K. H., eds., The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 93–120.
Bates, J. E., Marvinney, D., Kelly, T.et al. (1994). Child-care history and kindergarten adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 30, 690–700.
Battin, S., Hill, K., Abbott, R., Catalano, R. & Hawkins, J. (1998). The contribution of gang membership to delinquency beyond delinquent friends. Criminology, 36(1), 93–115.
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its Causes, Consequences, and Control. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: retrospect and prospect. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 3–25.
Broidy, L. M., Tremblay, R. E., Brame, B.et al. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: a six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 222–245.
Brower, M. C. & Price, B. H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behavior: a critical review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 71, 720–726.
Brunner, H. G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X. O., Ropers, H. H. & Oost, B. A. (1993). Abnormal-behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase-A. Science, 262, 578–580.
Bushman, B. H. & Huesmann, L. R. (2006). Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), 348–352.
Cadoret, R. J., Yates, W. R., Troughton, E., Woodworth, G. & Stewart, M. A. (1995). Genetic-environment interaction in the genesis of aggressivity and conduct disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 916–924.
Calkins, S., Gill, K., Johnson, M. & Smith, C. (1999). Emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategies as predictors of social behavior with peers in toddlerhood. Social Development, 8, 310–341.
Capaldi, D. M. & Patterson, G. R. (1994). Interrelated influences of contextual factors on antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence for males. Progress in Experimental Personality and Psychopathology Research Review, 165–198.
Carlson, E. & Sroufe, L. (1995). Contribution of attachment theory to developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. and Cohen, D., eds., Developmental Psychopathology, Vol. 1 Theory and Methods. New York: Wiley, pp. 581–617.
Caspi, A. (2000) The child is father of the man: personality continuities from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 158–172.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E.et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851–854.
Chess, S. & Thomas, A. (1984). Origins and Evolution of Behavior Disorders: From Infancy to Early Adult Life. New York, NY: Brunner Mazel.
Cohen, D. & Strayer, J. (1996). Empathy in conduct disordered and comparison youth. Developmental Psychology, 32, 988–998.
Coie, J. D., Terry, R. & Lochman, J. E. (1995). Changing social networks and their impact on juvenile delinquency. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Phoenix, AZ.
Colwell, M. J., Pettit, G. S., Meece, D., Bates, J. E. & Dodge, K. A. (2001). Cumulative risk and continuity in nonparental care from infancy to early adolescence. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47, 207–234.
Christian, R. E., Frick, P. J., Hill, N. J., Tyler, L. & Frazer, D. R. (1997). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children: II. Implications for subtyping children with conduct problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(2), 233–241.
Cummings, E. M., Iannotti, J. J. & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1989). Aggression between peers in early childhood: individual continuity and developmental change. Child Development, 69, 887–895.
Cummings, E., Davies, P. & Campbell, S. (2000). Developmental Psychopathology and Family Process: Theory, Research and Clinical Implications. New York: The Guilford Press.
Davidson, R. J., Putnam, K. M. & Larson, C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation: a possible prelude to violence. Science, 289, 591–594.
Day, N. L., Richardson, G. A., Goldschmidt, L. & Cornelius, M. D. (2000). Effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on preschoolers' behavior. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 21, 180–188.
Cubas, M. M. & Field, T. (1993). Children of methadone-dependent women: developmental outcomes. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 266–276.
Deater-Deckard, K. & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited: nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context and gender. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 161–175.
Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E. & Pettit, G. S. (1998) Multiple risk factors in the development of externalizing behavior problems: group and individual differences. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 469–493.
Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R., Laplante, D. & Perusse, D. (2003). Physical aggression and expressive vocabulary in 19-month-old twins. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 261–273.
Dishion, T. J. & McMahon, R. J. (1998). Parental monitoring and the prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior: a conceptual and empirical formulation. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1(1), 61–75.
Dishion, T. J., Andrews, D. W. & Crosby, L. (1995). Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional processes. Child Development, 66, 139–151.
Dodge, K. A. (1993). Social-cognitive mechanisms in the development of conduct disorder and depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 559–584.
Dodge, K. A., Petit, G. S., Bates, J. E. & Valente, E. (1995). Social information processing patterns partially mediate the effects of early physical abuse on later conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 632–643.
Dodge, K. A., Lansford, J. E., Burks, V. S.et al. (2003). Peer rejection and social information-processing factors in the development of aggressive behavior problems in children. Child Development, 74(2), 374–393.
Egeland, B., Kalkoska, M., Gottesman, N. & Erickson, M. (1990). Preschool behavior problems: stability and factors accounting for change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 891–909.
Eley, T. C., Lichenstein, P. & Stevenson, J. (1999). Sex differences in the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior: results for two twin studies. Child Development, 70, 155–168.
Farrington, D. P. (1998). Predictors, causes and correlates of male youth violence. In Tonry, M. and Moore, M. H., eds., Youth Violence, Vol. 24. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 421–447.
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J. & Lynsky, M. T. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood, II: psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1365–1374.
Flannery, D. J., Williams, L. L. & Vazsonyi, A. T. (1999). Who are they with and what are they doing? Delinquent behavior, substance abuse, and early adolescents' after-school time. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69(2), 247–253.
Florsheim, P., Tolan, P. H. & Gorman-Smith, D. (1996). Family Processes and risk for externalizing behavior problems among African American and Hispanic boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1222–1230.
Fowles, D. C. (2001). Biological variables in psychopathology: a psychobiological perspective. In Sutker, P. B. and Adams, H. E., eds., Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology, 3rd edn. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, pp. 85–104.
Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Bodin, S. D.et al. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and developmental pathways to severe conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 246–260.
Glueck, S. & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goldberg, S., Gotowweic, A. & Simmons, R. (1995), Infant–mother attachment and behavior problems in healthy and clinically ill preschoolers. Developmental Psychopathology, 7, 267–282.
Golden, C. J., Jackson, M. L., Peterson-Rohne, A. & Gotkovsky, S. T. (1996). Neuropsychological correlates of violence and aggression: a review of the clinical literature. Aggressive Violent Behavior, 1, 2–25.
Goldschmidt, L., Day, N. L. & Richardson, G. A. (2000). Effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on child behavior problems at age 10. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 22, 325–336.
Greenberg, M. (1999). Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In Cassidy, J. and Shaver, P., eds., Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research and Clinical Implications. New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 469–496.
Guttmann-Steinmetz, S. & Crowell, J. (2006). Attachment and externalizing disorders: a developmental psychopathology approach. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 440–451.
Hare, R. D. (1968). Psychopathy, autonomic functioning and the orienting response. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 1–24.
Hawkins, J. D. & Lishner, D. M. (1987). The social development model: an integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73–95.
Hay, D. F., Castle, J. & Davies, L. (2000). Toddlers use of force against familiar peers: a precursor of serious aggression?Child Development, 71, 457–467.
Healy, W. (1917). The Individual Delinquent. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
Henry, D., Guerra, N. G.Huesmann, L. R.et al. (2000). Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary class rooms. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(1), 59–81.
Henry, D. B., Tolan, P. H. & Gorman-Smith, D. (2001). Longitudinal family and peer group effects on violence and nonviolent delinquency. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(2), 172–186.
Herpertz, S. C., Wenning, B., Mueller, B.et al. (2003). Psychophysiologic responses in ADHD boys with and without conduct disorder: implications for adult antisocial behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1222–1230.
Herrenkohl, T. I., Maguin, E., Hill, K. G.et al. (2000). Developmental risk factors for youth violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26(3), 176–186.
Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underacheivement in childhood and adolescence: casual relationships and underlying mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127–155.
Hinshaw, S. P. (1994). Conduct disorder in childhood: conceptualization, diagnosis, comorbidity, and risk status for antisocial functioning in adulthood. In Fowles, D. C., Sutker, P. and Goodman, S. H., eds., Progress in Experimental Personality and Psychopathology Research 1994: Special Focus on Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality: A Developmental Perspective. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 3–44.
Huesmann, L. R. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schemas in the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In Green, R. G. and Donnerstein, E., eds., Human Aggression: Theories, Research and Implications for Policy. New York: Academic Press, pp. 73–109.
Huesmann, L. R. & Miller, L. S. (1994). Long-term effects of repeated exposure to media violence in childhood. In Huesmann, L. R., ed., Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 153–186.
Huesmann, L., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C. L. & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977–1992. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201–221.
Hughes, H. M., Parkinson, D. & Vargo, M. (1989). Witnessing spouse abuse and experiencing physical abuse: a double whammy?Journal of Family Violence, 4, 197–209.
Jaffe, P., Wolfe, D. & Wilson, S. K. (1990). Children of Battered Women. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Kaukiainen, A., Bjorkqvist, K., Lagerspertz, K.et al. (1999). The relationships between social intelligence, empathy and the three types of aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 81–89.
Kruesi, M. J. P., Rapoport, J. L., Hamburger, S.et al. (1990). Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites, aggression, and impulsivity in disruptive behavior of children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 419–426.
Kruesi, M. J., Hibbs, E. D., Zahn, T. P.et al. (1992). A 2-year prospective follow-up study of children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. Prediction by cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and autonomic measures?Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(6), 429–435.
Ladd, G. W. & Pettit, G. S. (2002). Parenting and the development of children's peer relations in the context of family and neighborhood factors. Child Development, 66, 360–375.
Lahey, B. B., Loerber, R., Hart, E. L.et al. (1995). Four year longitudinal study of conduct disorder in boys: patterns and predictors of persistence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 83–89.
Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E. & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Parents' monitoring-relevant knowledge and adolescents' behavior: evidence of correlated developmental changes and reciprocal influences. Child Development, 74(3), 752–768.
LeDoux, J. E. (1993). Emotional networks in the brain. In Lewis, M. and Haviland, J. M., eds., Handbook of Emotions. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 109–118.
Lewis, D. O., Mallouh, C. & Webb, J. (1989). Child abuse, delinquency and violent criminality. In Chicchetti, D. and Carlson, V., eds., Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Loeber, R. & Hay, D. F. (1994). Developmental approaches to aggression and conduct problems. In Rutter, M. and Hay, D. F. eds., Development Through Life: A Handbook for Clinicians. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, pp. 488–515.
Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy and conduct problems: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(4), 131–152.
Luntz, B. K. & Widom, C. S. (1994). Antisocial personality disorder in abused and neglected children grown up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 670–674.
Lykken, D. T. (1957). A study of anxiety in sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychiatry, 55, 6–10.
Lytton, H. (1991). Parents' different socialization of boys and girls: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 267–296.
Main, M. & Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with parent at age 6: predictable from infant attachment classification and stable over a one month period. Developmental Psychology, 50, 66–106.
Matthys, W., Cuperus, J. M. & Engeland, H. (1999). Deficient social problem solving in boys with ODD/CD, with ADHD, and with both disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 311–321.
McBurnett, K., Lahey, B. B., Rathouz, P. J. & Loeber, R. (2000). Low salivary cortisol and persistent aggression in boys referred for disruptive behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 38–43.
McCord, J. (1979). Some child-rearing antecedents of criminal behavior in adult men. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(9), 1477–1486.
McFayden-Ketchum, S. A., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A. & Pettit, G. S. (1996). Patterns of change in early child aggressive-disruptive behavior: gender differences in predictors from early coercive and affectionate mother–child interactions. Child Development, 67, 2417–2433.
McKibben, L., Vos, E. & Newberger, E. (1989). Victimization of mothers of abused children: a controlled study. Pediatrics, 84, 531–535.
Mezzacappa, E., Tremblay, R. E., Kindlon, D.et al. (1996). Relationship of aggression and anxiety to autonomic regulation of heart rate variability in adolescent males. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 376–379.
Miles, D. R. & Carey, G. (1997). Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 207–217.
Moffitt, T. E., Gabrielli, W. F., Mednick, S. A. & Schulsinger, F. (1981). Socioeconomic status, IQ, and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 152–156.
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harkness, A. R. & Silva, P. A. (1993). The natural history of change in intellectual performance: Who changes? How much? Is it meaningful?Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(4), 455–506.
Morrison, W. D. (1898). Juvenile Offenders. New York, NY: D. Appleton and Co.
Nagin, D. S. & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys' physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70, 1181–1196.
Needleman, H. L., Reiss, J. A., Tobin, M. J., Biesecker, G. E. & Greenhouse, J. B. (1996). Bone lead levels and delinquent behavior. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275(5), 363–369.
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2002). Parenting and family influences when children are in child care: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. In Borkowski, J. G., Ramey, S. L. and Bristol-Powers, M., eds., Parenting and the Child's World: Influences on Academic, Intellectual, and Social-Emotional Development. Monographs in Parenting Series. New York: College Entrance Exam Board, pp. 59–89.
Olson, S., Bookstein, F. L. & Theide, K. (1997). Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with behavioral and learning problems in early adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1187–1194.
Patterson, G. R. (1995). Coercion – a basis for early age onset for arrest. In McCord, J., ed., Coercion and Punishment in Long-Term Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 81–105.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B. & Dishion, T. J. (1992). A Social Learning Approach: Volume 4. Antisocial Boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Peeples, F. & Loeber, R. (1994). Do individual factors and neighborhood context explain ethnic differences in juvenile delinquency?Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10(2), 141–157.
Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E. & Dodge, K. A. (1993). Family interaction patterns and children's conduct problems at home and at school: a longitudinal perspective. School Psychology Review, 22, 401–418.
Pettit, G. S., Clawson, M., Dodge, K. A. & Bates, J. E. (1996). Stability and change in children's peer rejected status: the role of child behavior, parent–child relations, and family ecology. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 42, 91–118.
Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E. & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Supportive parenting, ecological context and children's adjustment. Child Development, 68, 908–923; Developmental Psychology, 23, 267–275.
Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A. & Meece, D. W. (1999). The impact of after-school peer contact on early adolescent externalizing problems is moderated by parental monitoring, perceived neighborhood safety, and prior adjustment. Child Development, 70(3) 768–778.
Pettit, G. S., Laird, R. D., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E. & Criss, M. M. (2001). Antecendents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence. Child Development, 72(2), 583–598.
Pine, D. S., Bruder, G. E., Wasserman, G. A.et al. (1997). Verbal dichotic listening in boys at risk for behavioral disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1465–1473.
Pisecco, S., Wristers, K., Swank, P., Silva, P. A. & Baker, D. B. (2001). The effect of academic self-concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(5), 450–461.
Pliszka, S. R. (1999). The psychobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In Quay, H. C. and Hogan, A. E., eds., Handbook of Disruptive Behavior Disorders. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, pp. 371–395.
Poole, E. & Regoli, R. (1979). Parental support, delinquent friends, and delinquency: a test of interaction effects. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70(2), 188–193.
Posner, J. K. & Vandell, D. L. (1999). After-school activities and the development of low-income urban children. A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 35, 868–879.
Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A. & Oberklaid, F. (2001). Longitudinal predictors of behavioural adjustment in pre-adolescent children. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35(3), 297–307.
Raine, A., Venables, P. H. & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47(11), 1003–1007.
Raine, A., Venables, P. H. & Williams, M. (1997). Low resting heart rate at age 3 predisposes to aggression at age 11 years: evidence from Mauritius Child Health Project. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1457–1464.
Raine, A., Stoddard, J., Bihrle, S. & Buschbaum, M. (1998). Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology, 11, 1–17.
Reid, W. J. & Crisafulli, A. (1990). Marital discord and child behavioral problems: a meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 105–117.
Richters, J. & Waters E. (1991). Attachment and socialization: the positive side of social influence. In Lewis, M. and Feinman, S., eds., Social Influences and Socialization in Infancy. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 185–213.
Rowe, D. C. (1985). Sibling interaction and self-reported delinquent behavior: a study of 265 twin pairs. Criminology, 23, 223–240.
Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. & Parker, J. G. (1998). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In Damon, W. (series ed.) and Eisenberg, N. (vol. ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, 5th edn. New York: Wiley, pp. 619–700.
Rush, B. (1812). Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind. Philadelphia, PA: Kimber & Richardson.
Rutter, M., Yule, B., Quinton, D.et al. (1975). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas: III. Some factors accounting for area differences. British Journal Psychiatry, 126, 520–533.
Rutter, M., Dunn, J., Plomin, R. & Simonoff, E. (1997). Integrating nurture and nature: Implications of person–environment correlations and interactions for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 335–364.
Rutter, M., Giller, H. & Hagell, A. (1998). Antisocial Behavior by Young People. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sampson, R. J. (1997). The embeddedness of child and adolescent development: a community-level perspective on urban violence. In McCord, J., ed., Violence and Childhood in the Inner City. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp. 31–77.
Sanson, A., Prior, M. & Smart, D. (1996). Reading disabilities with and without behavior problems at 7–8 years: prediction from longitudinal data from infancy to 6 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 529–541.
Scarpa, A. & Raine, A. (2000). Violence associated with anger and impulsivity. In Borod, J. C., ed., The Neuropsychology of Emotion. Series in Affective Science. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 320–339.
Schore, A. (2003). Affect Dysregulation and Disorders of the Self. New York: NY, WW Norton & Company.
Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., Ingoldsby, E. M. & Nagin, D. S. (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 189–200.
Simonoff, E., Elander, J., Holmshaw, J.et al. (2004). Predictors of antisocial personality: continuities from childhood to adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 118–127.
Sinclair, J. J., Pettit, G. S., Harrist, A. W., Dodge, K. A. & Bates, J. E. (1994). Encounters with aggressive peers in early childhood: frequency, age differences and correlates of risk for behavior problems. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17, 675–696.
Suess, G., Grossman, K. E. & Sroufe, L. A. (1992). Effects of infant attachment to mother and father on quality of adaptation in preschool: from dyadic to individual organization of self. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 15, 43–65.
Taylor, J., Iacono, W. G. & McGue, M. (2000). Evidence for a genetic etiology of early-onset delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 634–643.
Thomas, A. & Chess, S. (1968). Temperament and Behavior Disorders in Childhood. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Thomas, C., Holzer, C. & Wall, J. (2003). Serious delinquency and gang membership. Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 61–81.
Thompson, R. (1999). Early attachment and later development. In Cassidy, J. and Shaver, P., eds., Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research and Clinical Applications. New York, NY: The Guilford Press, pp. 265–286.
Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M., Lizotte, A. J. & Chard-Wierschem, D. (1993). The role of juvenile gangs in facilitating delinquent behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 55–87.
Tolan, P. H. & Gorman-Smith, D. (1997). Families and development of urban children. In Walburg, H. J., Reyes, O. and Weissberg, R. P., eds., Urban Children and Youth: Interdisciplinary Perspective on Policies and Programs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 67–91.
Torgerson, S. (1997). Genetic basis and psychopathology. In Turner, S. M. and Hersen, M., eds., Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis, 3rd edn. New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 58–85.
Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behavior during childhood: what have we learned in the past century?Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 129–141.
Trickett, P. K. & Putnam, F. W. (1998). Developmental consequences of child sexual abuse. In Trickett, P. K. and Schellenbach, C. J., eds., Violence Against Children in the Family and the Community. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 39–56.
Troy, M. & Sroufe, A. (1987). Victimization among preschoolers: role of attachment relationship history. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 166–172.
Unis, A. S., Cook, E. H., Vincent, J. G.et al. (1997). Platelet serotonin measures in adolescents with conduct disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 553–559.
Vandell, D. L. & Posner, J. K. (1999). Conceptualization and measurement of children's after-school environments. In Friedman, S. L. and Wachs, T. D., eds., Measuring Environment Across the Life Span: Emerging Methods and Concepts. Washington DC: American Psychological Press, pp. 167–196.
Goozen, S. H. M., Matthys, W., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.et al. (1998). Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity during stress in oppositional defiant disorder boys and normal controls. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 531–539.
Vanyukow, M. M., Moss, H. B., Plial, J. A.et al. (1993). Antisocial symptoms in preadolescent boys and in their parents: associations with cortisol. Psychiatry Research, 46, 9–17.
Villani, S. (2001). Impact of media on children and adolescents: a 10-year review of the research. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(4), 392–401.
Volkow, N. D., Tancredi, L. R., Grant, C.et al. (1995). Brain glucose metabolism in violent psychiatric patients: a preliminary study. Psychiatry Research, 61, 243–253.
Wakschlag, L., Pickett, K., Cook, E., Benowitz, N. & Leventhal, B. (2002). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 969–974.
Wakschlag, L., Pickett, K., Kasza, K. E. & Loeber, R. (2006). Is prenatal smoking associated with a developmental pattern of conduct problems in young boys?Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 461–467.
Weiler, B. L. & Widom, C. S. (1996). Psychopathy and violent behavior in abused and neglected young adults. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 6, 253–271.
Wong, W. & Cornell, D. C. (1999). PIQ > VIQ discrepancy as a correlate of social problem solving and aggression in delinquent adolescent males. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 17, 104–112.