Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: September 2009

5 - Measuring hormonal variation in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis: cortisol

References
Baron, R. and Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator–mediator distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. 51, 1173–82.
Baum, A. and Grunberg, N. (1995). Measurement of stress hormones. In Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists, ed. Cohen, S., Kessler, R. and Gordon, L.. New York: Oxford University Press, 175–92.
Benjamins, C., Asschenman, H. and Schuurs, A. (1992). Increased salivary cortisol in severe dental anxiety. Psychophysiology, 29, 302–5.
Berne, R. and Levy, M. (1993). Physiology. St Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
Bilbo, S. D., Dhabhar, F. S., Viswanathan, K.et al. (2002). Short day lengths augment stress-induced leukocyte trafficking and stress-induced enhancement of immune function. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 99(6), 4067–72.
Bjorntorp, P. and Rosmond, P. (2000). Obesity and cortisol. Nutrition, 16(10), 924–36.
Born, J. and Fehm, H. L. (1998). Hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal activity during human sleep: a coordinating role for the limbic hippocampal system. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, 106(3), 153–63.
Born, J., Hansen, K., Marshall, L., Molle, M. and Fehm, H. (1999). Timing the end of nocturnal sleep. Nature, 397, 29–30.
Bourne, P. G., Rose, R. M. and Mason, J. W. (1967). Urinary 17-OHCS levels. Data on seven helicopter ambulance medics in combat. Archives of General Psychiatry, 17(1), 104–10.
Bourne, P. G.; Rose, R. M. and Mason, J. W. (1968). 17-OHCS levels in combat. Special forces “A” team under threat of attack. Archives of General Psychiatry, 19(2), 135–40.
Broderick, J. E., Arnold, D., Kudielka, B. M. and Kirschbaum, C. (2004). Salivary cortisol compliance: comparison of patients and healthy volunteers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 636–50.
Brown, D. (1982). Physiologial stress and culture change in a group of Filipino-Americans: a preliminary investigation. Annals of Human Biology, 9, 553–63.
Brown, E., Varghese, F. and McEwen, B. (2004). Association of depression with medical illness: does cortisol play a role?Biological Psychiatry, 55, 1–9.
Brown, W., Sirota, A., Niaura, R. and Engebretson, T. (1993). Endocrine correlates of sadness and elation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 458–67.
Brunner, E., Hemingway, H., Walker, B.et al. (2002). Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome. Circulation, 106, 2659–65.
Brunner, E. and Marmot, M. (1999). Social organization, stress, and health. In Social Determinants of Health, ed. Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 17–43.
Buchanan, T., al'Absi, M. and Lovallo, W. (1999). Cortisol fluctuates with increases and decreases in negative affect. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 24, 227–41.
Buyukyazi, G., Karamizrak, S. O. and Islegen, C. (2003). Effects of continuous and interval running training on serum growth and cortisol hormones in junior basketball players. Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 90(1), 69–79.
Carlson, M. and Earls, F. (1997). Psychological and neuroendocrinological sequelae of early social deprivation in institutionalized children in Romania. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807, 419–28.
Catley, D., Kaell, A. T., Kirschbaum, C. and Stone, A. A. (2000). A naturalistic evaluation of cortisol secretion in persons with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 13(1), 51–61.
Cicchetti, D. and Rogosch, F. A. (2001). Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3), 677–93.
Clements, A. D. and Parker, C. R. (1998). The relationship between salivary cortisol concentrations in frozen versus mailed samples. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23(6), 613–16.
Codispoti, M., Gerra, G., Montebarocci, O.et al. (2003). Emotional perception and neuroendocrine changes. Psychophysiology, 40, 863–8.
Collins, A. and Frankenhaeuser, M. (1978). Stress responses in male and female engineering students. Journal of Human Stress, 4, 43–8.
Copinschi, G. and Cauter, E. (1995). Effects of ageing on modulation of hormonal secretions by sleep and circadian rhythmicity. Hormone Research, 43(1–3), 20–4.
Decker, S. A. (2000). Salivary cortisol and social status among Dominican men. Hormones and Behavior, 38(1), 29–38.
Dekkers, J. C., Geenen, R., Godaert, G. L., Doornen, L. J. and Bijlsma, J. W. (2000a). Diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol levels in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 43(2), 465–7.
Dekkers, J. C.; Geenen, R.; Godaert, G. L.; Doornen, L. J. and Bijlsma, J. W. (2000b). Diurnal courses of cortisol, pain, fatigue, negative mood, and stiffness in patients with recently diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7(4), 353–71.
Dettling, A. C., Gunnar, M. R. and Donzella, B. (1999). Cortisol levels of young children in full-day childcare centers: relations with age and temperament. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 24(5), 519–36.
Dettling, A. C., Parker, S. W., Lane, S., Sebanc, A. and Gunnar, M. R. (2000). Quality of care and temperament determine changes in cortisol concentrations over the day for young children in childcare. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25(8), 819–36.
Deuschle, M., Gotthardt, U., Schweiger, U.et al. (1997). With aging in humans the activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal system increases and its diurnal amplitude flattens. Life Sciences, 61(22), 2239–46.
Dickerson, S. and Kemeny, M. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355–91.
Edwards, S., Clow, A., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. (2001a). Exploration of the awakening cortisol response in relation to diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Life Sciences, 68(18), 2093–103.
Edwards, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. (2001b). Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 613–22.
Ellison, P. (1988). Human salivary steroids: methodological considerations and applications in physical anthropology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 31, 115–42.
Fibiger, W., Singer, G., Miller, A., Armstrong, S. and Datar, M. (1984). Cortisol and catecholamines changes as functions of time-of-day and self-reported mood. Neuroscience Behavioral Reviews, 8, 523–30.
Filaire, E., Duche, P., Lac, G. and Robert, A. (1996). Saliva cortisol, physical exercise and training: influences of swimming and handball on cortisol concentrations in women. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 74, 274–8.
Flinn, M. V. (1999). Family environment, stress and health during childhood. In Hormones, Health and Behavior, ed. Panter-Brick, C. and Worthman, C.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Flinn, M. V. and England, B. G. (1995). Family environment and childhood stress. Current Anthropology, 36, 854–66.
Flinn, M. V. and England, B. G. (1997). Social economics of childhood glucocorticoid stress response and health. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 102, 33–54.
Flinn, M. V., England, B. G. and Beer, T. (1992). Health conditions and corticosteroid stress response among children in a rural Dominican village. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7, 122.
Flinn, M. V., Quinlan, M., Quinlan, R., Turner, M. and England, B. G. (1995). Glucocorticoid stress response, immune function, and illness among children in a rural Caribbean village. American Journal of Human Biology, 7, 122
Flinn, M. V., Turner, M., Quinlan, R., Decker, S. and England, B. G. (1996). Male--female differences in effects of parental absence on glucocorticoid stress reponses. Human Nature, 7, 125–62.
Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., Fredrikson, M.et al. (1989). Stress on and off the job as related to sex and occupational status in white-collar workers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 321–46.
Frankenhaeuser, M., Wright, M., Collens, A.et al. (1978). Sex differences in psychoneuroendocrine reactions to examination stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 47, 313–19.
Friedman, S. B., Mason, J. and Hamburg, D. (1963). Urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels in parents of children with neoplastic disease. A study of chronic psychological stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 25, 364–76.
Goh, V. H. (2000). Circadian disturbances after night-shift work onboard a naval ship. Military Medicine, 165(2), 101–5.
Griep, E. N., Boersma, J. W. and Kloet, E. R. (1993). Altered reactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in the primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Journal of Rheumatology, 20(3), 469–74.
Gunnar, M. R. (1992). Reactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical system to stressors in normal infants and children. Pediatrics, 90(3 Pt 2), 491–7.
Gunnar, M. R., Brodersen, L., Krueger, K. and Rigatuso, J. (1996). Dampening of adrenocortical responses during infancy: Normative changes and individual differences. Child Development, 67(3), 877–89.
Gunnar, M. R. and Donzella, B. (2002). Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27(1–2), 199–220.
Gunnar, M. R., Malone, S., Vance, G. and Fisch, R. O. (1985). Quiet sleep and levels of plasma cortisol during recovery from circumcision in newborns. Child Development, 5, 824–34.
Gunnar, M. R., Tout, K., Haan, M., Pierce, S. and Stansbury, K. (1997). Temperament, social competence, and adrenocortical activity in preschoolers. Developmental Psychobiology, 31(1), 65–85.
Gunnar, M. R. and Vazquez, D. M. (2001). Low cortisol and a flattening of expected daytime rhythm: potential indices of risk in human development. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3), 515–38.
Hansen, A. M., Garde, A. H., Skovgaard, L. T. and Christensen, J. M. (2001). Seasonal and biological variation in urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol of healthy women. Clinica Chimica Acta, 309, 25–35.
Hanson, E. K. S., Maas, C. J. M., Meijman, T. F. and Godaert, G. L. R. (2000). Cortisol secretion throughout the day, perceptions of the work environment, and negative affect. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22(4), 316–24.
Heim, C., Ehlert, U. and Hellhammer, D. H. (2000). The potential role of hypocortisolism in the pathophysiology of stress-related bodily disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25(1), 1–35.
Hennig, J. (1994). Biopsychological changes after bungee jumping: beta-endorphin immunoreactivity as a mediator of euphoria?Neuropsychobiology, 29, 28–32.
Hennig, J., Kieferdorf, P., Moritz, C., Huwe, S. and Netter, P. (1998). Changes in cortisol secretion during shiftwork: implications for tolerance to shiftwork?Ergonomics, 41(5), 610–21.
Henry, J. (1982). The relation of social to biological processes in disease. Social Science and Medicine, 16, 369–80.
Hodgson, N., Freedman, V. A., Granger, D. A. and Erno, A. (2004). Biobehavioral correlates of relocation in the frail elderly: salivary cortisol, affect and cognitive function. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 1856–62.
Holl, R., Fehm, H. L., Voigt, K. H. and Teller, W. (1984). The “midday surge” in plasma cortisol induced by mental stress. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 16(3), 158–9.
Hytten, K., Jensen, A. and Skauli, G. (1990). Stress inoculation training for smoke divers and free fall lifeboat passengers. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 61(11), 983–8.
Ice, G. H. (in press). Factors influencing cortisol level and slope among community dwelling older adults in Minnesota. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, in press.
Ice, G., Katz-Stein, A., Himes, J. H. and Kane, R. L. (2004). Diurnal cycles of salivary cortisol in older adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(3), 355–70.
Jacks, D. E., Sowash, J., Anning, J., McGloughlin, T. and Andres, F. (2002). Effect of exercise at three exercise intensities on salivary cortisol. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(2), 286–9.
Jenner, D. (1985). Population studies of variation in catecholamine and corticosteroid variation. PhD thesis, University of Oxford.
Kamarck, T., Shiffman, S., Smithline, L. et al. (1998). The diary of ambulatory behavioral states: a new approach to the assessment of psychosocial influences on ambulatory cardiovascular activity. In Technology and Methods in Behavioral Medicine, ed. Krantz, D. and Baum, A.. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kindermann, W., Schnable, A., Schmitt, W.et al. (1982). Catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin and sex hormones in anaerobic and aerobic exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 49, 389–99.
King, J. A., Rosal, M. C., Ma, Y. S.et al. (2000). Sequence and seasonal effects of salivary cortisol. Behavioral Medicine, 26(2), 67–73.
Kirschbaum, C. and Hellhammer, D. (1989). Salivary research in psychobiology research: an overview. Neuropsychobiology, 22, 150–69.
Kirschbaum, C. and Hellhammer, D. (1994). Salivary cortisol in psychoneuroendocrine research: Recent developments and applications. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 19, 313–33.
Kirschbaum, C. and Hellhammer, D. (2000). Salivary cortisol. In Encyclopedia of Stress, ed. Fink, G.. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 379–83.
Kirschbaum, C., Wuest, S. and Hellhammer, D. (1992). Consistent sex differences in cortisol responses to psychological stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 648–57.
Kruger, C., Brueunig, U., Biskupek-Sigward, J. and Door, H. G. (1996). Problems with salivary 17-hydroxyprogesterone determinations using the Salivette device. European Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 34(11), 926–9.
Kudielka, B. M., Broderick, J. E. and Kirschbaum, C. (2003). Compliance with saliva sampling protocols: electronic monitoring reveals invalid cortisol daytime profiles in noncompliant subjects. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(2), 313–19.
Larson, M. C., Gunnar, M. R. and Hertsgaard, L. (1991). The effects of morning naps, car trips, and maternal separation on adrenocortical activity in human infants. Child Development, 62(2), 362–72.
Larson, M. C., White, B. P., Cochran, A., Donzella, B. and Gunnar, M. (1998). Dampening of the cortisol response to handling at 3 months in human infants and its relation to sleep, circadian cortisol activity, and behavioral distress. Developmental Psychobiology, 33(4), 327–37.
Lenander-Lumikari, M., Johansson, I., Vilja, P. and Samaranayake, L. P. (1995). Newer saliva collection methods and composition: a study of two salivette kits. Oral Disease, 1(2), 86–91.
Levine, A., Cohen, D. and Zadik, Z. (1994). Urinary free cortisol values in children under stress. Journal of Pediatrics, 125(6 Pt 1), 853–7.
Levine, M. E., Milliron, A. N. and Duffy, L. K. (1994). Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in interior Alaska. Arctic Medical Research, 53(1), 25–34.
Lovallo, W. R. and Thomas, T. L. (2000). Stress hormones in psychophysiological research. In Handbook of psychophysiology, ed. Cacioppo, J. T., Tassinary, L. G. and Berntson, G. G.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lucia, A., Diaz, B., Hoyos, J.et al. (2001). Hormone levels of world class cyclists during the Tour of Spain stage race. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 35, 424–30.
Lundberg, U. and Forsman, L. (1980). Consistency in catecholamine and cortisol excretion patterns over experimental conditions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 12, 449–52.
Lundberg, U. and Frankenhaeuser, M. (1980). Pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal correlates of distress and effort. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 24, 125–30.
Lupien, S., Lecours, A. R., Schwartz, G.et al. (1996). Longitudinal study of basal cortisol levels in healthy elderly subjects: evidence for subgroups. Neurobiology of Aging, 17(1), 95–105.
Maes, M., Mommen, K., Hendrickx, D.et al. (1997). Components of biological variation, including seasonality in blood concentrations of TSH, TT3, FT4, PRL, cortisol and testosterone in healthy volunteers. Clinical Endocrinology, 46, 587–98.
Marshall, R. D. and Garakani, A. (2002). Psychobiology of the acute stress response and its relationship to the psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatria Clinica North America, 25(2), 385–95.
Mason, J. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary corticol system. Psychosomatic Research, 30, 631–43.
McEwen, B. S. (1988). Glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Hospital Practice, 23(8), 107–11, 114, 119–21.
McEwen, B. S. (2002). The End of Stress as We Know It. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
McEwen, B. S. and Wingfield, J. (2003). The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 2–15.
Miller, C. S., Dembo, J. B., Falace, D. A. and Kaplan, A. L. (1995). Salivary cortisol response to dental treatment of varying stress. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics, 79(4), 436–41.
Miller, D. and O'Callaghan, J. (2002). Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress. Metabolism, 51, 5–10.
Munck, A. (2000). Corticosteroids and stress. In Encyclopedia of Stress, ed. Fink, G.. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 570–7.
Nepomnaschy, P., Welch, K., McConnell, D., Strassmann, B. and England, B. (2005). Stress and female reproductive function: a study of daily variations in cortisol, gonadotrophins, and gonadal steroids in a rural Mayan population. American Journal of Human Biology, 16, 523–32.
Nicolson, N., Storms, C., Ponds, R. and Sulon, J. (1997). Salivary cortisol levels and stress reactivity in human aging. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 52(2), M68–75.
Obel, C., Hedegaard, M., Hendriksen, T. B.et al. (2005). Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 647–56.
Ockenfels, M. C., Porter, L., Smyth, J.et al. (1995). Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57(5), 460–7.
Pearson, R., Ungpakorn, G. and Harrison, G. A. (1995). Catecholamine and cortisol levels in Oxford college rowers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(3), 174–7.
Peeters, F., Nicholson, N. A. and Berkhof, J. (2003). Cortisol responses to daily events in major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(5), 836–41.
Peres, M. F. P., Sanchez del Rio, M., Seabra, M.et al. (2001). Hypothalamic involvement in chronic migraine. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 71, 747–51.
Peters, M., Godaert, G., Ballieux, R.et al. (1998). Cardiovascular and endocrine responses to experimental stress: effects of mental effort and controllability. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 1–17.
Pollard, T. M. (1995). Use of cortisol as a stress marker: practical and theoretical problems. American Journal of Human Biology, 7, 265–73.
Pollard, T. M., Ungpakorn, G., Harrison, G. A. and Parkes, K. R. (1996). Epinephrine and cortisol responses to work: a test of the models of Frankenhaeuser and Karasek. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 229–37.
Poteliakhoff, P. V. (1981). Adrenocortical activity and some clinical findings in acute and chronic fatigue. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 25, 91–5.
Price, D. A., Close, G. C. and Fielding, B. A. (1983). Age of appearance of circadian rhythm in salivary cortisol values in infancy. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 58(6), 454–6.
Prinz, P. N., Roehrs, T. A., Vitaliano, P. P., Linnoila, M. and Weitzman, E. D. (1980). Effect of alcohol on sleep and nighttime plasma growth hormone and cortisol concentrations. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 51(4), 759–64.
Pruessner, J. C., Wolf, O. T., Hellhammer, D. H.et al. (1997). Free cortisol levels after awakening: a reliable biological marker for the assessment of adrenocortical activity. Life Sciences, 61, 2539–49.
Raff, H., Raff, J. L., Duthie, E. H.et al. (1999). Elevated salivary cortisol in the evening in healthy elderly men and women: correlation with bone mineral density. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 54(9), M479–83.
Ramsay, D. S. and Lewis, M. (1994). Developmental change in infant cortisol and behavioral response to inoculation. Child Development, 65(5), 1491–502.
Rosmalen, J. G. M., Oldehinkel, A. J., Ormel, J.et al. (2005). Determinants of salivary cortisol levels in 10–12 year old children: a population based study of individual differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 483–95.
Sapolsky, R. (1990). The adrenocortical axis. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed. Schneider, E. and Rowe, J.. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 330–48.
Sapolsky, R. (1992). Stress, the Aging Brain, and the Mechanisms of Neuron Death. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Sapolsky, R., Romero, L. and Munck, A. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21(1), 55–89.
Schmidt-Reinwald, A., Pruessner, J. C., Hellhammer, D. H.et al. (1999). The cortisol response to awakening in relation to different challenge tests and a 12-hour cortisol rhythm. Life Sciences, 64(18), 1653–60.
Schwartz, J. and Stone, A. (1998). Strategies for analyzing ecological momentary assessment data. Health Psychology, 17, 6–16.
Sephton, S. E., Sapolsky, R. M., Kraemer, H. C. and Spiegel, D. (2000). Diurnal cortisol rhythm as a predictor of breast cancer survival. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92(12), 994–1000.
Sherman, B., Wysham, C. and Pfohl, B. (1985). Age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 61(3), 439–43.
Shiffman, S. and Stone, A. (1998). Ecological momentary assessment: a new tool for behavioral medicine research. In Technology and Methods in Behavioral Medicine, ed. Krantz, D. and Baum, A.. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Shirtcliff, E. A., Granger, D. A., Schwartz, E. and Curran, M. J. (2001). Use of salivary biomarkers in biobehavioral research: Cotton-based sample collection methods can interfere with salivary immunoassays. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 165–73.
Sippell, W. G., Becker, H., Versmold, H. T., Bidlingmaier, F. and Knorr, D. (1978). Longitudinal studies of plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, and cortisone determined simultaneously in mother and child at birth and during the early neonatal period. I. Spontaneous delivery. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 46(6), 971–85.
Smyth, J. M., Ockenfels, M. C., Gorin, A. A.et al. (1997). Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22(2), 89–105.
Smyth, J. M., Ockenfels, M. C., Porter, L. S.et al. (1998). Stressors and mood measured on a momentary basis are associated with salivary cortisol secretion. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22, 353–70.
Stewart, J. and Seeman, T. (2000). Salivary cortisol measurement. Consensus Conference Report, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health.
Stone, A., Schwartz, J., Smyth, J.et al. (2001). Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of salivary free cortisol: a replication of flattened cycles for some individuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 295–306.
Tout, K., Haan, M., Campbell, E. K. and gunnar, M. R. (1998). Social behavior correlates of cortisol activity in child care: gender differences and time-of-day effects. Child Development, 69(5), 1247–62.
Tremblay, M. S., Copeland, J. L. and Helder, W. (2004). Effect of training status and exercise mode on endogenous steroid hormones in men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96(2), 531–9.
Cauter, E., Plat, L., Leproult, R. and Copinschi, G. (1998). Alterations of circadian rhythmicity and sleep in aging: endocrine consequences. Hormone Research, 49(3–4), 147–52.
Eck, M., Berkhof, H., Nicolson, N. and Sulon, J. (1996). The effects of perceived stress, traits, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58(5), 447–58.
Walker, B. R., Best, R., Noon, J. P., Watt, G. C. M. and Webb, D. J. (1997). Seasonal variation in glucocorticoid activity in healthy men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 82, 4015–19.
Watamura, S. E., Donzella, B., Alwin, J. and Gunnar, M. R. (2003). Morning-to-afternoon increases in cortisol concentrations for infants and toddlers at child care: age differences and behavioral correlates. Child Development, 74(4), 1006–20.
Watamura, S. E., Sebanc, A. M. and Gunnar, M. R. (2002). Rising cortisol at childcare: relations with nap, rest, and temperament. Developmental Psychobiology, 40(1), 33–42.
Weitzman, E. D., Fukushima, D., Nogeire, C.et al. (1971). Twenty-four hour pattern of the episodic secretion of cortisol in normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 33(1), 14–22.
White, B. P., Gunnar, M. R., Larson, M. C., Donzella, B. and Barr, R. G. (2000). Behavioral and physiological responsivity, sleep, and patterns of daily cortisol production in infants with and without colic. Child Development, 71(4), 862–77.
Wittersheim, G., Brandenberger, G. and Follenius, M. (1985). Mental task-induced strain and its after-effect assessed through variations in plasma cortisol levels. Biological Psychology, 21(2), 123–32.
Wüst, S., Federenko, I., Hellhammer, D. H. and Kirschbaum, C. (2000). Genetic factors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25(7), 707–20.
Wüst, S., Kirschbaum, C. and Hellhammer, D. (1992). Smoking increases salivary cortisol. In Assessment of Hormones and Drugs in Saliva in Biobehavioral Research, ed. Kirschbaum, C., Read, G. and Hellhammer, D.. Seattle, WA: Hogrefe and Huber, 51–7.
Zeier, H. (1994). Workload and psychophysiological stress reactions in air traffic controllers. Ergonomics, 37(3), 525–39.
Zeier, H., Brauchli, P. and Joller-Jemelka, H. I. (1996). Effects of work demands on immunoglobulin A and cortisol in air traffic controllers. Biological Psychology, 42(3), 413–23.