Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 61
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: August 2012

Chapter 2 - Determinants of Risk: Exposure and Vulnerability

from Section III


Executive Summary

The severity of the impacts of extreme and non-extreme weather and climate events depends strongly on the level of vulnerability and exposure to these events (high confidence). [2.2.1, 2.3, 2.5] Trends in vulnerability and exposure are major drivers of changes in disaster risk, and of impacts when risk is realized (high confidence). [2.5] Understanding the multi-faceted nature of vulnerability and exposure is a prerequisite for determining how weather and climate events contribute to the occurrence of disasters, and for designing and implementing effective adaptation and disaster risk management strategies. [2.2, 2.6]

Vulnerability and exposure are dynamic, varying across temporal and spatial scales, and depend on economic, social, geographic, demographic, cultural, institutional, governance, and environmental factors (high confidence). [2.2, 2.3, 2.5] Individuals and communities are differentially exposed and vulnerable and this is based on factors such as wealth, education, race/ethnicity/religion, gender, age, class/caste, disability, and health status. [2.5] Lack of resilience and capacity to anticipate, cope with, and adapt to extremes and change are important causal factors of vulnerability. [2.4]

Extreme and non-extreme weather and climate events also affect vulnerability to future extreme events, by modifying the resilience, coping, and adaptive capacity of communities, societies, or social-ecological systems affected by such events (high confidence). [2.4.3] At the far end of the spectrum – low-probability, highintensity events – the intensity of extreme climate and weather events and exposure to them tend to be more pervasive in explaining disaster loss than vulnerability in explaining the level of impact.

Abel, N., D., Cumming, and J., Anderies, 2006: Collapse and reorganization in socialecological systems: Questions, some ideas, and policy implications. Ecology and Society, 11(1), 17–42.
Adam, B. and J., van Loon, 2000: Repositioning risk; the challenge for social theory. In: The Risk Society and Beyond]Adam, B., U., Beck, and J., van Loon (eds.)]. SAGE Publications, London, UK, pp. 1–31.
Adelekan, I.O., 2010: Vulnerability of poor urban coastal communities to flooding in Lagos, Nigeria. Environment and Urbanization, 22, 433, doi:10.1177/0956247810380141.
Adger, W.N., 1999: Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Development, 27(3), 249–269.
Adger, W.N., 2000: Social and ecological resilience: are they related?Progress in Human Geography, 24(3), 347–364.
Adger, W.N., 2003: Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. Economic Geography, 79(4), 387–404.
Adger, W.N., 2006: Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16, 268–281.
Adger, W.N. (ed.), 2009: Adapting to Climate Change, Thresholds, Values, Governance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Adger, W.N. and N., Brooks, 2003: Does global environmental change cause vulnerability to disaster? In: Natural Disasters and Development in a Globalizing World [Pelling, M. (ed.)]. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 19–42.
Adger, W.N., and P.M., Kelly, 1999: Social vulnerability to climate change and the architecture of entitlements. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 4, 253–266.
Adger, W.N., N., Brooks, M., Kelly, S., Bentham, and S., Eriksen, 2004: New Indicators of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Technical Report 7, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Adger, W.N., N.W., Arnell, and E.L., Tompkins, 2005: Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global Environmental Change, 15(2), 77–86.
Afifi, T., 2011: Economic or environmental migration? The push factors in Niger. International Migration, 49(S1), e95–e124.
Agrawala, S. and M.K., van Aalst, 2008: Adapting development co-operation to adapt to climate change. Climate Policy, 8, 183–193.
Ahern, M., R.S., Kovats, P., Wilkinson, R., Few, and F., Matthies, 2005: Global health impacts of floods: epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiologic Reviews, 27, doi:10.1093/epirev/mxi004.
Alexander, D.E., 1993: Natural Disasters, UCL Press Limited, London, UK.
Alexander, D.E., 2000: Confronting Catastrophe. Terra Publishing, Harpenden, UK.
Altman, I. and S., Low, 1992: Place Attachment. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
Alwang, J., P.B., Siegel, and S.L., Jorgensen, 2001: Vulnerability: A View From Different Disciplines. Social Protection Discussion Paper Series, No. 115, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Amstadter, A.B., R., Acierno, L.K., Richardson, D.G., Kilpatrick, D.F., Gros, R.J., Johnson, M.T., Gaboury, L.T., Trinh, T.T., Lam, T.T., Nguyen, T., Tran, T.B., La, T.H., Tran, D.C., Tran, and G., Sandro, 2009: Post typhoon prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in a Vietnamese sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(3), 180–188.
Anderson, M.B. and P.J., Woodrow, 1989: Rising from the Ashes, Development Strategies in Times of Disaster. 1998 ed. Lynne Rienner, London, UK, 338 pp.
Anderson, M.B. and P.J., Woodrow, 1991: Reducing vulnerability to drought and famine: Developmental approaches to relief. Disasters, 15(1), 43–54.
Aragon-Durand, F., 2007: Urbanisation and flood vulnerability in the peri-urban interface of Mexico City. Disasters, 31(4), 477–494.
Armitage, D., B., Fikret, and N., Doubleday (eds.), 2007: Adaptive Co-Management: Collaboration, Learning, and Multi-Level Governance. UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada, 160 pp.
Arrow, K. and R., Lind, 1970: Uncertainty and the evaluation of public investment decisions. The American Economic Review, 60, 364–378.
Auld, H. and D., MacIver, 2007: Changing Weather Patterns, Uncertainty And Infrastructure Risks: Emerging Adaptation Requirements. Occasional Paper 9, Environment Canada, Toronto, Canada.
Aysan, Y., 1993: Vulnerability assessment. In: Natural Disasters: Protecting Vulnerable Communities [Merriman, P.A. and C.W.A., Browitt (eds.)]. IDNDR-Thomas Telford, London, UK.
Aysan, Y. and P., Oliver, 1987: Housing and Culture after Earthquakes. A guide for future policy making on housing in seismic areas. Oxford Polytechnic for the Overseas Development Administration (ODA) of the UK Government, Oxford, UK.
Balbus, J.M. and C., Malina, 2009: Identifying vulnerable subpopulations for climate change health effects in the United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 51, 33–37.
Bankoff, G., 2004: The Historical Geography of Disaster: ‘Vulnerability’ and ‘Local Knowledge’ in Western Discourse. Earthscan, London, UK.
Barnett, J., 2001: Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island countries: The problem of uncertainty. World Development, 29(6), 977–993.
Barnett, J., 2005: Titanic states? Impacts and responses to climate change in the Pacific Islands. Journal of International Affairs, 59, 203–219.
Barnett, J. and M., Webber, 2009: Accommodating Migration to Promote Adaptation to Climate Change. A policy brief prepared for the Secretariat of the Swedish Commission on Climate Change and Development and the World Bank World Development Report 2010 team, Commission on Climate Change and Development, Stockholm, Sweden.
Barnston, A.G., S., Li, S.L., Mason, D.G., DeWitt, L., Goddard, and X., Gong, 2010: Verification of the first 11 years of iri's seasonal climate forecasts. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49, 493–520.
Bartlett, S., 2008: Climate change and urban children: impacts and implications for adaptation in low- and middle income countries. Environment & Urbanization, 20(2), 501–519.
Batterbury, S., 2001: Landscapes of diversity: A local political ecology of livelihood diversification in south-western Niger. Ecumene, 8(4), 437–464.
Beck, U., 2000: Risk society revisited: Theory, politics and research programmes. In: The Risk Society and Beyond [Adam, B., U., Beck, and J., van Loon (eds.)]. SAGE Publications, London, UK, 211–229.
Beck, U., 2008: La Sociedad del Riesgo Mundial. Paidós, Barcelona, Spain.
Beg, N., J.C., Morlot, O., Davidson, Y., Afrane-Okesse, L., Tyani, F., Denton, Y., Sokona, J.P., Thomas, E.L., La Rovere, J.K., Parikh, K., Parikh, and A.A., Rahman, 2002: Linkages between climate change and sustainable development. Climate Policy, 2, 129–144.
Benioff, R., S., Guill, and J., Lee (eds.), 1996: Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments: An International Handbook. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Bennet, G., 1970: Bristol floods 1968: controlled survey of effects on health of local community disaster. British Medical Journal, 3, 454–458.
Benson, C. and E., Clay, 2000: Developing countries and the economic impacts of natural disasters. In Managing disaster risk in emerging economies [Kreimer, A. and M., Arnold (eds.)]. World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 11–21.
Bertoni, J.C., 2006: Urban floods in Latin America: reflections on the role of risk factors. In: Frontiers in Flood Research [Tchiguirinskaia, I., K.N.N., Thein, and P., Hubert (eds.)]. IAHS publication 305, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK, pp. 123–141.
Bettencourt, S., R., Croad, P., Freeman, J., Hay, R., Jones, P., King, P., Lal, A., Mearns, G., Miller, I., Pswarayi-Riddihough, A., Simpson, N., Teuatabo, U., Trotz, and M.K., van Aalst, 2006: Not If, But When. Adapting To Natural Hazards in the Pacific Islands Region. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Biermann, F., 2007: ‘Earth system governance’ as a crosscutting theme of global change research. Global Environmental Change, 17(3–4), 326–337.
Biermann, F., M., Betsill, J., Gupta, N., Kanie, L., Lebel, D., Livermann, H., Schroeder, and B., Siebenhüner, 2009: Earth System Governance – People, Places, and the Planet. Report No. 1, Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project, Bonn, Germany.
Birkmann, J., 2006a: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards – Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, 450 pp.
Birkmann, J., 2006b: Measuring vulnerability to promote disaster-resilient societies: conceptual frameworks and definitions. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 9–54.
Birkmann, J., 2006c: Conclusions and recommendations. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 432–447.
Birkmann, J., 2011a: First and second-order adaptation to natural hazards and extreme events in the context of climate change. Natural Hazards, 58(2), 811–840, doi:10.1007/s11069-011-9806-8.
Birkmann, J., 2011b: Regulation and coupling of society and nature in the context of natural hazards. In: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security [Brauch, H.G., U. Oswald, Spring, C., Mesjasz, J., Grin, P., Kameri-Mbote, B., Chourou, P., Dunay, J., Birkmann (eds.)]. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 1103–1127.
Birkmann, J. and N., Fernando, 2008: Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Disasters, 32(1), 82–104.
Birkmann, J. and K., von Teichman, 2010: Integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: key challenges – scales, knowledge, and norms. Sustainability Science, 5(2), 171–184.
Birkmann, J., K., von Teichman, P., Aldunce, C., Bach, N.T., Binh, M., Garschagen, S., Kanwar, N., Setiadi, and L.N., Thach, 2009: Addressing the Challenge: Recommendations and Quality Criteria for Linking Disaster Risk Reduction and Adaptation to Climate Change [Birkmann, J., G., Tetzlaff, and K-O., Zentel (eds.)]. DKKV Publication Series No. 38, German Committee for Disaster Reduction, Bonn, Germany.
Birkmann, J., P., Buckle, J., Jaeger, M., Pelling, N., Setiadi, M., Garschagen, N., Fernando, and J., Kropp, 2010a: Extreme events and disasters: A window of opportunity for change? Analysis of changes, formal and informal responses after megadisasters. Natural Hazards, 55(3), 637–669.
Birkmann, J., M., Garschagen, F., Kraas, and N., Quang, 2010b: Adaptive urban governance: new challenges for the second generation of urban adaptation strategies to climate change. Sustainability Science, 5(2), 185–206.
Black, R., 2001: Environmental Refugees: Myth or Reality? UNHCR Working Paper 34, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, Switzerland, 19 pp.
Blaikie, P., T., Cannon, I., Davis, and B., Wisner, 1994: At Risk: Natural Hazards, People, Vulnerability, and Disasters. Routledge, London, UK.
Blaikie, P., T., Cannon, I., Davis, and B., Wisner, 1996: Vulnerabilidad, el entorno social de los desastres. La RED-ITDG, Bogota, Colombia.
Blockley, D. (ed.), 1992: Engineering Safety. McGraw-Hill International Series in Civil Engineering, London, UK.
Boentje, J.P. and M.S., Blinnikov, 2007: Post-Soviet forest fragmentation and loss in the Green Belt around Moscow, Russia (1991–2001): a remote sensing perspective. Landscape and Urban Planning, 82(4), 208–221.
Bogardi, J. and J., Birkmann, 2004: Vulnerability assessment: the first step towards sustainable risk reduction. In: Disasters and Society – From Hazard Assessment to Risk Reduction [Malzahn, D. and T., Plapp (eds.)]. Logos Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 75–82.
Bohle, H-G., 2001: Vulnerability and criticality: Perspectives from social geography. IHDP Update, 2/2001, 1–7.
Bohle, H-G., 2008: Krisen, katastrophen, kollaps – Geographien von verwundbarkeit in der risikogesellschaft. In: Umgang mit Risiken. Katastrophen – Destabilisierung – Sicherheit [Kulke, E. and H., Popp (eds.)]. Deutscher Geographentag 2007, Bautzen, Lausitzer Druck- und Verlagshaus GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany, pp. 69–82.
Bohle, H-G., and T., Glade, 2008: Vulnerabilitätskonzepte in Sozial- und Naturwissenschaften. In: Naturrisiken und Sozialkatastrophen [Felgentreff, C. and T., Glade (eds.)]. Spektrum Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 99–119.
Bohle, H.G., T.E., Downing, and M.J., Watts, 1994: Climate change and social vulnerability: Toward a sociology and geography of food insecurity. Global Environmental Change, 4(1), 37–48.
Bouchama, A., M., Dehbi, G., Mohamed, F., Matthies, M., Shoukri, and B., Menne, 2007: Prognostic factors in heat wave related deaths: a meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 2170–2176.
Bouwer, L.M., R.P., Crompton, E., Faust, P., Hoppe, and R.A., Pielke Jr., 2007: Disaster management: Confronting disaster losses. Science, 318 (5851), 753.
Boykoff, M.T. and J., Boykoff, 2007: Climate change and journalistic norms: a case-study of US mass-media coverage. Geoforum, 38, 1190–1204.
Breiting, S. and P., Wickenberg, 2010: The progressive development of environmental education in Sweden and Denmark. Environmental Education Research, 16(1), 9–37.
Brenkert, A.L. and E.L., Malone, 2005: Modeling vulnerability and resilience to climate change: A case study of India and Indian States. Climatic Change, 72(1–2), 57–102.
Brklacich, M. and H.-G., Bohle, 2006: Assessing human vulnerability to global climatic change. In: Earth System Science in the Anthropocene [Ehlers, E. and T., Krafft (eds.)]. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 51–61.
Brondo, K.V., 2007: Land loss and Garifuna women's activism on Honduras' North Coast. Journal of International Women's Studies, 9(1), 99–116.
Brooks, N., 2003: Vulnerability, Risk and Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Working Paper 38, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Brooks, N. and W.N., Adger, 2004: Assessing and enhancing adaptive capacity, Technical Paper 7. In: Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change: Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures [Lim, B. and E., Spanger-Siegfried (eds.)]. United Nations Development Programme and Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 165–182.
Brooks, N., W.N., Adger, and M., Kelly, 2005: The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 15, 151–163.
Bull-Kamanga, L., K., Diagne, A., Lavell, E., Leon, F., Lerise, H., MacGregor, A., Maskrey, M., Meshack, M., Pelling, H., Reid, D., Satterthwaite, J., Songsore, K., Westgate, and A., Yitambe, 2003: From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas. Environment & Urbanization, 15(1), 193–203.
Burby, R.J., 2006: Hurricane Katrina and the paradoxes of government disaster policy: Bringing about wise governmental decisions for hazardous areas. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604, 171–191.
Burkle, F.M. and P.G., Greenough, 2008: Impact of public health emergencies on modern disaster taxonomy, planning, and response. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 2(4), e2–e9.
Burton, I. and M.K., van Aalst, 1999: Come Hell or High Water: Integrating Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation into Bank Work. World Bank Environment Department Papers 72, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Burton, I. and M.K., van Aalst, 2004: Look Before You Leap. A Risk Management Approach for Climate Change Adaptation in World Bank Operations. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Burton, I., R.W., Kates, and G.F., White, 1978: The Environment as Hazard. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
Burton, I., J., Wilson, and R.E., Munn, 1983: Environmental impact assessment: national approaches and international needs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 3, 133–150.
Burton, I., R.W., Kates, and G.F., White, 1993: The Environment as Hazard – Second Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
Campbell, D., M. Stafford, Smith, J., Davies, P., Kuipers, J., Wakerman, and M.J., McGregor, 2008: Responding to health impacts of climate change in the Australian desert. Rural and Remote Health, 8, 1008.
Campbell, J.R. 2006. Traditional Disaster Reduction in Pacific Island Communities. GNS Science Report 2006/38. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Avalon, NZ, ISBN 0-478-09961-4.
Cannon, T., 1994: Vulnerability analysis and the explanation of ‘natural’ disasters. In: Disasters, Development and Environment [Varley, A. (ed.)]. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 13–29.
Cannon, T., 2006: Vulnerability analysis, livelihoods and disasters. In: Risk 21: Coping with Risks Due to Natural Hazards in the 21st Century [Ammann, W.J., S., Dannenmann, and L., Vulliet (eds.)]. Taylor and Francis Group, London, UK, pp. 41–49.
Cannon, T. and D., Müller-Mahn, 2010: Vulnerability, resilience and development discourses in the context of climate change. Natural Hazards, 55(3), 621–635.
Cannon, T., J., Twigg, and J., Rowell, 2003: Social Vulnerability, Sustainable Livelihoods and Disasters. Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Department and Sustainable Livelihoods Support Office, Department for International Development, London, UK, 63 pp.
Cardona, O.D., 1986: Estudios de vulnerabilidad y evaluación del riesgo sísmico: Pla nificación física y urbana en áreas propensas. Boletín Técnico de la Asociación Colombiana de Ingeniería Sísmica, 33(2), 32–65.
Cardona, O.D., 1990: Terminología de Uso Común en Manejo de Riesgos. AGID Reporte No. 13, Escuela de Administración, Finanzas, y Tecnología, Medellín, Colombia.
Cardona, O.D., 1993: Evaluación de la amenaza, la vulnerabilidad y el riesgo: Elementos para el Ordenamiento y la Planeación del Desarrollo. In: Los Desastres No son Naturales [Maskrey, A. (ed.)]. La RED/Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá, Colombia.
Cardona, O.D., 1996a: Manejo ambiental y prevención de desastres: dos temas asociados. In: Ciudades en Riesgo [Fernandez, M.A. (ed.)]. La RED-USAID, Lima, Peru, pp. 79–101.
Cardona, O.D., 1996b: El Manejo de riesgos y los preparativos para Desastres: Compromiso Institucional para mejorar la calidad de vida. In: Desastres: modelo para armar [Mansilla, E. (ed.)]. La RED, Lima, Peru, pp. 128–147.
Cardona, O.D., 1996c: Variables involucradas en el manejo de riesgos. In: Desastres y Sociedad, Especial: Predicciones, Pronósticos, Alertas y Respuestas Sociales [Cardona, O.D. (ed.)]. 4, La RED, Tarea Gráfica, Lima, Peru, pp. 7–35.
Cardona, O.D., 1999a: Environmental management and disaster prevention: Two related topics: A holistic risk assessment and management approach. In: Natural Disaster Management [Ingleton, J. (ed.)]. IDNDR-Tudor Rose, London, UK, pp. 151–153.
Cardona, O.D., 1999b: Environmental management and disaster prevention: Two related topics. In: Cities at Risk: Environmental Degradation, Urban Risks and Disasters in Latin America [Fernandez, M.A. (ed.)]. A/H Editorial, La RED, US AID, Quito, Peru, pp. 79–102.
Cardona, O.D., 2001: Estimación Holística del Riesgo Sísmico utilizando Sistemas Dinámicos Complejos. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Terrain Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain.
Cardona, O.D., 2004: The need for rethinking the concepts of vulnerability and risk from a holistic perspective: A necessary review and criticism for effective risk management. In: Mapping Vulnerability: Disa sters, Development and People [Bankoff, G., G., Frerks, and D., Hilhorst (eds.)]. Earthscan Publishers, London, UK, pp. 37–51.
Cardona, O.D., 2006: A system of indicators for disaster risk management in the Americas. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Hazards of Natural Origin: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. UNU Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 189–209.
Cardona, O.D., 2008: Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management: Program for Latin America and the Caribbean – Summary Report – Second Edition. INE-08-002, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.
Cardona, O.D., 2009: La Gestión Financiera del Riesgo de Desastres: Instrumentos Financieros de Retención y Transferencia para la Comunidad Andina. PREDECAN, Comunidad Andina, Lima, Peru.
Cardona, O.D., 2010: Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management – Program for Latin America and the Caribbean: Summary Report. Evaluación de Riesgos Naturales - Latino America, ERN-AL, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.
Cardona, O.D., 2011: Disaster risk and vulnerability: Notions and measurement of human and environmental insecurity. In: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks [Brauch, H.G., U. Oswald, Spring, C., Mesjasz, J., Grin, P., Kameri-Mbote, B., Chourou, P., Dunay, J., Birkmann]. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 107–122.
Cardona, O.D. and A.H., Barbat, 2000: El Riesgo Sísmico y su Prevención. Cuaderno Técnico 5, Calidad Siderúrgica, Madrid, Spain, 190 pp.
Cardona, O.D. and J.E., Hurtado, 2000a: Holistic seismic risk estimation of a metropolitan center. In: Proceedings of the 12th World Conference of Earthquake Engineering, January 30 – February 4, 2000, paper 2643. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Cardona, O.D. and J.E., Hurtado, 2000b: Modelación numérica para la estimación holística del riesgo sísmico urbano, considerando variables técnicas, sociales y económicas. In: Métodos Numéricos en Ciencias Sociales (MENCIS 2000) [Oñate, E., F., García-Sicilia, and L., Ramallo (eds.)]. Centro Internacional de Métodos Numéricos en Ingeniería - Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 452–466.
Cardona, O.D., J.E., Hurtado, G., Duque, A., Moreno, A.C., Chardon, L.S., Velásquez, and S.D., Prieto, 2003a: The Notion of Disaster Risk: Conceptual Framework for Integrated Management. National University of Colombia / Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.
Cardona, O.D., J.E., Hurtado, G., Duque, A., Moreno, A.C., Chardon, L.S., Velásquez, and S.D., Prieto, 2003b: Indicators for Risk Measurement: Methodological Fundamentals. National University of Colombia / Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.
Cardona, O.D., M.G., Ordaz, M.C., Marulanda, and A.H., Barbat, 2008a: Estimation of probabilistic seismic losses and the public economic resilience – An approach for a macroeconomic impact evaluation. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 12(S2), 60–70.
Cardona, O.D., M.G., Ordaz, L.E., Yamín, M.C., Marulanda, and A. H., Barbat, 2008b: Earthquake loss assessment for integrated disaster risk management. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 12(S2), 48–59.
CARE, 2009: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook. CARE International, Chatelaine, Switzerland.
Carreño, M.L., 2006: Técnicas innovadoras para la evaluación del riego sísmico y su gestión en centros urbanos: Acciones ex ante y ex post. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Terrain Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain.
Carreño, M.L., O.D., Cardona, and A.H., Barbat, 2005: Sistema de Indicadores para la Evaluación de Riesgos. Monografía CIMNE IS-52, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain, 160 pp.
Carreño, M.L., O.D., Cardona, and A.H., Barbat, 2007a: Urban seismic risk evaluation: A holistic approach. Journal of Natural Hazards, 40(1), 137–172.
Carreño, M.L., O.D., Cardona, and A.H., Barbat, 2007b: A disaster risk management performance index. Journal of Natural Hazards, 41(1), 1–20.
Carreño, M.L., O.D., Cardona, M.C., Marulanda, and A.H., Barbat, 2009: Holistic urban seismic risk evaluation of megacities: Application and robustness. In: The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake: Revisited [Mendes-Victor, L.A., C.S. Sousa, Oliveira, J., Azevedo, and A., Ribeiro (eds.)]. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Carroll, B., H., Morbey, R., Balogh, and G., Araoz, 2006: Living in Fear: Health and Social Impacts of the Floods in Carlisle 2005. Research Report, Centre for Health Research and Practice Development, St. Martins College, Carlisle, UK.
Carter, T.R., M.L., Parry, H., Harasawa, and S., Nishioka, 1994: IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations. Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.
Carvalho, A., 2005: Representing the politics of the greenhouse effect: discursive strategies in the British media. Critical Discourse Studies, 2(1), 1–29.
Carvalho, A. and J., Burgess, 2005: Cultural circuits of climate change in U.K. broadsheet newspapers, 1985–2003. Society for Risk Analysis, 25(6), 1457–1469.
Castles, S., 2002: Environmental Change and Forced Migration: Making Sense of the Debate. UNHCR Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 70, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, Switzerland.
Ceccato, P., T., Ghebremeskel, M., Jaiteh, P.M., Graves, M., Levy, S., Ghebreselassie, A., Ogbamariam, A.G., Barnston, M., Bell, J., del Corral, S.J., Connor, I., Fesseha, E.P., Brantly, and M.C., Thomson, 2007: Malaria stratification, climate, and epidemic early warning in Eritrea. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77, 61–68.
Cernea, M., 1996: Eight Main Risks: Impoverishment and Social Justice in Resettlement. World Bank Environment Department, Washington, DC.
Chambers, R., 1983: Rural Development – Putting the Last First. Longmans Scientific and Technical Publishers, Essex, UK, 246 pp.
Chambers, R., 1989: Vulnerability, coping and policy. Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, 20(2), 1–7.
Changnon, D. and S.A., Changnon, 2010: Major growth in some business related uses of climate information. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49, 325–331.
Chatterjee, M., 2010: Slum dwellers response to flooding events in the megacities of India. Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Global Change, 15, 337–353.
Chester, D.K., 2005: Theology and disaster studies: the need for dialogue. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 146 (4), 319–328.
Christoplos, I., 2006: The elusive ‘window of opportunity’ for risk reduction in post-disaster recovery. Discussion Paper, ProVention Consortium Forum, 2-3 February 2006, Bangkok, Thailand.
Clasen, T., W.P, Schmidt, T., Rabie, I., Roberts, and S., Cairncross, 2007: Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and metaanalysis. British Medical Journal, 334(7597), 782–785.
Coburn, A. and R., Spence, 1992: Earthquake Protection. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
Colchester, M., 2000: Dams, Indigenous People and Vulnerable Ethnic Minorities. Thematic Review 1.2.World Commission on Dams, Cape Town, South Africa.
Colten, C.E., 2006: Vulnerability and place: Flat land and uneven risk in New Orleans. American Anthropologist, 108(4), 731–734.
Colten, C., R., Kates, and S., Laska, 2008: Community Resilience: Lessons for New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. CARRI Research Report 3, Community and Regional Resilience Institute, Oak Ridge, TN, 47 pp.
Comfort, L., B., Wisner, S., Cutter, R., Pulwarty, K., Hewitt, A., Oliver-Smith, J., Wiener, M., Fordham, W., Peacock, and F., Krimgold, 1999: Reframing disaster policy: the global evolution of vulnerable communities. Environmental Hazards, 1, 39–44.
Confalonieri, U., B., Menne, R., Akhtar, K.L., Ebi, M., Hauengue, R.S., Kovats, B., Revich, and A., Woodward, 2007: Human health. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 391–431.
Cooper, P.J.M., J., Dimes, K.P.C., Rao, B., Shapiro, B., Shiferaw, and S., Twomlow, 2008: Coping better with current climatic variability in the rain-fed farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa: An essential first step in adapting to future climate change?Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 126, 24–35.
Corral, S., 2000: Explorando la calidad de los procesos de elaboración de políticas ambientales. In: Métodos Numéricos en Ciencias Sociales (MENCIS 2000) [Oñate, E., F., García-Sicilia, and L., Ramallo (eds.)]. Centro Internacional de Métodos Numéricos en Ingeniería – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 391–401.
Costello, A., M., Abbas, A., Allen, S., Ball, S., Bell, R., Bellamy, S., Friel, N., Groce, A., Johnson, M., Kett, M., Lee, C., Levy, M., Maslin, D., McCoy, B., McGuire, H., Montgomery, D., Napier, C., Pagel, J., Patel, C., Patterson, J.A. Puppim, de Oliveira, N., Redclift, H., Rees, D., Rogger, J., Scott, J., Stephenson, J., Twigg, and J., Wolff, 2009: Managing the health effects of climate change. The Lancet, 373(16), 1693–1733.
Covello, V. and J., Mumpower, 1985: Risk analysis and risk management: An historical perspective. Risk Analysis, 5(2), 103–120.
Cross, J.A., 2001: Megacities and small towns: Different perspectives on hazard vulnerability. Environmental Hazards, 3(2), 63–80.
Cruz, A.M., L.J., Steinberg, A.L.V., Arellano, J.-P., Nordvik, and F., Pisano, 2004: State of the Art in Natech Risk Management (NATECH: Natural Hazard Triggering a Technological Disaster). EUR 21292, European Communities, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.
Cummins, J. and O., Mahul, 2009: Catastrophe Risk Financing in Developing Countries: Principles for Public Intervention. The World Bank, Washington, DC, 268 pp.
Cuny, F.C., 1984: Disaster and Development. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
Cutter, S.L. (ed.), 1994: Environmental Risks and Hazards. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Cutter, S.L., 1996: Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in Human Geography, 20, 529–539.
Cutter, S.L. and C., Finch, 2008: Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(7), 2301–2306.
Cutter, S.L., C.T., Emrich, J.T., Mitchell, B.J., Boruff, M., Gall, M.C., Schmidtlein, C.G., Burton, and G., Melton, 2006: The long road home: Race, class, and recovery from Hurricane Katrina. Environment, 48(2), 8–20.
Cutter, S.L., L., Barnes, M., Berry, C., Burton, E., Evans, E., Tate, and J., Webb, 2008: A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18, 598–606.
Davis, I. and M., Wall (eds.), 1992: Christian Perspectives on Disaster Management: A Training Manual. International Relief and Development Association, Middlesex, UK.
Davis, I., B., Haghebaert, and D., Peppiatt, 2004: Social Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Workshop Discussion paper and workshop report. ProVention Constortium, Geneva, Switzerland.
Dawson, T.P., S.T., Jackson, J.I., House, C.I., Prentice, and G.M., Mace, 2011: Beyond predictions: Biodiversity conservation in a changing climate. Science, 332, 53.
Dayton-Johnson, J., 2004: Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity. OECD Working Paper No. 237, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France.
Décamps, H. (ed.), 2010: Événements Climatiques Extrêmes: Réduire les Vulnérabilités des Systèmes Écologiques et Sociaux. Institut de France, Académie des Sciences, Paris, France, 194 pp.
Degallier, N., C., Favier, C., Menkes, M., Lengaigne, W.M., Ramalho, R., Souza, J., Servain, J.-P., Boulanger, 2010: Toward an early warning system for dengue prevention: modeling climate impact on dengue transmission. Climatic Change, 98, 581–592.
Demetriades, J. and E., Esplen, 2008: The gender dimensions of poverty and climate change adaptation. IDS Bulletin, 39(4), 24.
Di Baldassarre, G., A., Montanari, H., Lins, D., Koutsoyiannis, L., Brandimarte, and G., Bloeschl, 2010: Flood fatalities in Africa: From diagnosis to mitigation. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22402.
Dikau, R. and J., Pohl, 2007: “Hazards” Naturgefahren und Naturrisiken. In: Geographie, Physische Geographie und Humangeographie [Gebhardt, H., R., Glaser, U., Radtke, and P., Reuber (eds.)]. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 1029–1076.
Dilley, M., 2006: Disaster risk hotspots: A project summary. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards – Towards Disaster Resilient Societies [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 182–188.
Dilley, M., R., Chen, U., Deichmann, A., Lerner-Lam, and M., Arnold, 2005: Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis. Columbia University and World Bank, New York, NY and Washington, DC.
DKKV, 2011: Adaptive Disaster Risk Reduction – Enhancing Methods and Tools of Disaster Risk Reduction in the light of Climate Change. DKKV Publication Series no. 43, German Committee for Disaster Reduction, Bonn, Germany,
Doherty, T.J. and S., Clayton, 2011: The psychological impacts of global climate change. American Psychologist, 66(4), 265–276.
Donner, W. and H., Rodriguez, 2008: Population composition, migration and inequality: The influence of demographic changes on disaster risk and vulnerability. Social Forces, 87(2), 1089–1114.
Doocy, S., Y., Gorokhovich, G., Burnham, D., Balk, and C., Robinson, 2007: Tsunami mortality estimates and vulnerability mapping in Aceh, Indonesia. American Journal of Public Health, 97(S1), 146–151.
Dore, M.H.I. and D., Etkin, 2003: Natural disasters, adaptive capacity and development in the twenty-first century. In: Natural Disasters and Development in A Globalizing World [Pelling, M. (ed.)]. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 75–91.
Douglas, I., K., Alam, M., Maghenda, Y., McDonnell, L., McLean, and J., Campbell, 2008: Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. Environment And Urbanization, 20(1), 187–205.
Douglas, M. and A., Wildavsky, 1982: Risk and culture: An essay on the selection of technological and environmental dangers. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Dow, K., 1992: Exploring differences in our common future(s): the meaning of vulnerability to global environmental change. Geoforum, 23 (3), 417–436.
Downing, T.E. and A., Patwardhan, 2004: Assessing vulnerability for climate adaptation, Technical Paper 3. In: Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change: Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures [Lim, B. and E., Spanger-Siegfried (eds.)]. United Nations Development Programme and Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 67–89.
Drusine, H., 2005: The Garifuna fight back. Third Text, 19(2), 197–202.
Dudasik, S., 1982: Unanticipated repercussions of international disaster relief. Disasters, 6, 31–37.
Duneier, M., 2004: Scrutinizing the heat: On ethnic myths and the importance of shoe leather. Contemporary Sociology, 33 (2), 139–150.
Eakin, H., 2005: Institutional change, climate risk, and rural vulnerability: Cases from Central Mexico. World Development, 33(11), 1923–1938.
Elliot, L., M., Beeson, S., Akbarzadeh, G., Fealy, and S., Harris, 2006: Religion, Faith and Global Politics. Department of International Relations, Canberra, Australia.
Elliott, J.R. and Pais, J. 2006: Race, class, and Hurricane Katrina: Social differences in human responses to disaster. Social Science Research, 35, 295–321.
Ellis, B.R. and B.A., Wilcox, 2009: The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control. Cadernos De Saude Publica, 25, S155–S167.
Enarson, E. and B.H., Morrow (eds.), 1998: The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Through Women's Eyes. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.
Enarson, E. and B.H., Morrow, 2000: A gendered perspective: The voices of women. In: Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender and the Sociology of Disasters [Peacock, W.G., B.H., Morrow, and H., Gladwin (eds)]. International Hurricane Centre, Laboratory for Social and Behavioural Research, Miami, FL, pp. 116–137.
Eriksen, S.H., and K., O'Brien, 2007: Vulnerability, poverty and the need for sustainable adaptation measures. Climate Policy, 7(4), 337–352.
Eriksen, S. and J.A., Silva, 2009: The vulnerability context of a savanna area in Mozambique: household drought strategies and responses to economic change. Environmental Science and Policy, 12, 33–52.
Eriksen, S., H.K., Brown, and P.M., Kelly, 2005: The dynamics of vulnerability: locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. Geographical Journal, 171 (4), 287–305.
ERN-AL, 2011: Probabilistic Modelling of Natural Risk at Global Level: The Hybrid Loss Exceedance Curve – Development of a Methodology and Implementation of Case Studies, Phase 1A: Colombia, Mexico, Nepal. Report for the GAR 2011, Consortium Evaluación de Riesgos Naturales – América Latina, Bogotá.
FAOSTAT, 2011: FAOSTAT Statistical database on agricultural employment. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy,
Feenstra, J.F., I., Burton, J.B., Smith, and R.S.J., Tol, 1998: Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies. Version 2.0, United Nations Environment Programme and Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (UNEP/RIVM), Nairobi, Kenya and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Few, R., 2007: Health and climatic hazards: framing social research on vulnerability, response and adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 17, 281–295.
Folke, C., 2006: Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253–267.
Folke, C., S., Carpenter, T., Elmqvist, L., Gunderson, C.S., Holling, and B., Walker, 2002: Resilience and sustainable development: Building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(5), 437–440.
Fordham, M., 1998: Making women visible in disasters: problematising the private domain. Disasters, 22(2), 126–143.
Fordham, M. and S., Gupta with S., Akerkar and M., Scharf, 2011: Leading Resilient Development: Grassroots Women's Priorities, Practices and Innovations. Grassroots Organizations Operating Together in Sisterhood and the UN Development Programme, New York, NY.
Fothergill, A., E.G.M., Maestas, and J.D., Darlington, 1999: Race, ethnicity and disasters in the United States: A review of the literature. Disasters, 23(2), 156–173.
Fournier d'Albe, M., 1985: The quantification of seismic hazard for the purposes of risk assessment. In: International Conference on Reconstruction, Restoration and Urban Planning of Towns and Regions in Seismic Prone Areas, 5-9 November 1985. Skopje, Yugoslavia, pp. 77–84.
Fraser, E.D.G., 2006: Food system vulnerability: using past famines to help understand how food systems may adapt to climate change. Ecological Complexity, 3, 328–335.
Freeman, P. and K., Warner, 2001: Vulnerability of Infrastructure to Climate Variability: How Does This Affect Infrastructure Lending Policies?Disaster Management Facility of The World Bank and the ProVention Consortium, Washington, DC, 40 pp.
Freudenberg, W., R., Gramling, S., Laska, and K., Erickson, 2008: Organising hazards, engineering disasters? Improving the recognition of politico-economic factors in the creation of disasters. Social Factors, 78(2), 1015–1038.
Furr, J.M., J.S., Comer, J.M., Edmunds, and P.C., Kendall, 2010: Disasters and youth: A meta-analytic examination of posttraumatic stress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 765–780.
Füssel, H.-M., 2005: Vulnerability to climate change: a comprehensive conceptual framework. University of California International and Area Studies Breslauer Symposium Paper 6, Berkeley, CA, 36 pp.
Füssel, H.-M., 2007: Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global Environmental Change, 17, 155–167.
Füssel, H.-M. and R.J.T., Klein, 2006: Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Climatic Change, 75, 301–329.
Gaillard, J.C., 2007: Resilience of traditional societies in facing natural hazard. Disaster Prevention and Management, 16, 522–544.
Gaillard, J.C., 2010: Vulnerability, capacity and resilience: Perspectives for climate and development policy, Journal of International Development, 22, 218–232, doi:10.1002/jid.1675.
Gallopin, G.C., 2006: Linkages between vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 293–303.
Gallopin, G.C., S., Funtowicz, M., O'Connor, and J., Ravetz, 2001: Science for the twenty-first century: from social contract to the scientific core. International Social Science Journal, 53(168), 219–229
Garret, M.J., 1999: Health Futures: A Handbook for Health Professionals. World Health Organization, Geneva. Switzerland, ISBN 92-4-154521-6.
Ginexi, E.M., K., Weihs, S.J., Simmens, and D. R., Hoyt, 2000: Natural disaster and depression: a prospective investigation of reactions to the 1993 midwest floods. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 495–518.
Glantz, M., 2003: Early warning systems: Dos and don'ts. Report of Workshop on Early Warning Systems, Shanghai, China, 20-24 October 2003, ISBN 978-0756744953.
Goddard, L., Y., Aitchellouche, W., Baethgen, M., Dettinger, R., Graham, P., Hayman, M., Kadi, R., Martínez, and H., Meinke, 2009: Providing Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate Information for Risk Management and Decision Making. White Paper presented at the World Climate Conference 3 in Report of the World Climate Conference 3, Report No. 1048, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Gosling, S., G., McGregor, and J., Lowe, 2009: Climate change and heat-related mortality in six cities – part 2: climate model evaluation and projected impacts from changes in the mean and variability of temperature with climate change. International Journal of Biometeorology, 53(1), 31–51.
Greiving, S., 2002: Räumliche Planung und Risiko. Gerling Akademischer Verlag, München, Germany, 320 pp.
Grossi, P. and H., Kunreuther (eds.), 2005: Catastrophe Modeling: A new approach to managing risk. Springer, New York, NY, 245 pp.
Grothmann, T. and A., Patt, 2005: Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change. Global Environmental Change, 15, 199–213
Guha-Sapir, D., D., Hargitt, and P., Hoyois, 2004: Thirty Years Of Natural Disasters 1974–2003: The Numbers. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Presses Universitaires de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, ISBN 2930344717.
Gunderson, L.H., 2000: Resilience in theory and practice. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 425–439.
Guth, J.L., J.C., Green, L.A., Kellstedt, and C.E., Smith, 1995: Faith and the environment: Religious beliefs and attitudes on environmental policy. American Journal of Political Science, 39(2), 364–382.
Haddad, B.M., 2005: Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit. Global Environmental Change, 15, 165–176.
Haines, A., R.S., Kovats, D., Campbell-Lendrum, and C., Corvalan, 2006: Climate change and human health: Impacts, vulnerability and public health. Public Health, 120, 585–596
Hales, S., S., Edwards, and R.S., Kovats, 2003: Impacts on health of climate extremes. In: Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses [McMichael, A.J., D., Campbell-Lendrum, K., Ebi, and C., Corvalan (eds.)]. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 79–96.
Handmer, J.W., S., Dovers, and T.E., Downing, 1999: Societal vulnerability to climate change and variability. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 4, 267–281.
Haque, C.E. and D., Etkin, 2007: People and community as constituent parts of hazards: the significance of societal dimensions in hazards analysis. Natural Hazards, 41(2), 271–282.
Harding, T.W., F., Romerio, J., Rossiaud, J.J., Wagner, S., Bertrand, C., Frischknecht, and J.D., Laporte, 2001: Management des risques majeurs: des disciplines à l'interdisciplinarité. Document de travail No 1 du Groupe de recherche Management des risques majeurs, Université de Genève, Programme plurifacultaire du Rectorat, Geneva, Switzerland.
Hardoy, J. and G., Pandiella, 2009: Urban poverty and vulnerability to climate change in Latin America. Environment & Urbanization, 21(1), 203–224.
Hellmuth, M.E., S.J., Mason, C., Vaughan, M.K., van Aalst, and R., Choularton (eds.), 2011: A Better Climate for Disaster Risk Management. International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Hewitt, K., 1997: Regions of Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters. Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow, UK, 408 pp.
Hewitt, K. (ed.), 1983: Interpretations of Calamity, Allen & Unwin, London, UK.
Hewitt, K. and I., Burton, 1971: The Hazardousness of a Place; a Regional Ecology of Damaging Events. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.
Hilhorst, D. 2004: Complexity and diversity: Unlocking social domains of disaster response. In: Mapping Vulnerability: Disa sters, Development and People [Bankoff, G., G., Frerks, and D., Hilhorst (eds.)]. Earthscan Publishers, London, UK, pp. 52–66.
Holling, C.S., 1973: Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 1–23.
Holling, C.S., 2001: Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems, 4, 390–405.
Hong, Y.C., X.C., Pan, S.Y., Kim, K., Park, E.J., Park, X., Jin, S.M., Yi, K.S., Kim, Y.H., Kim, C.H., Park, S., Song, and H., Kim, 2009: Asian dust storms and pulmonary function of school children. Epidemiology, 20(6), S121–S121.
Hope, K.R. Sr., 2009: Climate change and poverty in Africa. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 16(6), 451–461.
Houghton, R., 2009: Domestic violence reporting and disasters in New Zealand. Regional Development Dialogue, 30(1), 79–90.
Hulme, M., 2009: Why We Disagree About Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Hutton, D. and C.E., Haque, 2003: Patterns of coping and adaptation among erosion-induced displacees in Bangladesh: Implications for hazard analysis and mitigation. Natural Hazards, 29, 405–421.
IAASTD, 2009: Agriculture at a Crossroads: International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, Island Press, Washington, DC.
ICSU-LAC, 2010a: Science for a better life: Developing regional scientific programs in priority areas for Latin America and the Caribbean. Vol 2, Understanding and Managing Risk Associated with Natural Hazards: An Integrated Scientific Approach in Latin America and the Caribbean [Cardona, O.D., J.C., Bertoni, A., Gibbs, M., Hermelin, and A., Lavell (eds.)]. ICSU Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
ICSU-LAC, 2010b: Entendimiento y gestión del riesgo asociado a las amenazas naturales: Un enfoque científico integral para América Latina y el Caribe. Ciencia para una vida mejor: Desarrollando programas científicos regionales en áreas prioritarias para América Latina y el Caribe. Vol 2 [Cardona, O.D., J.C., Bertoni, A., Gibbs, M., Hermelin, and A., Lavell (eds.)]. ICSU Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
IDB, 2007: Disaster Risk Management Policy. GN-2354-5, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.
IDEA, 2005: Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management – Main Technical Report. English and Spanish edition, National University of Colombia/Manizales, Institute of Environmental Studies/IDEA, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, 223 pp.
IFRC, 2008: Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment – Guidelines. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, Switzerland.
IFRC, 2009: World Disasters Report 2009 – Focus on Early Warning, Early Action. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, Switzerland.
IISD, Intercooperation, IUCN, and SEI, 2009: CRiSTAL: Community-based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation & Livelihoods, User's Manual, v 4.0. IISD, Geneva, Switzerland.
INGC, 2009. Synthesis report. INGC Climate Change Report: Study on the impact of climate change on disaster risk in Mozambique [van Logchem, B. and R., Brito, R (eds.)]. National Institute for Disaster Management, Mozambique.
Ingham, B., 1993: The meaning of development: interactions between ‘new’ and ‘old’ ideas. World Development, 21, 1803–1821.
IOM, 2009: Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence. International Organization for Migration, Geneva, Switzerland, 441 pp.
IPCC, 2001: IPCC Third Assessment Report. Synthesis Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 7–22.
ISO, 2009a: Risk Management – Principles and guidelines. ISO 31000, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
ISO, 2009b: Risk Management – Vocabulary. ISO Guide 73, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Jabry, A., 2003: Children in Disasters: After the Cameras Have Gone. Plan UK, Plan International, Woking, UK, 54 pp.
Jakobsen, K.T., 2009, Views on vulnerability following hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 6, pp. 1–2.
Janssen, M.A., M.L., Schoon, W., Ke, and K., Börner, 2006: Scholarly networks on resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the human dimensions of global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 240–252.
Jasanoff, S. and B., Wynne, 1997: Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Sage Publications, London, UK, 828 pp., ISBN 0803940211.
Johnson, P.T.J., A.R., Townsend, C.C., Cleveland, P.M., Glibert, R.W., Howarth, V.J., McKenzie, E., Rejmankova, and M.H., Ward, 2010: Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife. Ecological Applications, 20(1), 16–29.
Kantor, P. and P., Nair, 2005: Vulnerability among slum dwellers in Lucknow, India – Implications for urban livelihood security. International Development Planning Review, 27(3), 333–358.
Kar, N. 2009: Psychological impact of disasters on children: review of assessment and interventions. World Journal of Pediatrics, 5(1), 5–11.
Karlsson, S., 2007: Allocating responsibilities in multi-level governance for sustainable development. Journal of Social Economics, 34(1–2), 103–126.
Kasperson, R.E. and J.X., Kasperson, 2001: Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Social Justice. Risk and Vulnerability Programme, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 18.
Kasperson, R. and I., Palmund, 2005: Evaluating risk communication. In: The Social Contours of Risk. Volume I: Publics, Risk Communication & the Social Amplification of Risk [Kasperson, J. and R., Kasperson (eds.)]. Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 51–67.
Kasperson, R.E., O., Renn, P., Slovic, H.S., Brown, J., Emel, R., Goble, J.X., Kasperson, and S., Ratick, 1988: The social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework. Risk Analysis, 8(2), 177–187.
Kasperson, J., R., Kasperson, B.L., Turner, W., Hsieh, and A., Schiller, 2005: Vulnerability to global environmental change. In: The Social Contours of Risk. Volume II: Risk Analysis, Corporations & the Globalization of Risk [Kasperson, J. and R., Kasperson (eds.)]. Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 245–285.
Kates, R.W., 1962: Hazard and Choice Perception in Flood Plain Management. Dept. of Geography Research Paper No. 78, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Kates, R.W., 1971: Natural hazard in human ecological perspective: Hypotheses and models. Economic Geography, 47(3), pp. 438–451.
Kates, R.W., 1985: The interaction of climate and society. In: Climate Impact Assessment [Kates, R.W., J.H., Ausubel, and M., Berberian (eds.)]. SCOPE 27, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Keim, M.E., 2008: Building human resilience: the role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35, 508–516.
Kelman, I. and T.A., Mather, 2008: Living with volcanoes: the sustainable livelihoods approach for volcano-related opportunities. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 172(3–4), 189–198.
Kesavan, P.C. and M.S., Swaminathan, 2006: Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal SocietyA, 364 (1845), 2191–2216.
Khandlhela, M. and J., May, 2006: Poverty, vulnerability and the impact of flooding in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Natural Hazards, 39(2), 275–287.
Kintisch, E., 2006: Evangelicals, scientists reach common ground on climate change. Science, 311(5764), 1082–1083.
Klein, R.J.T., 2001: Adaptation to Climate Change in German Official Development Assistance: An Inventory of Activities and Opportunities, with a Special Focus on Africa. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany.
Klein, R.J.T., M., Alam, I., Burton, W.W., Dougherty, K.L., Ebi, M., Fernandes, A., Huber-Lee, A.A., Rahman, and C., Swartz, 2006: Application of Environmentally Sound Technologies For Adaptation To Climate Change. Technical Paper FCCC/TP/2006/2, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.
Klein, R., S., Eriksen, L.O., Naess, A., Hammill, C., Robledo, T.M., Tanner, and K., O'Brien, 2007: Portfolio screening to support the mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change into development assistance. Climatic Change, 84, 23–44.
Kobori, H., 2009: Current trends in conservation education in Japan. Biological Conservation, 142(9), 1950–1957.
Koenig, D., 2009: Urban relocation and resettlement: Distinctive problems, distinctive opportunities. In: Development and Dispossession: The Crisis of Development Forced Displacement and Resettlement [Oliver-Smith, A. (ed.)]. SAR Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 119–139.
Krasny, M.E. and K.G., Tidball, 2009: Applying a resilience systems framework to urban environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 15(4), 465–482.
Kuhar, C.W., T.L., Bettinger, K., Lehnhardt, O., Tracy, and D., Cox, 2010: Evaluating for long-term impact of an environmental education program at the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. American Journal Of Primatology, 72(5), 407–413.
Kuwali, D., 2008, From the West to the rest: Climate change as a challenge to human security in Africa. African Security Review, 17 (3), 18–38.
Lamond, J.E., D.G., Proverbs, and F.N., Hammond, 2009: Accessibility of flood risk insurance in the UK: confusion, competition and complacency. Journal of Risk Research, 12(6), 825–841.
Landry, C.E., O., Bin, P., Hindsley, J.C., Whitehead, and K., Wilson, 2007: Going Home: Evacuation-Migration decisions of Hurricane Katrina Survivors. Center for Natural Hazards Research Working Paper, Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO.
Lavell, A. (ed.), 1994: Viviendo en riesgo: comunidades vulnerables y prevención de desastres en América Latina. LA RED, Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá, Colombia.
Lavell, A., 1996: Degradación ambiental, riesgo y desastre urbano. Problemas y conceptos: hacia la definición de una agenda de investigación. In: Ciudades en Riesgo [Fernandez, M.A. (ed.)]. La RED-USAID, Lima, Peru, pp. 21–59.
Lavell, A., 1999a: Environmental degradation, risks and urban disasters. issues and concepts: Towards the definition of a research agenda. In: Cities at Risk: Environmental Degradation, Urban Risks and Disasters in Latin America [Fernandez, M.A. (ed.)]. A/H Editorial, La RED, US AID, Quito, Ecuador, pp. 19–58.
Lavell, A., 1999b: Natural and Technological Disasters: Capacity Building and Human Resource Development for Disaster Management. Concept Paper commissioned by Emergency Response Division, United Nations Development Program, Geneva Switzerland.
Lavell, A., 2003: Local Level Risk Management: Concept and Practices. CEPRE-DENAC-UNDP, Quito, Ecuador.
Lavell, A. and E., Franco (eds.), 1996: Estado, Sociedad y Gestión de los Desastres en América Latina. Red de Estudios Sociales en Prevención de Desastres en América Latina, La RED, Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá, Colombia.
Leichenko, R.M. and K.L., O'Brien, 2002: The dynamics of rural vulnerability to global change: the case of southern Africa. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 7, 1–18.
Leichenko, R.M. and K.L., O'Brien, 2008: Environmental Change and Globalization, Double Exposures. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
Leiserowitz, A., 2006: Climate change risk perception and policy pReferences: the role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77, 45–72
Levina, E. and D., Tirpak, 2006: Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Terms. COM/ENV/EPOC/IEA/SLT(2006)1, OECD, Paris, France.
Linnerooth-Bayer, J. and R., Mechler, 2007: Disaster safety nets for developing countries: Extending public-private partnerships. Environmental Hazards, 7, 54–61.
Linnerooth-Bayer, J., R, Mechler, and G., Pflug, 2005: Refocusing disaster aid. Science, 309, 1044–1046.
Liverman, D.M., 1990: Vulnerability to global environmental change. In: Understanding Global Environmental Change: The Contributions of Risk Analysis and Management [Kasperson, R.E., K., Dow, D., Golding, and J.X., Kasperson (eds.)]. Clark University, Worcester, MA, pp. 27–44.
Longstaff, P.H. and S.-U., Yang, 2008: Communication management and trust: Their role in building resilience to “surprises” such as natural disasters, pandemic flu, and terrorism. Ecology and Society, 13 (1), 3.
Lopez-Calva, L.F. and E., Ortiz, 2008: Evidence and Policy Lessons on the Link between Disaster Risk and Poverty in Latin America: Summary of Regional Studies. RPP LAC – MDGs and Poverty – 10/2008, RBLAC-UNDP, New York, NY, USA.
Luers, A.L., D.B., Lobell, L.S., Sklar, C.L., Addams, and P.A., Matson, 2003: A method for quantifying vulnerability, applied to the Yaqui Valley, Mexico. Global Environmental Change, 13, 255–267.
Luhmann, N., 2003: Soziologie des Risikos. Walter De Gruyterl, Berlin, Germany.
Ljung, K., F., Maley, A., Cook, and P., Weinstein, 2009: Acid sulfate soils and human health – A Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Environment International, 35(8), 1234–1242.
Madagascar Development Intervention Fund, 2007: Disaster-Resistant Schools, a Tool for Universal Primary Education. UNISDR, Geneva, Switzerland.
Magnan, A., 2010: For a better understanding of adaptive capacity to climate change: a research framework. IDDRI Analysis, 2/10, IDDRI, Paris, France.
Mansilla, E. (ed.), 1996: Desastres: modelo para armar. La RED, Lima, Peru.
Manyena, S.B. 2006: The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters, 30(4), 433–450.
Marmot, M., 2010: Marmot Review final report, Fair Society, Healthy Lives. University College London, London, UK.
Marris, C., I., Langford, T., Saunderson, and T., O'Riordan, 1998, A quantitative test of the cultural theory of risk perceptions: Comparison with the psychometric paradigm. Risk Analysis, 18(5), 635–647.
Marshall, B.K. and J.S., Picou, 2008: Postnormal science, precautionary principle, and worst cases: The challenge of twenty-first century catastrophes. Sociological Enquiry, 78(2), 230–247.
Marulanda, M.C., O.D., Cardona, M.G., Ordaz, and A.H., Barbat, 2008a: La gestión financiera del riesgo desde la perspectiva de los desastres: Evaluación de la exposición fiscal de los Estados y alternativas de instrumentos financieros de retención y transferencia del riesgo. Monografía CIMNE IS-61, Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, Spain.
Marulanda, M.C., O.D., Cardona, and A.H., Barbat, 2008b: The economic and social effects of small disasters: Revision of the Local Disaster Index and the case study of Colombia. In: Megacities: Resilience and Social Vulnerability [Bohle, H.G. and K., Warner (eds.)]. SOURCE No. 10, United Nations University (EHS), Munich Re Foundation, Bonn, Germany.
Marulanda, M.C., O.D., Cardona, and A.H., Barbat, 2010: Revealing the socioeconomic impact of small disasters in Colombia using the DesInventar database. Disasters, 34(2), 552–570.
Marulanda, M.C., O.D., Cardona, and A.H., Barbat, 2011: Revealing the impact of small disasters to the economic and social development. In: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security - Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks [Brauch, H.G., U. Oswald, Spring, C., Mesjasz, J., Grin, P., Kameri-Mbote, B., Chourou, P., Dunay, and J., Birkmann (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Masika, R., 2002: Editorial. Gender & Development, 10(2), 2–9.
Maskrey, A., 1989: Disaster Mitigation: A Community Based Approach. Oxfam, Oxford, UK.
Maskrey, A. (Comp.), 1993a: Los Desastres No son Naturales. Red de Estudios Sociales en Prevención de Desastres en América Latina, LA RED, Tercer Mundo Editores, La RED, Bogotá, Colombia.
Maskrey, A., 1993b: Vulnerability accumulation in peripheral regions in Latin America: The challenge for disaster prevention and management. In: Natural Disasters: Protecting Vulnerable Communities [Merriman, P.A. and C.W., Browitt (eds.)]. IDNDR, Telford, London, UK, pp. 461–472.
Maskrey, A., 1994: Disaster mitigation as a crisis paradigm: Reconstructing after the Alto Mayo Earthquake, Peru. In: Disaster, Development and Environment [Varley, A. (ed.)]. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 109–123.
Maskrey, A. (ed.), 1998: Navegando entre Brumas: La Aplicación de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica al Análisis de Riesgo en América Latina. LA RED, ITDG, Lima, Peru.
Massey, K. and J., Sutton, 2007: Faith community's role in responding to disasters. Southern Medical Journal, 100(9), 944–945, doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318145a847.
McCarthy, J.J., O.F., Canziani, N.A., Leary, D.J., Dokken, and K.S., White (eds.), 2001: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
McConnell, W.J., 2008: Comanagement of natural resources: Local learning for poverty reduction. Society & Natural Resources, 21(3), 273–275.
McGranahan, G., D., Balk, and B., Anderson, 2007: The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 17–37, doi:10.1177/0956247807076960.
McGuire, L.C., E.S., Ford, and C.A., Okoro, 2007: Natural disasters and older US adults with disabilities: implications for evacuation. Disasters, 31 (1), 49–56.
McIvor, D. and D., Paton, 2007: Preparing for natural hazards: normative and attitudinal influences. Disaster Prevention and Management, 16(1), 79–88.
McLaughlin, P., and T., Dietz, 2008: Structure, agency and environment: toward an integrated perspective on vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 18, 99–111.
McLeman, R. and B., Smit, 2006: Vulnerability to climate change hazards and risks: crop and flood insurance. Canadian Geographer, 50(2), 217–226.
McMichael, D.H., C.F., Campbell-Lendrum, K., Corvalan, L., Ebi, A., Githeki, J.D., Scheraga, and A., Woodward, 2003: Climate Change and Human Health: Risks And Responses. WMO, Geneva, Switzerland.
MEA, 2005: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Mearns, R. and A., Norton, 2010: The Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Equity and Vulnerability in a Warming World. New Frontiers of Social Policy Series, World Bank, Washington, DC, ISBN 978-0-8213-7887-8.
Mechler, R., 2004: Natural Disaster Risk Management and Financing Disaster Losses in Developing Countries. Verlag für Versicherungswirtschaft, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Mechler, R., J., Linnerooth-Bayer, S., Hochrainer, and G., Pflug, 2006: Assessing financial vulnerability and coping capacity: The IIASA CATSIM Model. In: Measuring Vulnerability and Coping Capacity to Hazards of Natural Origin. Concepts and Methods [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan.
Mechler, R., S., Hochrainer, A., Aaheim, H., Salen and A., Wreford, 2010: Modelling economic impacts and adaptation to extreme events: Insights from European case studies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15(7), 737–762.
Mercer, J., I., Kelman, L., Taranis, and S., Suchet-Pearson, 2010: Framework for integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge for disaster risk reduction. Disasters, 34(1), 214–239.
Metzger, M.J., M.D.A., Rounsevell, L., Acosta-Michlik, R., Leemans, and D., Schröter, 2006: The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 114, 69–85.
Mileti, D.S., 1996: Psicología social de las alertas públicas efectivas de desastres. In: Desastres y Sociedad, Especial: Predicciones, Pronósticos, Alertas y Respuestas Sociales [Cardona, O.D. (ed.)], 4, La RED, Tarea Gráfica, Lima, Peru.
Mimura, N.L., L., Nurse, R.F., McLean, J., Agard, L., Briguglio, P., Lefale, R., Payet, and G., Sem, 2007: Small islands. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 687–716.
Mitchell, J.K. (ed.), 1999a: Crucibles of Hazards: Megacities and Disasters in Transition. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan.
Mitchell, J.K., 1999b: Megacities and natural disasters: A comparative analysis. GeoJournal, 49(2), 137–142.
Mitchell, T., and M.K., van Aalst, 2008: Convergence of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: A Review for DFID. Department for International Development (DFID), London, UK.
Mitchell, T., M., van Aalst, and P.S., Villanueva, 2010: Assessing Progress on Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Development Processes. Strengthening Climate Resilience Discussion Papers, 2, Strengthening Climate Resilience, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
Moench, M. and A., Dixit (eds.), 2007: Working with the Winds of Change: Towards Strategies for Responding to the Risks Associated with Climate Change and Other Hazards. ISET, Kathmandu, Nepal, 285 pp.
Mohay, H. and N., Forbes, 2009: Reducing the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder in children following natural disasters. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 19(2), 179–195.
Morrow, B.H., 1999: Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters, 23(1), 1–18.
Morton, T.A., A., Rabinovich, D., Marshall, and P., Bretschneider, 2011: The future that may (or may not) come: How framing changes responses to uncertainty in climate change communications. Global Environmental Change, 21, 103–109.
Moss, R.H., A.L., Brenkert, and E.L., Malone, 2001: Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Quantitative Approach. Technical Report PNNL-SA-33642, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, Richland, WA.
MOVE, 2010: Generic Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Measurement. Seven Framework Programme, Methods for the Improvement of Vulnerability Assessment in Europe, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.
Munda, G., 2000: Multicriteria Methods and Process for Integrated Environmental Assessment. In: Métodos Numéricos en Ciencias Sociales (MENCIS 2000) [Oñate, E., F., García-Sicilia, and L., Ramallo (eds.)]. Centro Internacional de Métodos Numéricos en Ingeniería – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 364–375, ISBN 84-89925-71-2.
Munich, Re, 2011: TOPICS GEO, Natural Catastrophes 2010, Analyses, Assessments, Positions. Munich Re, Munich, Germany.
Myers, C.A., T., Slack, and J., Singelmann, 2008: Social vulnerability and migration in the wake of disaster: the case of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population & Environment, 29(6), 271–291.
Myers, N., 1993: Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world. Bioscience, 43(11), 752–761.
Næss, L., O., Bang, S., Eriksen, and J., Vevatne, 2005, Institutional adaptation to climate change: Flood responses at the municipal level in Norway. Global Environmental Change, 15, 125–138, doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.10.003.
Nakagawa, Y. and R., Shaw, 2004: Social capital: A missing link to disaster recovery. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 22, 5–34.
Nathan, F., 2008: Risk perception, risk management and vulnerability to landslides in the hill slopes in the city of La Paz, Bolivia. Disasters, 32 (3), 337–357.
Neal, D.M. and B.D., Phillips, 1990: Female-dominated local movement organizations in disaster-threat situations. In: Women and Social Protest [West, G. and R.L., Blumberg (eds.)]. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 243–255.
Nelson, D.R. and T.J., Finan, 2009: Praying for drought: Persistent vulnerability and the politics of patronage in Ceara, Northeast Brazil. American Anthropologist, 111, 302–316, doi:10.1111/j.1548-1433.2009.01134.x.
Nelson, R., P., Kokic, S., Crimp, H., Meinke, and S.M., Howden, 2010a: The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change, Pt. I: Conceptualising and measuring vulnerability. Environmental Science & Policy, 13, 8–17.
Nelson, R., P., Kokic, S., Crimp, P., Martin, H., Meinke, S.M., Howden, P., de Voil, and U., Nidumolu, 2010b: The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change, Part II: Integrating impacts with adaptive capacity. Environmental Science & Policy, 13, 18–27.
Neumayer, E. and T., Pluemper, 2007: The gendered nature of natural disasters: The impact of catastrophic events on the gender gap in life expectancy, 1981–2002. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(3), 551–566
Nicholls, R.J., 2004: Coastal flooding and wetland loss in the 21st century: changes under the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change, 14(1), 69–86.
Nicholls, R.J., N., Marinova, J., Lowe, S., Brown, P., Vellinga, D., De Gusmao, J., Hinkel, and R.S., Tol, 2011: Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a ‘beyond 4 degrees C world’ in the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal SocietyA, 369(1934), 161–181.
Nielsen, J.O. and A., Reenberg, 2010: Cultural barriers to climate change adaptation: A case study from Northern Burkina Faso. Global Environmental Change, 20, 142–152.
Nomura, K., 2009: A perspective on education for sustainable development: Historical development of environmental education in Indonesia. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(6), 621–627.
Nurse, L. and G., Sem, 2001: Small island states. In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation & Vulnerability [McCarthy, J., O., Canziani, N., Leary, D., Dokken, and K., White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 842–875.
O'Brien, G., P., O'Keefe, H., Meena, J., Rose, and L., Wilson, 2008: Climate adaptation from a poverty perspective. Climate Policy, 8(2), 194–201.
O'Brien, K., S., Eriksen, A., Schjolen, and L., Nygaard, 2004a: What's in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research. CICEROWorking Paper 2004:04, CICERO, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway.
O'Brien, K, R., Leichenko, U., Kelkar, H., Venema, G., Aandahl, H., Tompkins, A., Javed, S., Bhadwal, S., Barg, L., Nygaard, and J., West, 2004b: Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: climate change and globalization in India. Global Environmental Change, 14, 303–313.
O'Brien, K., S., Eriksen, L., Sygna, and L.O., Naess, 2006: Questioning complacency: Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in Norway. Ambio, 35(2), 50–56.
O'Brien, K., L., Sygna, R., Leinchenko, W.N., Adger, J., Barnett, T., Mitchell, L., Schipper, T., Tanner, C., Vogel, and C., Mortreux, 2008: Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Human Security. GECHS Report 2008:3, Global Environmental Change and Human Security, Oslo, Norway.
O'Keefe, P., K., Westgate, and B., Wisner, 1976: Taking the naturalness out of natural disasters. Nature, 260, 566–567.
OAS, 1991: Primer on Natural Hazard Management in Integrated Regional Development Planning. Organization of American States, Washington, DC.
OCHA/IDMC, 2009: Monitoring Disaster Displacement in the Context of Climate Change. Findings of a study by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Geneva, Switzerland.
Ochola, S.O., B., Eitel, and D.O., Olago, 2010: Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya. Disasters, 34(3), 732–754.
Olausson, U., 2009: Global warming – global responsibility? Media frames of collective action and scientific certainty. Public Understanding of Science, 18, 421–436
Oliver-Smith, A., 2006: Communities after catastrophe: Reconstructing the material, reconstituting the social. In: Community Building in the 21st Century [Hyland, S. (ed.)]. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 45–70.
Oliver-Smith, A., 2009: Disasters and diasporas: Global climate change and population displacement in the 21st century. In: Anthropology and Climate Change: From Encounters to Actions [Crate, S.A. and M., Nuttall (eds.)]. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, pp. 116–138.
Oppenheimer, M. and A., Todorov (eds.), 2006: Global warming: the psychology of long term risk. Climatic Change, 77(1–6).
Orr, M., 2003: Environmental decline and the rise of religion. Zygon, 38(4), 895–910.
Paavola, J., 2008: Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania. Environmental Science & Policy, 11, 642–654.
PAHO/World Bank, 2004: Guidelines for Vulnerability Reduction in the Design of New Health Facilities. Prepared by Rubén Boroschek Krauskopf and Rodrigo Retamales Saavedra, PAHO/World Bank in collaboration with the World Health Organization, Washington, DC, 106 pp.
Pantuliano, S. and M., Wekesa, 2008: Improving drought response in pastoral areas of Ethiopia: Somali and Afar Regions and Borena Zone of Oromiya Region. Prepared for the CORE group (CARE, FAO, Save the Children UK and Save the Children US), Overseas Development Institute, Humanitarian Policy Group, London, UK.
Parker, D.J., 1995: Floodplain development policy in England and Wales. Applied Geography, 15(4), 341–363.
Patt, A., R., Klein, and A., Vega-Leinert, 2005: Taking the uncertainty in climatechange vulnerability seriously. Geoscience, 337, 411–424.
Patt, A.G., D., Schröter, R.L.T., Klein, and A.C., Vega-Leinert, 2009: Assessing Vulnerability to Global Environmental Change. Earthscan Publications, London, UK.
Patterson, J., E., Linden, J.K.P., Edward, D., Wilhelmsson, and I., Lofgren, 2009: Community-based environmental education in the fishing villages of Tuticorin and its role in conservation of the environment. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 49(2), 382–393.
Peacock, W.G., B.H., Morrow, and H., Gladwin (eds.), 1997: Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender and the Sociology of Disasters. Routledge, London, UK.
Peduzzi, P., 2006: The Disaster Risk Index: Overview of a quantitative approach. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards – Towards Disaster Resilient Societies [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 171–181.
Peduzzi, P., H., Dao, C., Herold, and F., Mouton, 2009: Assessing global exposure and vulnerability towards natural hazards: the Disaster Risk Index. Natural Hazards and the Earth System Science, 9, 1149–1159.
Peek, L. and L.M., Stough, 2010: Children with disabilities in the context of disaster: A social vulnerability perspective. Child Development, 81(4), 1260–1270.
Peguero, A.A., 2006: Latino disaster vulnerability – The dissemination of hurricane mitigation information among Florida's homeowners. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 28 (1), 5–22.
Pelling, M., 1997: What determines vulnerability to floods: a case study in Georgetown, Guyana. Environment and Urbanization, 9, 203–226.
Pelling, M., 1998: Participation, social capital and vulnerability to urban flooding in Guyana. Journal of International Development, 10, 469–486.
Pelling, M., 2003: The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience. Earthscan Publications, London, UK.
Pelling, M., 2010: Adaptation to Climate Change: From Resilience to Transformation. Routledge, London, UK.
Pelling, M. and J.I., Uitto, 2001: Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change. Environmental Hazards, 3, 49–62.
Pelling, M. and B., Wisner (eds.), 2009a: Disaster Risk Reduction, Cases From Urban Africa. Earthscan, London, UK.
Pelling, M. and B., Wisner, 2009b: Introduction: Urbanization, human security and disaster risk in Africa. In: Disaster Risk Reduction, cases from urban Africa [Pelling, M. and B., Wisner (eds.)]. Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 1–16.
Pielke, R.A. Jr., and C.W., Landsea, 1998: Normalized hurricane damages in the United States: 1925–1995. Weather and Forecasting, 13, 621–631.
Pierre, J. and B.G., Peters, 2000: Governance, Politics, and the State. St. Martin's Press, New York, NY.
Pincha, C. and N.H., Krishna, 2009: Post-disaster death ex gratia payments and their gendered impact. Regional Development Dialogue, 30(1), 95–105.
Plummer, R., 2006: Sharing the management of a river corridor: A case study of the comanagement process. Society & Natural Resources, 19(8), 709–721.
Portes, A., 1998: Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 1–24.
Pulwarty, R.S. and W.E., Riebsame, 1997: The political ecology of vulnerability to hurricane-related hazards. In: Hurricanes: Climate and Socio-Economic Impacts [Diaz, H.F. and R.S., Pulwarty (eds.)]. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 185–214.
Putnam, R.D., 2000: Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.
Quarantelli, E.L., 1998: What is a Disaster?Routledge, New York, NY.
Rafiee, R., A.S., Mahiny, and N., Khorasani, 2009: Assessment of changes in urban green spaces of Mashad city using satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 11(6), 431–438.
Rahman, M.M., G. Graham, Haughton, and A.E.G., Jonas, 2010: The challenges of local environmental problems facing the urban poor in Chittagong, Bangladesh: a scale-sensitive analysis. Environment and Urbanization, 22(2), 561–578, doi:10.1177/0956247810377560.
Ray-Bennett, N.S., 2009: The influence of caste, class and gender in surviving multiple disasters: A case study from Orissa, India. Environmental Hazards-Human and Policy Dimensions, 8(1), 5–22.
Reacher, M., K., McKenzie, C., Lane, T., Nichols, I., Kedge, A., Iversen, P., Hepple, T., Walter, C., Laxton, and J., Simpson, on behalf of the Lewes Flood Action Recovery Team, 2004: Health impacts of flooding in Lewes: a comparison of reported gastrointestinal and other illness and mental health in flooded and non-flooded households. Communicable Disease and Public Health, 7(1), 39–46.
Renaud, F.G., 2006: Environmental components of vulnerability. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards. Towards Disaster Resilient societies [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 117–127.
Renn, O., 1992: Concepts of risk: A classification. In: Social Theories of Risk [Krimsky, S. and D., Golding (eds.)]. Praeger, Westport, CT, pp. 53–79.
Renn, O., 2008: Risk Governance – Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World. Earthscan, London, UK.
Renn, O. and P., Graham, 2006: Risk Governance – Towards an integrative approach. White paper no. 1, International Risk Governance Council, Geneva, Switzerland.
Ribot, J., 1995: The causal structure of vulnerability and its application to climate impact analysis. GeoJournal, 35(2), 119–122.
Ribot, J.C., 1996: Introduction: Climate variability, climate change and vulnerability: Moving forward by looking back. In: Climate Variability: Climate Change and Social Vulnerability in the Semi-Arid Tropics [Ribot, J.C., A.R., Magalhaes, and S.S., Panagides (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Rideout, V., 2003: Digital inequalities in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 27(2), 3–31.
Rose, A., 2004: Economic principles, issues, and research priorities in hazard loss estimation. In: Modeling Spatial and Economic Impacts of Disasters [Okuyama, Y. and S.E., Chang (eds.)]. Springer, New York, NY.
Ruth, M. and D., Coelho, 2007: Understanding and managing the complexity of urban systems under climate change. Climate Policy, 7(4), 317–336.
Saldaña-Zorrilla, S.R., 2007: Socioeconomic vulnerability to natural disasters in Mexico: rural poor, trade and public response. CEPAL Report 92, UN-ECLAC, Disaster Evaluation Unit, Mexico, ISBN 978-92-1-121661-5.
Sampei, Y. and M., Aoyagi-Usui, 2008: Mass-media coverage, its influence on public awareness of climate-change issues, and implications for Japan's national campaign to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Global Environmental Change, 19, 203–212.
Sánchez-Rodríguez, R., K.C., Seto, D., Simon, W.D., Solecki, F., Kraas, and G., Laumann, 2005: Science Plan Urbanization and Global Environmental Change. IHDP Report 15, International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, Bonn, Germany.
Sandstrom, C., 2009: institutional dimensions of comanagement: Participation, power, and process. Society & Natural Resources, 22(3), 230–244.
Sanli, F.B., F.B., Balcik, and C., Goksel, 2008: Defining temporal spatial patterns of mega city Istanbul to see the impacts of increasing population. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 146(1–3), 267–275.
Schipper, E.L.F, 2010: Religion as an integral part of determining and reducing climate change and disaster risk: an agenda for research. In: Climate Change: The Social Science Perspective [Voss, M. (ed.)]. VS-Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany, pp. 377–393.
Schipper, L. and M., Pelling, 2006: Disaster risk, climate change and international development: Scope for, and challenges to, integration. Disasters, 30(1), 19–38.
Schmuck-Widmann, H., 2000: Wissenskulturen im Vergleich. Bäuerliche und ingenieurwissenschaftliche Wahrnehmungen und Strategien zur Bewältigung der Flut in Bangladesh. PhD Thesis, Free University Berlin, Germany. (also published in English as Schmuck-Widmann, H., 2001: Facing the Jamuna River. Indigenous and engineering knowledge in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 242 pp.).
Schneider, S.H., S., Semenov, A., Patwardhan, I., Burton, C.H.D., Magadza, M., Oppenheimer, A.B., Pittock, A., Rahman, J.B., Smith, A., Suarez, and F., Yamin, 2007: Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 779–810.
Schon, D.A. and M., Rein, 1994: Frame Reflection: Toward the Resolution of Intractable Policy Controversies. BasicBooks, New York, NY, USA, 247 pp. ISBN 0465025064.
Schröter, D., C., Polsky, and A.G., Patt, 2005: Assessing vulnerabilities to the effects of global change: an eight step approach. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 10, 573–595.
Sclar, E.D., P., Garau, and G., Carolini, 2005: The 21st Century health challenge of slums and cities. Lancet, 365, 901–903.
Scoones, I., 1998: Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework For Analysis. IDS Working Paper 72, Brighton, UK, ISBN 1-85964-224-8.
Scudder, T., 2005: The Future of Large Dams: Dealing with Social, Environmental, Institutional and Political Costs. Earthscan, London, UK, 408 pp.
Sen, A., 1981: Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
Setiadi, N., 2011: Daily mobility – excursus Padang, Indonesia. In: Early Warning in the Context of Environmental Shocks: Demographic Change, Dynamic Exposure to Hazards, and the Role of EWS in Migration Flows and Human Displacement [Chang Seng, D. and J., Birkmann (eds.)]. Migration and Global Environmental Change, Foresight SR4b, Vulnerability Assessment, Risk Management and Adaptive Planning Section, United Nations University for Environment and Human Security, Government Office for Science, pp. 41–45.
Shah, H.C., 1995: The increasing nature of global earthquake risk. Global Environmental Change, 5(1), 65–67.
Sharma, U. and A., Patwardhan, 2008: An empirical approach to assessing generic adaptive capacity to tropical cyclone risk in coastal districts of India. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to Global Change, 13, 819–831.
Sheldon, K. and D., Golding (eds.), 1992: Social Theories of Risk. Praeger, Westport, CT.
Skelton, J.A., S.R., Cook, P., Auinger, J.D., Klein, and S.E., Barlow, 2009: Prevalence and trends of severe obesity among U.S. children and adolescents. Academic Pediatrics, 9(5), 322–329.
Slovic, P., 2000: The Perception of Risk. Earthscan, London, UK.
Smit, B. and J., Wandel, 2006: Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16, 282–292.
Smithers, J. and B., Smit, 1997: Human adaptation to climatic variability and change. Global Environmental Change, 7, 129–146.
Spence, P.R., K.A., Lachlan, and D.R., Griffin, 2007: Crisis communication, race, and natural disasters. Journal of Black Studies, 37(4), 539–554.
Spence, R.J.S. and A.W., Coburn, 1987: Earthquake Protection: An Task for the 1990s. The Structural Engineer, 65A(8), 290–296
Sphere Project, 2011: The Sphere Project, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. Distributed for the Sphere Project by Practical Action Publishing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, USA, ISBN 978-1-908176-00-4.
Stafoggia, M., F., Forastiere, P., Michelozzi, and C.A., Perucci, 2006: Vulnerability to heat-related mortality: a multicity, population-based, case-crossover analysis. Epidemiology, 17, 315–323.
Stamatakis, E., J., Wardle, and T.J., Cole, 2010: Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence trends in England: evidence for growing socioeconomic disparities. International Journal of Obesity, 34(1), 41–47.
Stockdale, T.N., O., Alves, G., Boer, M., Deque, Y., Ding, K., Kumar, W., Landman, S.J., Mason, P., Nobre, A., Scaife, O., Tomoaki, and W.-T., Yun, 2009: Understanding and predicting seasonal to interannual climate variability – the producer perspective. White Paper presented at the World Climate Conference 3 in Report of the World Climate Conference 3, World Meteorological Organization Report No. 1048, Geneva, Switzerland.
Street, R., A., Maarouf, and H., Jones-Otazo, 2005: Extreme weather and climate events: implications for public health. In: Integration of Public Health with Adaptation to Climate Change: Lessons Learned and New Directions [Ebi, K.L., J.B., Smith, and I., Burton (eds.)]. Taylor & Francis, London, UK, pp. 161–190.
Sultana, F. 2010: Living in hazardous waterscapes: Gendered vulnerabilities and experiences of floods and disasters. Environmental Hazards-Human and Policy Dimensions, 9(1), 43–53.
Susman, P., P., O'Keefe, and B., Wisner, 1983: Global disasters: A radical interpretation. In: Interpretations of Calamity [Hewitt, K. (ed.)]. Allen & Unwin, Winchester, MA, pp. 264–283.
Tanner, T., 2009: Screening climate risks to development cooperation. Focus, 2.5, IDS, Brighton, UK1.
Tearfund, , 2009: Climate change and Environmental Degradation Risk and Adaptation assessment. Tearfund, London, UK.
Thomalla, F. and R.K., Larsen, 2010: Resilience in the context of tsunami early warning systems and community disaster preparedness in the Indian Ocean region. Environmental Hazards, 9(3), 249–265.
Thomalla, F., T., Downing, E., Spanger-Siegfried, G., Han, and J., Rockström, 2006: Reducing hazard vulnerability: towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation. Disasters, 30(1), 39–48.
Thomalla, F., R.K., Larsen, F., Kanji, S., Naruchaikusol, C., Tepa, B., Ravesloot, and A.K., Ahmed, 2009: From Knowledge to Action: Learning to Go the Last Mile. A Participatory Assessment of the Conditions for Strengthening the Technology – community Linkages of Tsunami Early Warning Systems in the Indian Ocean, Project Report, Stockholm Environment Institute, Macquarie University, Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre, and Raks Thai Foundation, Bangkok and Sydney, Australia.
Thywissen, K., 2006: Core terminology of disaster risk reduction: A comparative glossary. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. UNU Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 448–496.
Tol, R.S.J., T.E., Downing, O.J., Kuik, and J.B., Smith, 2004: Distributional aspects of climate change impacts. Global Environmental Change, 14, 259–272.
Tong, S.M., P., Mather, G., Fitzgerald, D., McRae, K., Verrall, and D., Walker, 2010: Assessing the vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 7(2), 546–564.
Toni, F. and E., Holanda, 2008: The effects of land tenure on vulnerability to droughts in Northeastern Brazil. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 18(4), 575–582.
Tunstall, S., S., Tapsell, C., Green, and P., Floyd, 2006: The health effects of flooding: social research results from England and Wales. Journal of Water Health, 4, 365–380.
Turner, B.L., R.E., Kasperson, P.A., Matson, J.J., McCarthy, R.W., Corell, L., Christensen, N., Eckley, J.X., Kasperson, A., Luers, M.L., Martello, C., Polsky, A., Pulsipher, and A., Schiller, 2003a: A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(14), 8074–8079.
Turner, B.L. II, P.A., Matson, J.J., McCarthy, R.W., Corell, L., Christensen, N., Eckley, G. K., Hovelsrud-Broda, J.X., Kasperson, R.E., Kasperson, A., Luers, M.L., Martello, S., Mathiesen, R., Naylor, C., Polsky, A., Pulsipher, A., Schiller, H., Selin, and N., Tyler, 2003b: Illustrating the coupled human-environment system for vulnerability analysis: Three case studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(14), 8080–8085.
Turner, N.J. and H., Clifton, 2009: “It's so different today”: Climate change and indigenous lifeways in British Columbia, Canada. Global Environmental Change, 19, 180–190.
Twigg, J., 2001: Sustainable Livelihoods and Vulnerability to Disasters. Benfield Greig Hazard Research Centre, Disaster Management Working Paper 2/2001, BGHRC, UCL, London UK.
Twigg, J., 2007: Characteristics of a Disaster-resilient Community. A Guidance Note. Version 1 (for field testing). DFID, Disaster Risk Reduction Interagency Coordination Group, Benfield, UK.
Uitto, J.I., 1998: The geography of disaster vulnerability in megacities: a theoretical framework. Applied Geography, 18(1), 7–16.
UK Department of Health, 2009: NHS Emergency Planning Guidance: Planning for the psychosocial and mental health care of people affected by major incidents and disasters: Interim national strategic guidance. UK DoH, London, UK.
UN, 2005: Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, World Conference on Disaster Reduction, 18-22 January 2005, Kobe, Japan,
UN Statistics Division, 2011, Millennium Development Goals Data Base. UN Statistics Division, New York, NY,
UN/DESA, 2010: Trends in Sustainable Development in Small Island Development States. United Nations, New York, NY, USA, 40 pp. ISBN 978-92-1-104610-6.
UN-HABITAT, 2003: Slums of the World: The Face of Urban Poverty in the New Millennium? Monitoring the Millennium Development Goal, Target 11 – World-Wide Slum Dweller Estimation. UN-Habitat, Nairobi, Kenya.
UN-HABITAT, 2009: Global Report on Human Settlements 2011: Planning Sustainable Cities, United Nations Human Settlements Program, Earthscan, London, UK, ISBN 978-1-84407-898-1.
UN-HABITAT, 2011: Global Report on Human Settlements 2011: Cities and Climate Change. United Nations Human Settlements Program, Earthscan, London, UK.
UNCED, 1992: The Global Partnership for Environment and Development: A Guide to Agenda 21. United Nations Commission on Environment and Development (UNCED), Geneva, Switzerland.
UNDHA, 1992: Internationally agreed glossary of basic terms relating to disaster management. UNDHA, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNDP, 2004: Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development, A Global Report. UNDP, New York, NY.
UNDRO, 1980: Natural Disasters and Vulnerability Analysis. Report of Experts Group Meeting of 9-12 July 1979, UNDRO, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNEP, 2007: Global Environment Outlook 4. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
UNEP/UNISDR, 2008: Environment and Disaster Risk Emerging Perspectives. UNISDR/UNEP, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNICEF, 2009: Education in Emergencies and Post-Crisis Transition Consolidated 2009. Progress Report to the Government of The Netherlands and The European Commission, UNICEF, New York, NY.
UNISDR, 2004: Living With Risk. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNISDR, 2007a: Words Into Action: A Guide for Implementing the Hyogo Framework. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNISDR, 2007b: Towards a Culture of Prevention: Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School. Good Practices and Lessons Learned. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNISDR, 2009a: Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction - Risk and Poverty in a Changing Climate: Invest Today for a Safer Tomorrow. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland, 207 pp.
UNISDR, 2009b: Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNISDR, 2011: Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Revealing Risk, Redefining Development. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, 178 pp.,
Urwin, K. and A., Jordan, 2008: Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance. Global Environmental Change, 18, 180–191.
Utzinger, J. and J., Keiser, 2006: Urbanization and tropical health – then and now. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100(5–6), 517–533.
van Aalst, M.K., 2006a: The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters. Disasters, 30, 5–18.
van Aalst, M.K., 2006b: Managing Climate Risk: Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into World Bank Operations. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
van Aalst, M.K., 2009: Bridging timescales. In: World Disasters Report 2009. Focus on Early Warning, Early Action. IFRC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 68–93.
van Aalst, M.K. and I., Burton, 2002: The Last Straw. Integrating Natural Disaster Mitigation with Environmental Management. World Bank Disaster Risk Management Working Paper Series, 5, World Bank, Washington, DC.
van Aalst, M.K., M., Helmer, C., de Jong, F., Monasso, E., van Sluis, and P., Suarez, 2007: Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Guide. Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands, 144 pp.
van Aalst, M.K., T., Cannon, and I., Burton, 2008: Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment. Global Environmental Change, 18, 165–179.
Van de Walle, B. and M., Turoff, 2007: Emergency response information systems: Emerging trends and technologies. Communications of the ACM, 50(3), 29–31.
Van Lieshout, M., R.S., Kovats, M.T.J., Livermore, and P., Martens, 2004: Climate change and malaria: analysis of the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change, 14, 87–99.
Van Sluis, E. and M.K., van Aalst, 2006: Climate change and disaster risk in urban environments. Humanitarian Exchange, 35.
Verdin, J., C., Funk, G., Senay, and R., Choularton, 2005: Climate science and famine early warning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal SocietyB, 360(1463), 2155–2168.
Villagrán de León, J.C., 2006: Vulnerability: A conceptual and methodological review. SOURCE Publication Series of UNU-EHS, 4, United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Bonn, Germany.
Vincent, K., 2007: Uncertainty in adaptive capacity and the importance of scale. Global Environmental Change, 17(1), 12–24.
Vitoria, M., R., Granich, C.F., Gilks, C., Gunneberg, M., Hosseini, W., Were, M., Raviglione, and K.M., Cock, 2009: The global fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: Current status and future perspectives. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 131(6), 844–848.
Vogel, C. and K., O'Brien, 2004: Vulnerability and Global Environmental Change: Rhetoric and Reality. AVISO 13, Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project, Ottawa, Canada.
Waktola, D.K., 2009: Challenges and opportunities in mainstreaming environmental education into the curricula of teachers' colleges in Ethiopia. Environmental Education Research, 15(5), 589–605.
Walker, B., C.S., Holling, S.R., Carpenter, and A., Kinzig, 2004: Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5.
Watts, M.J. and H.G., Bohle, 1993: The space of vulnerability: the causal structure of hunger and famine. Progress in Human Geography, 17(1), 43–67.
Weichselgartner, J., 2001: Disaster mitigation: the concept of vulnerability revisited. Disaster Prevention and Management, 10(2), 85–94.
Werritty, A., D., Houston, T., Ball, A., Tavendale, and A., Black, 2007: Exploring The Social Impacts Of Flood Risk And Flooding In Scotland. Scottish Executive Social Research, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Westgate, K.N., P., O'Keefe, 1976: Some Definitions of Disaster. Disaster Research Unit Occasional Paper 4, Department of Geography, University of Bradford, UK.
White, G.F., 1973: Natural hazards research. In: Directions in Geography [Chorley, R.J. (ed.)]. Methuen and Co., London, UK, pp. 193–216.
White, G.F. (ed.), 1974: Natural Hazards: Local, National, Global. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
White, I., 2002: Water Management in the Mekong Delta: Changes, Conflicts and Opportunities. IHP-VI Technical Papers in Hydrology No. 61, UNESCO, Paris, France.
Wijkman, A. and L., Timberlake, 1984: Natural Disasters: Act of God or Acts of Man. Earthscan, Washington, DC.
Wilbanks, T.J., 2003: Integrating climate change and sustainable development in a place-based context. Climate Policy, 3(S1), S147–S154.
Wilbanks, T.J., P. Romero, Lankao, M., Bao, F., Berkhout, S., Cairncross, J.-P., Ceron, M., Kapshe, R., Muir-Wood, and R., Zapata-Marti, 2007: Industry, settlement and society. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J., Van Der Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 357–390.
Wilby, R.L. and G. L.W., Perry, 2006: Climate change, biodiversity and the urban environment: a critical review based on London, UK. Progress in Physical Geography, 30(1), 73–98.
Wilches-Chaux, G., 1989: Desastres, ecologismo y formación profesional. SENA, Popayán, Colombia.
Williams, S.E, L.P., Shoo, J.L., Isaac, A.A., Hoffmann, and G., Langham, 2008: Towards an integrated framework for assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change. PLoS Biology, 6(12), e325, doi:10.1371/journal. pbio.0060325.
Willows, R.I. and R.K., Connell (eds.), 2003: Climate Adaptation: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making. UKCIP Technical Report. UKCIP, Oxford, UK.
Wisner, B.G., 1978: An appeal for a significantly comparative method in disaster research. Disasters, 2, 80–82.
Wisner, B., 1993: Disaster vulnerability: Scale, power and daily life. GeoJournal, 30, 127–140.
Wisner, B., 1998: Marginality and vulnerability: why the homeless of Tokyo don't ‘count’ in disaster preparations. Applied Geography, 18(1), 25–33.
Wisner, B., 2001a: Capitalism and the shifting spatial and social distribution of hazard and vulnerability. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, Winter 2001, 44–50.
Wisner, B., 2001b: Risk and the Neoliberal State: Why post-Mitch lessons didn't reduce El Salvador's earthquake losses. Disasters, 25 (3), 251–268.
Wisner, B., 2003: Disaster risk reduction in megacities – Making the most of human and social capital. In: Building Safer Cities- The Future of Disaster Risk [Kreimer, A., M., Arnold, and C., Carlin (eds.)]. Disaster Management Facility, World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 181–196.
Wisner, B., 2006a: Self-assessment of coping capacity: Participatory, proactive, and qualitative engagement of communities in their own risk management. In: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards - Towards Disaster Resilient Societies [Birkmann, J. (ed.)]. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 316–328.
Wisner, B., 2006b: Let Our Children Teach Us! A Review of the Role of Education and Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction. UNISDR System Thematic Cluster/Platform on Knowledge and Education, Geneva, Switzerland, 135 pp.
Wisner, B. and J., Adams (eds.), 2002: Environment and Health in Emergencies and Disasters: A Practical Guide. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Wisner, B., P., Blaikie, T., Cannon, and I., Davis, 2004: At Risk, Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disasters. Routledge, London, UK.
Wolf, J., N.W., Adger, and I., Lorenzoni, 2010a: Heat waves and cold spells: an analysis of policy response and perceptions of vulnerable populations in the UK. Environment and PlanningA, 42, 2721–2734, doi:10.1068/a42503.
Wolf, J., W.N., Adger, I., Lorenzoni, V., Abrahamson, and R., Raine, 2010b: Social capital, individual responses to heat waves and climate change adaptation: An empirical study of two UK cities. Global Environmental Change, 20, 44–52.
Woo, G., 1999: The Mathematics of Natural Catastrophes. Imperial College Press, London, UK.
Woolcock, M. and D., Narayan, 2000: Social capital: Implications for development theory, research and policy. World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225–249.
Yodmani, S. 2001; Disaster preparedness and management. In: Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific [Ortiz, I.D. (ed.)]. Asian Development Bank, Manila, pp. 481–502.
Yohe, G. and R.S.J., Tol, 2002: Indicators for social and economic coping capacity: moving toward a working definition of adaptive capacity, Global Environmental Change, 12, 25–40.