The morphology of cirrhosis: definition, nomenclature, and classification. Bull WHO 1977;55:521–40., , .
Pathogenesis of postnecrotic cirrhosis in alcoholics. Arch Pathol 1962;73:288–99., , .
Conversion of micronodular cirrhosis into macronodular cirrhosis. Hepatology 1983;3:928–31., , .
Poppor H, Berk PD. Lessons from the study of cirrhosis and other fibrotic disease of the liver. In: Myelofibrosis and the biology of connective tissue. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1984:405–24., , eds.
Popper H, Schaffner F. Chronic hepatitis: taxonomic, etiologic and therapeutic problems. In: Progress in liver disease. Vol. 5. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1976:535., , eds.
Silverman A, Roy CC. Chronic active hepatitis. In: Pediatric clinical gastroenterology. St. Louis: Mosby, 1983., , eds.
Drug induced chronic liver disease. Gastroenterology 1977;72:1348–53., .
Dynamic state of collagen: pathways of collagen degradation in vivo and their possible role in regulation of collagen mass. Am J Physiol 1987;252:1–9..
The extracellular matrix component in development and disease. Semin Liver Dis 1985;5:147–56., .
Liver fibrosis and extracellular matrix. J Hepatol 1989;8:115–24., .
Hascall V. Proteoglycans: structure and function. In: Biology of carbohydrates. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981:1–49., ed.
Molecular biology of fibronectin. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1985;1:67–90..
Potential roles of fibronectin in cutaneous wound repair. Arch Dermatol 1987;3:57–85..
Modulation of alveolar macrophage-driven fibroblast proliferation by alternative macrophage mediators. J Clin Invest 1986;77:700–8., , .
The cellular interactions of laminin fragments: cell adhesion correlations with two fragment-specific high affinity binding sites. J Biol Chem 1987;262:11532–8., , .
Laminin and other basement membrane components. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1987;3:57–85., .
Interactions of rat hepatocytes with type IV collagen, fibronectin and laminin matrices: distinct matrix-controlled models of attachment and spreading. Eur J Cell Biol 1986;40:72–8., , .
Hahn EG, Schuppan D. Ethanol and fibrogenesis in the liver. In: Alcohol related disease in gastroenterology. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1985:124–53., , eds.
Distribution of basement membrane proteins in normal and fibrotic human liver: collagen type IV, laminin and fibronectin. Gut 1980;21:63–71., , , .
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation in human hepatic fibrosis regulation by cell-matrix interactions. Hepatology 1999;30:944–50., , .
Dedifferentiation of human hepatocytes by extracellular matrix proteins in vitro: quantitative and qualitative investigation of cytokeratin 7, 8, 18, 19 and vimentin filaments. J Hepatol 1998;28:677–90., , .
Basement membrane production by hepatocytes in chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1984;4:1167–72., , .
Capillarization of hepatic sinusoids in man. Gastroenterology 1963;44:239–42., .
Reversibility of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis following treatment for hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2002;122:1525–8..
Spontaneous recovery from micronodular cirrhosis: evidence for incomplete resolution associated with matrix cross-linking. Gastroenterology 2004;126:1795–808., , .
Histological course of alcoholic hepatitis. Influence of abstinence, sex and extent of hepatic damage. J Hepatol 1986;2:33–42., , .
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: improvement in liver histological analysis with weight loss. Hepatology 2004;39:1647–54., , .
Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1981;1:431–5., , .
Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1995;22:696–9., , .
An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group. Hepatology 1996;24:289–93., .
Biochemical markers of hepatic fibrosis. Clin Biochem 1991;24:219–39., .
Markers of fibrogenesis and basement membrane formation in alcoholic liver disease: relation to severity, presence of hepatitis, and alcohol intake. Gastroenterology 1990;98:1612–19., , .
Evaluation of serum laminin pl, procollagen-III peptides, and n-acetyl-B-glucosaminidase for monitoring the activity of liver fibrosis. Hepatogasteroenterology 1989;36:506–10., , .
Serum concentrations of laminin and propeptide of type III collagen in relation to the portal venous pressure of fibrotic liver disease. Clin Chem Acta 1986;161:249–58., , .
Serum concentrations of N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen and laminin in the outflow of fibrotic livers. Hepatogasteroenterology 1986;33: 191–5., , .
Serum laminin P1 levels do not reflect critically elevated portal pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatogasteroenterology 1997;44:1200–5., , .
Serum laminin and hyaluronan in liver cirrhosis: markers of progression with high prognastic value. J Hepatol 1996;25:684–8., , .
Serum lysyl oxidase activity in chronic liver disease in comparison with serum levels of prolyl hydroxylase and laminin. Hepatology 1991;14:1167–73., , .
Basement membrane-related and type III procollagen-related antigens in serum of patients with chronic viral liver disease. Clin Chem 1990;36:522–4., , .
Clinical significance of serum 7s collagen and type VI collagen levels for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. Chin Med J (Engl) 1997;110:198–201., , .
Type III procollagen peptide: a marker of disease activity and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis. Lancet 1988;1:1021–4., , .
Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1997;113:1609–16., , .
Autoimmune hepatitis/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome in childhood: a 16-year prospective study. Hepatology 2001;33:544–53., , .
Transforming growth factor beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibit both apoptosis and proliferation of activated rat hepatic stellate cells. Hepatology 1999;30:196–202., , .
Liver fibrogenesis and the role of hepatic stellate cells: new insights and prospects for therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;14:618–33., .
New concepts of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease lead to novel treatments. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2004;6:60–5..
Silymarin retards the progression of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003;37:336–9., , .
Treatment strategies in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;2:148–55., .
Therapeutic efficacy of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2004;40:1222–5., , .
Beneficial effect of angiotensin-blocking agents on graft fibrosis in hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Transplantation 2004;78: 686–91., , .
Transplantation of bone marrow cells reduces CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Hepatology 2004;40:1304–11., , .
Regulation of liver growth: protooncogenes and transforming growth factors. Lab Invest 1989;60:4–13., .
Irreversible cell injury [abstract]. Pharmacol Rev 1984;36:77S–91S., .
Experimental pathology of the liver: 1. Restoration of the liver of the white rat following surgical removal. Arch Pathol 1931;12:186–202., .
Effects of cytokines on the liver. Hepatology 1991;13:364–75., , .
Epidermal growth factors and related molecules. Lancet 1989;i:1243–6..
Influence of epidermal growth factor on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. Hepatology 1988;8:992–6., , .
Plasma growth hormone pattern regulates epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels and EGF binding in the rat liver. Endocrinology 1989;125:2158–66., , .
Different response to epidermal growth factor of hepatocytes in cultures isolated from male or female rat liver: inhibitor effect of estrogen on binding and mitogenic effect of epidermal growth factor. Gastroenterology 1987;93:597–605., , .
Sequential increases in the intrahepatic expression of epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in a bile duct ligated rat model of cirrhosis. Hepatology 1997;26:624–33., , .
Treatment of cirrhotic rats with epidermal growth factor and insulin accelerates liver DNA synthesis after partial hepatectomy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998;13:1259–65., , , .
Stimulation of DNA synthesis in adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture by sera from patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Biomed Res 1985;6:231–7., , .
Clinical significance of human hepatocyte growth factor in blood from patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology 1989;9:875–81., , .
Purification and partial characterization of hepatocyte growth factor from plasma of a patient with fulminant hepatic failure. J Clin Invest 1988; 81:414–19., , .
Deduced primary structure of rat hepotocyte growth factor and expression of the mRNA in rat tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87:3200–4., , .
Hepatotrophic factor in blood of mice treated with carbon tetrachloride. Life Sci 1990;46:1801–8., , .
Human hepatocyte growth factor in blood of patients with fulminant hepatic failure: I. Clinical aspects. Dig Dis Sci 1991;36:780–4., , .
Hepatocyte growth factor in ascites from patients with cirrhosis. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1991;109:14–18., , .
Interferon beta2/B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987;84:7251–5., , .
Transforming growth factor a may be a physiological regulator of liver regeneration by means of an autocrine mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989;86:1558–62., .
Transforming growth factors B1 and a in a chronic liver disease: effects of interferon alpha therapy. N Engl J Med 1991;324:933–40., , .
Transforming growth factor alpha stimulates proto-oncogene cejun expression and a mitogenic program in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. DNA 1989;8:279–85., , .
Transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver 1999;19:318–25., , .
Inhibition of proliferation of normal preneoplastic and neoplastic rat hepatocytes by transforming growth factor-beta. Cancer Res 1987;46:6595–9., , , .
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 and type 1 procollagen transcripts during regeneration and early fibrosis of rat liver. Lab Invest 1990;63:171–80., , .
Immunohistochemical detection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in fibrotic liver diseases. Hepatology 1991;14:269–73., , .
In vitro and in vivo association of transforming growth factor-beta 1 with hepatic fibrosis. J Cell Biol 1989;108:2477–82., , .
Regulation of TGF beta gene expression in rat liver intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. FASEB J 1990;4:215–21., , .
Transforming growth factor type beta: rapid induction of fibrosis and angiogenesis in vivo and stimulation of collagen formation in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986;83:4167–71., , .
Roles of TGF-beta in hepatic fibrosis. Front Biosci 2002;7:d793–807., , .
Smad3 as a mediator of the fibrotic response. Int J Exp Pathol 2004;85:47–64..
The heparin-binding (fibroblast) growth factor family of proteins. Annu Rev Biochem 1989;58: 575–606., .
Characterization of a Mr 25,000 basic fibroblast growth factor form in adult, regenerating, and fetal rat liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989;164:1182–9., , .
Interleukin-6 enhancement of interleukin-3 dependent proliferation of multipotential hemopoietic progenitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987;84:9035–9., , .
Elevated plasma IL-6 and increased severity and mortality in alcoholic hepatitis. Clin Exp Immunol 1991;84:449–53., , .
Evidence that rat Kupffer cells stimulate and inhibit hepatocyte protein synthesis in vitro by different mechanisms. Gastroenterology 1989;96:1572–82., , .
Prostaglandin E2 production during hepatic regeneration downregulates Kupffer cell IL-6 production. Ann Surg 1992;215:253–60., , .
Serum insulin-like growth factor II in chronic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 1989;34:338–42., , .
Radioimmunoassay of serum IGF-I and IGF-II in patients with chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma with or without hypoglycemia. J Lab Clin Med 1988;112:589–94., , .
Growth hormone-stimulated insulin-like growth factor I and IGF-binding protein-3 in liver cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1997;27:796–802., , .
Insulin-like growth factor I: a good indicator of functional hepatocellular capacity in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. J Endocrinol Invest 1991;14:317–21., , .
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3: a novel biomarker for the assessment of the synthetic capacity of hepatocytes in liver cirrhosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:3316–19., , , .
Diseases of the liver and biliary system. Boston: Blackwell, 1985:339..
Liver cirrhosis unsuspected during life. A series of 79 cases. J Chronic Dis 1964;17:951–8., .
Dupuytren's contracture, alcohol consumption, and chronic liver disease. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1065–7., , .
Portacaval an anastomosis and peptic ulcer: a nonassociation. Gastroenterology 1975;68:121–31., , .
Postmortem study of the frequency of gallstones in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Gut 1969;10:705–10..
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis in Laénnec's cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1972;63:112–21., , .
Bile acid metabolism in cirrhosis: III. Biliary lipid secretion in patients with cirrhosis and its relevance to gallstone formation. Gastroenterology 1973;64:298–303., , .
Pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae in hepatic cirrhosis. Arch Dis Child 1983;58:302–4., , , .
Further experimental evidence implicating reduced ferritin as a cause of digital clubbing. Clin Sci 1963;24:121–6., .
Arteriovenous shunts in the human lung. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1950;75:827–9., .
The anemia of cirrhosis. J Lab Clin Med 1960;56:72–82., .
The liver and blood coagulation: physiology and pathology. Gastroenterology 1972;63:297–320., .
Cutaneous spider nevi in liver cirrhosis: capillary microscopical and hormonal investigations. Klin Wochenschr 1988;66:298–302., , .
Erlinger S, Bircher J. Cirrhosis: clinical aspects. In: Oxford textbook of clinical hepatology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991:380., , , , eds.
Color atlas and synopsis of clinical dermatology: common and serious diseases. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994., , .
Gynecomastia: clinicopathologic study of 351 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 1972;57:431–7., .
Liver disease and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis. Semin Liver Dis 1985;5: 35–45., , .
Androstenedione production and interconversion rates measured in peripheral blood and studies on the possible site of its conversion to testosterone. J Clin Invest 1966; 45:301–13., .
Tuberculous peritonitis: a study of forty-seven proved cases encountered by a general medical unity in twenty-five years. Am J Med 1960;28:510–23., .
Reticuloendothelial system phagocytic activity in cirrhosis and its relation to bacterial infections and prognosis. Hepatology 1984;4:53–8., , .
Abnormalities of neutrophil phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and metabolic activity in alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis. Hepatology 1986;6:252–62., .
Impaired monocyte function in liver cirrhosis. Br J Med 1981;282:1262–3., , .
Impaired opsonization by serum from patients with chronic liver disease. Clin Exp Immunol 1983;51:91–8., , .
Defects in serum attractant activity in different types of chronic liver diseases. Gut 1984;25:79–84., , .
Complement and liver cell function in 53 patients with liver disease. Am J Med 1973;55: 574–678., , .
The serum concentration of the third component of complement beta-1C-beta-1A in liver disease. Gut 1971;12:574–8., , .
Serum complement in chronic liver disease. Gut 1973;14:451–6., , .
Decreased proliferation activity associated with activation markers in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Clin Exp Immunol 1988;72:377–82., , .
Comparative response of normal and cirrhotic rats to intravenously injected bacteria. Proc Soc Exp Biol 1959;101:279–81., , .
Infection of the ascitic fluid in patients with cirrhosis. Gut 1963;4:394–8., , .
Medical management of the infant or child with chronic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 1987;7:166–7..
Anthropometric evaluation of children with chronic liver disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:203–8., .
The nature of malnutrition in children with end-stage liver disease awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:164–8., , .
Nutritional support for the infant with extrahepatic biliary atresia. J Pediatr 1987;110:679–86., , .
Clinical use of serum enzymes in liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 1988;33:1601–14., .
St Louis P. Biochemical studies: liver and intestine. In: Pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. Philadelphia: BC Decker, 1991;1363–73., , ., eds.
Alkaline phosphatase. Gastroenterology 1972;62:452–68..
Systemic reaction to bromsulphthalein. Br Med J 1965;2:1433..
Newer liver function tests. Front Gastro Res 1989;16:220–45., .
Clinical diagnosis with the stable isotope 13C in CO2 breath tests: methodology and fundamental considerations. J Lab Clin Med 1977;90:412–21., , .
Aminopyrine N-demethylation: a prognostic test of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology 1980;79:1145–50., , .
Caffeine: a model compound for measuring liver function. Hepatology 1984;4: 38–46., , .
Overnight salivary caffeine clearance: a liver function test suitable for routine use. Hepatology 1987;7:338–44., , .
Serum proteins in cirrhosis of the liver. Arch Intern Med 1942;169:67–82., .
Albumin synthesis rate as a measure of liver function in patients with cirrhosis. Acta Med Scand 1967;182:83–92., , .
Albumin synthesis in cirrhotic subjects with ascites studied with carbonate 14-C. J Clin Invest 1969;48:344–50., , .
Assessment of protein-calorie malnutrition. Clin Chem 1984;30:1286–99., .
Coagulation studies as a prognostic index in acute liver failure. Br J Haematol 1975; 29:385–95., , .
Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in fulminant hepatitis B. Hepatology 1986;6:648–51., , .
Qualitative estimation of coagulation factors in liver disease: the diagnostic and prognostic value of factor XIII, factor V, and plasminogens. Thromb Haemost 1978;39:646–56., , .
Prognostic factors in cirrhosis identified by Cox's regression model. Hepatology 1983;6:889–95., , .
Choosing a pediatric recipient I-or orthotopic liver transplantation. J Pediatr 1987; 111:479–89., , .
On the absorption of fluids from the connective tissue spaces. J Physiol (Lond) 1896;19:312..
Pathophysiology, complications, and treatment of ascites. Clin Liver Dis 1997;1:129–55., , .
Is sinusoidal portal hypertension a necessary factor for the development of hepatic ascites?J Hepatol 1992;16:249–50., , .
A rational approach to the treatment of ascites. Postgrad Med 1975;51:558–62., .
Gines P, Arroyo V, Rodes J. Disorders of renal function in cirrhosis. In: Hepatology: a textbook of liver disease. Philadelphia: BC Decker, 1996:659–64., , eds.
Pathogenesis of ascites in cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis 1997;17:175–89., , .
Renal failure in the patient with cirrhosis: the role of active vasoconstriction. Am J Med 1970;49:175–85., , .
Pathogenesis of sodium and water retention in high-output and low-output cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, and pregnancy, parts I-II. N Engl J Med 1988;9:1127–34..
Plasma volume in cirrhosis of the liver; its relation to portal hypertension, ascites, and renal failure. J Clin Invest 1967;46:1297–308., .
The relationship of volume, portal hypertension, ascites, and renal sodium retention in cirrhosis: the overflow theory of ascites formation. Ann NY Acad Sci 1970;170:202–12., , .
Mechanisms of portal hypertension-induced alterations in renal hemodynamics, renal water excretion, and renin secretion. J Clin Invest 1976;58:964–70., , .
Levy M. Observation on real function and ascites formation in dogs with experimental portal cirrhosis. In: The kidney in liver disease. New York: Elsevier, 1978:131–42., ed.
Temporal relationships between urinary salt retention and altered systemic hemodynamics in dogs with experimental cirrhosis. J Lab Clin Med 1978;92:560–9., .
Renal sodium retention and ascites formation on dogs with experimental cirrhosis but without portal hypertension or increased splanchnic vascular capacity. J Lab Clin Med 1978;91:520–36., .
Studies of renin and aldosterone in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Gastroenterology 1975;69:698–705., , .
Epstein M. Hepatorenal syndrome. In: The kidney in liver disease. New York: Elsevier Biomedical, 1983:377., ed.
Levy M. Pathophysiology of ascites formation. In: The kidney in liver disease. New York: Elsevier Biomedical, 1983:245., ed.
Plasma atrial natriuretic factor in cirrhotic patients with ascites: effect of peritoneovenous shunt implantation. Gastroenterology 1988;95:764–70., , .
Potential role of increased sympathetic activity impaired sodium and water excretion in cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 1982;307:552–7., , .
Increased sympathetic outflow in cirrhosis and ascites: direct evidence from intraneural recordings. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:373–80., , .
Peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis: a proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis. Hepatology 1988;8:1151–7., .
Effects of V1-vasopressin receptor blockade on arterial pressure in conscious rats with cirrhosis and ascites. Gastroenterology 1991;100:494–501., , .
Acute effects of captopril on systemic and renal hemodynamics and on renal functions in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Gastroenterology 1985;88:1255–9., , .
Effects of normalization of vasoconstrictor systems on renal functions in cirrhotic patients with hepatorenal syndrome. J Hepatol 1996;25:71., , .
Increased blood flow through the portal system in cirrhotic rats. Gastroenterology 1984;87:1120–6., , .
Hyperdynamic circulation of liver disease 40 years later: pathophysiology and clinical consequences. Hepatology 1994;20:1359–63..
Increased serum nitrite and nitrate levels in patients with cirrhosis: relationship to endotoxemia. Hepatology 1993;18:1139–43., , .
Role of nitric oxide in the in vitro splanchnic vascular hyporeactivity in ascitic cirrhotic rats. Gastroenterology 1993;104:1750–4., , .
Nitric oxide mediates hyporeactivity to vasopressors in mesenteric vessels of portal hypertensive rats. Gastroenterology 1992;103:235–9., .
Systemic and portal nitric oxide and endothelin-1 levels in cirrhotic patients. Hepatology 1995;23(suppl 1):73A., , .
Hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis: a role for nitric oxide?Lancet 1991;337:776–8., .
The accuracy of the physical examination in the diagnosis of suspected ascites. JAMA 1982;247:1164–6., , .
Sonographic evidence of intraperitoneal fluid: an experimental study and its clinical implications. Pediatr Radiol 1984;14:299–303., , .
Ascites in infants and children: roentgen diagnosis. Radiology 1972;102:393–8..
Diagnostic aspects of neonatal ascites: report of 27 cases. Am J Roentgenol 1977;128:961–9., , .
The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:215–20., , .
Optimization of ascitic fluid culture technique. Gastroenterology 1988;95:1351–5., , .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Dis Mon 1985;31:1–48., .
Rapid diuresis in patients with ascites from chronic liver disease: the importance of peripheral edema. Gastroenterology 1986;90:1827–33., .
Management of adult patients with ascites caused by cirrhosis. Hepatology 1998;27:264–72..
Diuresis in the ascitic patient: a randomized controlled trial of three regimens. J Clin Gastroenterol 1981;3:73–80., , .
Randomized comparative study of efficacy of furosemide versus spironolactone in nonazotemic cirrhosis with ascites. Relationship between the diuretic response and the activity of the renin-aldosterone system. Gastroenterology 1983;84:961–8., , .
Complications of diuresis in the alcoholic patient with ascites: a controlled trial. Gastroenterology 1977;73:534–8., , .
Use of bumetanide in the treatment of ascites due to liver disease. Gut 1974;15:988–92., , .
Use of piretanide, a new loop diuretic, in cirrhosis with ascites: relationship between the diuretic response and the plasma aldosterone level. Gut 1980;21:855–9., , .
The effect of propranolol on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: a hemodynamic study. Hepatology 1982;2:523–7., , .
Propranolol inhibition of renin secretion. A specific approach to diagnosis and treatment of renin-dependent hypertensive diseases. N Engl J Med 1972;287:1209–14., , .
Effect of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs on the renin-aldosterone system, sodium excretion and renal hemodynamics. Gastroenterology 1977;73:659–63., , .
Propranolol in the treatment of cirrhotic ascites. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:1761–3., .
Comparison between paracentesis and diuretics in the treatment of cirrhotics with tense ascites: results of a randomized study. Gastroenterology 1987;93:234–41., , .
Large-volume paracentesis in nonedematous patients with tense ascites: its effect on intravascular volume. Hepatology 1988;8:207–10., , .
Randomized comparative study of therapeutic paracentesis with and without intravenous albumin in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1988;94:1493–502., , .
Total paracentesis associated with intravenous albumin management patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Gastroenterology 1990;98:146–51., , .
A randomized prospective trial comparing daily paracentesis and intravenous albumin with recirculation in diuretic refractory ascites. J Hepatol 1990;10:191–7., .
Coagulation disturbances following ascites recirculation. J Hepatol 1990;10:217–22., , .
Transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunt in the treatment of refractory ascites: effect on clinical, renal, humoral, and hemodynamic parameters. Hepatology 1995;21:986–94., , .
The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt procedure for refractory ascites. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1192–7., , .
Peritoneovenous shunting as compared with medical treatment in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and massive ascites. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study on Treatment of Alcoholic Cirrhosis with Ascites. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1632–8., , .
Hepatic encephalopathy after portacaval shunt in a noncirrhotic child. J Pediatr 1984;105: 439–41., , .
Experimental studies of blood brain barrier permeability in acute hepatic failure. Hepatology 1984;4:359–63., , .
Potential toxins of acute liver failure and their effects on blood–brain barrier permeability. Experientia 1983;39:988–91., , .
Hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic and portacaval shunted dogs: lack of changes in brain GABA uptake, brain GABA levels, brain glutamic acid decarboxylase activity and brain postsynaptic GABA receptors. Hepatology 1988;8:845–9., , .
Hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. Lancet 1997;350:1309–15., .
Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy – with special reference to the role of ammonia. Am J Clin Nutr 1970;23:619–32., .
Role of urea in the hyperammonemia of germ-free Eck fistula dogs. Gastroenterology 1974;66:108–12., , .
Urea-cycle enzyme deficiencies and an increased nitrogen load producing hyperammonemia in Reye's syndrome. N Engl J Med 1976;294:855–60., .
Uptake of ammonia by muscle; its implications in ammoniagenic coma. N Engl J Med 1955;253: 1143–7., .
Treatment of chronic portal systemic encephalopathy with vegetable and animal protein diets: a controlled cross-over study. Dig Dis Sci 1982;27:1109–16., , .
Visual evoked potentials in a rabbit model of hepatic encephalopathy. II. Comparison of hyperammonemic encephalopathy, postictal coma, and coma induced by synergistic neurotoxins. Gastroenterology 1984;86:546–51., , .
Experimental ammonia encephalopathy in the primate. Arch Neurol 1972;26:130–6., , .
MacGillilray B. EEG monitoring in metabolic liver disease. In: Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. Vol 15: Metabolic endocrine and toxi diseases. New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing, 1975:5–26., ed.
Methionine toxicity in liver disease and its prevention by chlortetracycline. Clin Sci (Lond) 1956;15:93–117., , .
Foetor hepaticus. Lancet 1955;268:1239–41., .
Synergism between mercaptans and ammonia or fatty acids in the production of coma: a possible role for mercaptans in the pathogenesis of hepatic coma. J Lab Clin Med 1974;83:16–28., , .
Blood methanethiol in alcoholic liver disease with and without hepatic encephalopathy. Gut 1980;21:318–23., , .
Volatile fatty acids in the breath of patients with cirrhosis of the liver. J Lab Clin Med 1970;75:622–7., , .
A new method for evaluation of portasystemic shunting. The rectal octanoate tolerance test. Gastroenterology 1969;57:415–23., , .
Coma production with ammonia: synergistic factors. Gastroenterology 1980;78:1327A..
False neurotransmitters and hepatic failure. Lancet 1971;II:75–80., .
Neurotransmitter modifications in human cerebrospinal fluid and serum during hepatic encephalopathy. J Neurol Sci 1982;57:343–56., , .
Changes in brain catecholamine levels in human cirrhotic hepatic encephalopathy. Gut 1980;21:565–9., , .
Tryptophan metabolism in liver disease. Clin Chim Acta 1971;32:191–7..
Disturbances in glucose metabolism in patients with liver damage due to paracetamol overdose. Clin Sci Mol Med 1975;49:473–9., , .
Colonic bacteria: a source of gamma-aminobutyric acid in blood. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1981;167:301–3., , .
Hepatic encephalopathy and the gamma-aminobutyric-acid neurotransmitter system. Lancet 1982;1:18–20., .
Metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in a rabbit model of fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology 1983;3:507–12., , .
Serum levels of gamma-aminobutyric-acid-like activity in acute and chronic hepatocellular disease. Lancet 1983;2:811–14., , .
Gamma-aminobutyric acid and benzodiazepine receptors in an animal model of fulminant hepatic failure. J Lab Clin Med 1983;102:870–80., , .
A model of fulminant hepatic failure in the rabbit. Gastroenterology 1978;74:664–71., , .
Smiaowski A. The effect of intrahippocampal administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In. Amino acids as chemical transmitters. New York: Plenum Press, 1978:1977., ed.
Amino acid changes in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. J Neurochem 1987;49:692–7., , .
Affinities and densities of high-affinity [3H]muscimol (GABA-A) binding sites and of central benzodiazepine receptors are unchanged in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology 1988;8:1084–8., , .
Neurochemistry of hepatic encephalopathy. Gut 1991;32:1261–3..
Supersensitivity of benzodiazepine receptors in hepatic encephalopathy due to fulminant hepatic failure in the rat: reversal by a benzodiazepine antagonist. Clin Sci (Lond) 1984;67:167–75., , .
Naturally occurring benzodiazepines in CSF of patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Sjoc Nekurosci Abs 1988;15:199. 8., , .
Reversal of hepatic coma by benzodiazepine antagonist. Lancet 1985;i:1324–5., .
Clinical trials of the efficacy of fluamzenil in hepatic coma. J Hepatol 1990; 10:S13., , .
Does ammonia contribute to increased GABA-ergic neurotransmission in liver failure?Metab Brain Dis 1998;13:351–60., .
Precipitating factors in genesis of hepatic coma. N Y State J Med 1970;70:2891–6., .
Focal neurological signs in hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients: an underestimated entity?Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:515–18., , .
Cerebral changes in hepatic encephalopathy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998;13:752–60..
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in portal-systemic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 1998;13:291–301..
Neomycin in the treatment of hepatic coma. Lancet 1957;273:1262–8., , .
Neomycin-sorbitol and lactulose in the treatment of acute portal-systemic encephalopathy. A controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Am J Dig Dis 1978; 23:398–406., , .
Deafness complicating antibiotic therapy of hepatic encephalopathy. Ann Intern Med 1970;73:393–6., .
Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity in cirrhosis. Value of urinary beta 2-microglobulin to discriminate functional renal failure from acute tubular damage. Gastroenterology 1982;82:97–105., , .
Lactulose in the treatment of chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy. A double-blind clinical trial. N Engl J Med 1969;281:408–12., , .
Comparison of lactulose and neomycin in the treatment of chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy. A double blind controlled trial. Gastroenterology 1977;72(4 pt 1):573–83., , .
The hepatic coma syndromes and lactulose. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1979:261., .
The mechanism of action of lactulose in portal-systemic encephalopathy. Non-ionic diffusion of ammonia in the canine colon. Rev Eur Etud Clin Biol 1971;16:352–7., , .
The effect of lactulose on the faecal flora of patients with hepatic encephalopathy. J Med Microbiol 1974;7:163–8., , .
Acidifying enemas (lactitol and lactose) vs. nonacidifying enemas (tap water) to treat acute portal-systemic encephalopathy: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Hepatology 1987;7:639–43., , .
Effect of lactulose on ammonia production in a fecal incubation system. Gastroenterology 1978;74:544–9., , .
Lactitol vs. lactulose in the treatment of acute hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients: a double-blind, randomized trial. Hepatology 1987;7:1278–84., .
Rapid microassays for clindamycin and gentamicin when present together and the effect of pH and of each on the antibacterial activity of the other. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1974;6:54–9., .
Weber F. Combination therapy with lactulose and antibiotics. In: Hepatic encephalopathy: management with lactulose a and related carbohydrates. East Lansing, MI: Medi Ed Press, 1988:207–17., , eds.
Comparative study of basal arterial ammonemia of orally-induced hyperammonemia of chronic portal systemic encephalopathy, treated with neomycin, lactulose, and an association of neomycin and lactulose. Digestion 1974;10:435–44., , .
Branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Gut 1982;23:801–6., , .
Is intravenous administration of branched chain amino acids effective in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy? A multicenter study. Hepatology 1983;3:475–80., , .
Comparison of dietary protein with an oral, branched chain-enriched amino acid supplement in chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Hepatology 1984;4:279–87., , .
Plasma amino acids imbalance in patients with liver disease. Am J Dig Dis 1978; 23:591–8., , .
Induction of coma in normal dogs by the infusion of aromatic amino acids and its prevention by the addition of branched-chain amino acids. Gastroenterology 1982;83:664–71., , .
Branched-chain amino acids vs lactulose in the treatment of hepatic coma: a controlled study. Dig Dis Sci 1982;27:929–35., , .
Comparison of the effects of Hepatic-Aid and a Casein modular diet on encephalopathy, plasma amino acids, and nitrogen balance in cirrhotic patients. Ann Surg 1983;197:288–93., , .
Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med 1997;337:473–9., .
Overview of randomized clinical trials of oral branched-chain amino acid treatment in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1996;20:159–64., , .
Intensive enteral feeding in advanced cirrhosis: reversal of malnutrition without precipitation of hepatic encephalopathy. Arch Dis Child 1992;67:603–7., , .
Ferenci P, Grim G, Meryn S. Benzodiazepine antagonists in the treatment of human hepatic encephalopathy. In: Cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy and ammonium toxicity. New York: Plenum Press, 1990:255–65., ed.
Flumazenil in the treatment of portal systemic encephalopathy – an overview. Intensive Care Med 1991; 17(suppl 1):S39–42., .
Newer approaches to therapy of hepatic encephalopathy. Semin Liver Dis 1996;16:329–38., , .
Treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy with levodopa. Gut 1974;15:555–61., , .
Successful use of bromocriptine in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Gastroenterology 1980;78:663–70., , .
Treatment of chronic portal systemic encephalopathy with bromocriptine: a double-blind controlled trial. Gastroenterology 1979;76:1347–51., , .
The first decade of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS): state of the art. Liver 1998;18:73–89., , .
Coagulation activities in perfused organs: regulation by addition of animal plasmas. Br J Haematol 1974; 26:497–509., .
Synthesis and release of Hageman factor (Factor XII) by the isolated perfused rat liver. J Clin Invest 1983;72:948–54., , .
Hepatic removal of activated factor X by the perfused rabbit liver. Am J Physiol 1968;214:414–19., , .
Blood coagulation changes in liver disease. Prog Liver Dis 1965;2:69–83..
Aster R. Production, distribution, life-span, and fate of platelets. In: Hematology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977:1210., , eds.
Causes of death in fulminant hepatic failure and relationship to quantitative histological assessment of parenchymal damage. Q J Med 1975;44:615–26., , .
Platelet function in fulminant hepatic failure and effect of charcoal haemoperfusion. Gut 1977;18:897–902., , .
Platelet aggregation and release of ATP in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1985;20:285–8., , .
Platelet lipid composition and platelet aggregation in human liver disease. J Lipid Res 1981;22:423–30., , .
Coagulopathy of fulminant hepatic failure. Semin Liver Dis 1986;6:159–63., , .
Fibrinogen derivatives and platelet activation products in acute and chronic liver disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 1985;68:701–7., , .
Acquired dysfibrinogenaemia in liver disease. J Clin Pathol 1982;35:667–72., .
Study of acquired dysfibrinogenaemia in liver disease. Thromb Res 1980;19:29–41., , .
Abnormal sialic acid content of the dysfibrinogenemia associated with liver disease. J Clin Invest 1978;61:535–8., , .
Multivariate analysis of clinical and biological data in cirrhotic patients: application to prognosis. Eur J Clin Invest 1981;11:213–20., , .
Clinical status as reflected in biochemical tests on patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. Clin Chem 1983;29:992–3., .
Distribution of factor VIII mRNA and antigen in human liver and other tissues. Nature 1985;317:726–9., , .
Hemostasis in liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 1987;7:182–91., .
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): an approach. Am J Med 1972;52:679–89., , .
Intravascular coagulation in liver disease. Annu Rev Med 1974;25:447–55., , .
Colman RW, Marder V, Salzman EW. Overview of hemostasis. In: Hemostasis and thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987:3–18., , , eds.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cirrhosis. Hepatology 1989;10:103–10..
Incidence and clinical significance of elevated fibrin(ogen) degradation product and/or D-dimer levels in liver cirrhosis patients. Ital J Gastroenterol 1990;22:70–4., , .
Thrombin generation in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 1984;64:791–6., .
Detection of factor X activation in humans. Thromb Haemost 1987;58:280A., .
Can advanced hemostatic parameters detect disseminated intravascular coagulation more accurately in patients with cirrhosis of the liver?Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 1998;61:332–8., , .
Detection of a new heparin-dependent inhibitor of thrombin in human plasma. J Clin Invest 1981;68:589–96., .
Inhibition of tissue factors/factor VIIa activity in plasma requires factor X and an additional plasma component. Blood 1985;66:204–12., , .
Recombinant factor VIIa corrects prothrombin time in cirrhotic patients: a preliminary study. Gastroenterology 1997;113:1930–7., , .
Recombinant activated factor VII for coagulopathy in fulminant hepatic failure compared with conventional therapy. Liver Transpl 2003;9:138–43., , .
Use of recombinant factor VIIa in pediatric patients with liver failure and severe coagulopathy. Transplant Proc 2005;37:1091–3., , .
H2-receptor antagonists and antacids in the prevention of acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage in fulminant hepatic failure. Two controlled trials. Lancet 1977;1:617–19., , .
Safety of invasive procedures in patients with the coagulopathy of liver disease. Clin Lab Haematol 1989;11:199–204., .
The risk of bleeding after percutaneous liver biopsy: relation to platelet count. J Clin Gastroenterol 1982;4:451–3., , .
Desmopressin-induced improvement of abnormal coagulation in chronic liver disease. Lancet 1983;1:645., , .
Controlled trial of desmopressin in liver cirrhosis and other conditions associated with a prolonged bleeding time. Blood 1986;67:1148–53., , .
Desmopressin and bleeding time in patients with cirrhosis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;291:1377–81., , .
Treatment of severe coagulation disturbances as a condition of improved prognosis in fulminant liver failure. Arch Dis Child 1985;60:167–70., , .
Treatment with antithrombin III concentrate in fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology 1987;7:1067A., , .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: variations on a theme. Medicine (Baltimore) 1971;50:161–97., .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis. Incidence, diagnosis, and prognosis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987;22:295–300., .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Gastroenterologist 1995;3:311–28., .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in children with chronic liver disease: clinical features and etiologic factors. J Pediatr 1985;106:907–12., , .
Role of serum complement, immunoglobulins, and cell-mediated immune system in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Dig Dis Sci 1989;34:1547–52., , .
Oral, nonabsorbable antibiotics prevent infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology 1985;5:463–7., , .
Low-protein-concentration ascitic fluid is predisposed to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1986;91:1343–6..
Low C3 in cirrhotic ascites predisposes to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Hepatol 1988;6:80–4., , .
Opsonic activity of human ascitic fluid: a potentially important protective mechanism against spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 1985;5:634–7., , , .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Semin Liver Dis 1997;17:203–17., .
Urinary tract infection: a predisposing factor for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1990;98:A593., , .
A prospective evaluation of bacteremic patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1988;8:1099–103., , .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Z in an infant with liver failure. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1991;30:350–2., .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Pediatr 1984;104:495–500., , .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a prospective investigation in predominantly nonalcoholic cirrhotic patients. Hepatology 1983;3:545–9., , .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:669–74; quiz 675–6., .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: an explosion of information. Hepatology 1988;8:171–5..
Paracentesis of ascitic fluid. A safe procedure. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:2259–61..
Performance standards for therapeutic abdominal paracentesis. Hepatology 2004;40:484–8., , .
Inoculation of blood culture bottles with ascitic fluid. Improved detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:73–5., , .
Bedside inoculation of blood culture bottles with ascitic fluid is superior to delayed inoculation in the detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:2811–12., , .
Comparison of two ascitic fluid culture methods in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1990;85:1605–8., , .
Blood culture bottles are superior to lysis-centrifugation tubes for bacteriological diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:667–9., , .
Ascitic fluid analysis in the differentiation of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from gastrointestinal tract perforation into ascitic fluid. Hepatology 1984;4:447–50., .
Utility of an algorithm in differentiating spontaneous from secondary bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1990;98:127–33., .
Clarification of risk factors for abdominal operations in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Ann Surg 1984;199:648–55., , .
IL-6 and TNF alpha in ascitic fluid during spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Dig Dis Sci 1991;36:123–4., , .
McHutchison JG, Runyon BA. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. In: Gastrointestinal and hepatic infections. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994:455–75., , eds.
Cefotaxime is more effective than is ampicillin-tobramycin in cirrhotics with severe infections. Hepatology 1985;5:457–62., , .
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a prospective study of twenty-seven cases in cirrhotic patients. Hepatology 1990;11:360–4., , .
Short-course versus long-course antibiotic treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A randomized controlled study of 100 patients. Gastroenterology 1991;100:1737–42., , .
Oral ciprofloxacin after a short course of intravenous ciprofloxacin in the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: results of a multicenter, randomized study. J Hepatol 2000;33:564–9., , .
Randomized, comparative study of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1996;111:1011–17., , .
Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. N Engl J Med 1999;341:403–9., , .
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1992;21:257–75..
Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: frequency and predictive factors. Hepatology 1988;8:27–31., , .
Diuresis of cirrhotic ascites increases its opsonic activity and may help prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 1986;6:396–9., .
Selective intestinal decontamination increases serum and ascitic fluid C3 levels in cirrhosis. Hepatology 1990;12:1175–8., , .
Norfloxacin prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis recurrence in cirrhosis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology 1990;12(4 pt 1):716–24., , .
Selective intestinal decontamination prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1991;100:477–81., , .
Renal failure in fulminant hepatic failure and terminal cirrhosis: a comparison between incidence, types, and prognosis. Gut 1981;22:585–91., .
The hepatorenal syndrome. Med Clin North Am 1990;74:933–43., .
Renal and intrarenal blood-flow in cirrhosis of the liver. Lancet 1971;2:504–10., , .
Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. International Ascites Club. Hepatology 1996;23:164–76., , .
Management of cirrhosis and ascites. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1646–54., , .
Hepatorenal syndrome: a dreaded complication of end-stage liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:460–7..
Hepatorenal syndrome. Semin Nephrol 2002;22:290–301., .
Universal occurrence of glomerular abnormalities in patients receiving liver transplants. Am J Kidney Dis 1992;19:339–44., , .
Recovery from “hepatorenal syndrome” after orthotopic liver transplantation. N Engl J Med 1973;289:1155–9., , .
Long-term survival and renal function following liver transplantation in patients with and without hepatorenal syndrome – experience in 300 patients. Transplantation 1991;51:428–30., , .
Transplantation of cadaveric kidneys from patients with hepatorenal syndrome. Evidence for the functional nature of renal failure in advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med 1969;280:1367–71., , .
Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. Gut 1976; 17:856–60., , .
Renal prostaglandins in cirrhosis of the liver. Clin Sci (Lond) 1986;70:477–84., , .
Systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites with and without functional renal failure. Gastroenterology 1989;97:1304–12., , .
Beneficial effect of 8-ornithine vasopressin on renal dysfunction in decompensated cirrhosis. Gut 1989;30:90–6., , .
Ornipressin in the treatment of functional renal failure in decompensated liver cirrhosis. Effects on renal hemodynamics and atrial natriuretic factor. Gastroenterology 1991;101:1060., , .
Prostaglandins: modulators of renal function and pressor resistance in chronic liver disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979;48:895–900., , .
Importance of renal prostaglandins in control of renal function after chronic ligation of the common bile duct in dogs. J Lab Clin Med 1984;103:549–59., .
Urinary thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 in the hepatorenal syndrome: evidence for increased vasoconstrictor and decreased vasodilator factors. Gastroenterology 1983;84:697–703., , .
Systemic and renal production of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin in decompensated liver disease and hepatorenal syndrome. Gastroenterology 1991;100:1069–77., , .
Calcitonin gene–related peptide in hepatorenal syndrome. A possible mediator of peripheral vasodilation?J Clin Gastroenterol 1992;14:122–6., , .
Endothelin and nitric oxide in hepatorenal syndrome: a balance reset. J Nephrol 1997;10:120–35., .
Incidence, predictive factors, and treatment of the hepatorenal syndrome with ascites. Gastroenterolgoy 1993;105:229–36., , .
Hepatorenal syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999;10:1833–9., .
New challenge of hepatorenal syndrome: prevention and treatment. Hepatology 2001;34:1242–51., .
Renal impairment after spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: incidence, clinical course, predictive factors and prognosis. Hepatology 1994;20:1495–501., , .
Spurious decrease in serum creatinine in patients with hyperbilirubinemia. Dig Dis Sci 1982;27:1051., .
Unpredictability of clinical evaluation of renal function in cirrhosis. Prospective study. Am J Med 1987;82:945–52., .
Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects. J Clin Invest 1973;52:2241–9., , .
Effects of a new loop diuretic (muzolimine) in cirrhosis with ascites: comparison with furosemide. Hepatology 1986;6:400–5., , .
Effects of therapeutic paracentesis on systemic and hepatic hemodynamics and on renal and hormonal function. Hepatology 1987;7:423–9., , .
Epstein M. Hepatorenal syndrome. In: The kidney in liver disease. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1988:89–97., ed.
Systemic and renal hemodynamics in oliguric hepatic failure: effect of volume expansion. J Clin Invest 1967;46:1894–906., .
Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration in acute renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1985;6:373–86..
Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration. A report of six months' experience. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:358–67., , .
Artificial renal and liver support in a severe hepatorenal syndrome of childhood. Acta Paediatr 1992;81:75–8., , .
Effects of a portacaval or peritoneovenous shunt on renin in the hepatorenal syndrome. Kidney Int 1979;15:54–61., , .
Peritoneovenous shunt in the management of the hepatorenal syndrome. Kidney Int 1986;30:736–40., , .
Hepatorenal syndrome. Recovery after peritoneovenous shunt. Arch Intern Med 1977;137:1248–9., .
Fulminant hepatic failure with intractable ascites due to an echovirus 11 infection successfully managed with a peritoneo-venous (LeVeen) shunt. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1986;5:476–80., , .
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for hepatorenal syndrome. Lancet 1997;349:697–8., , .
The effects of chronic treatment with octreotide versus octreotide plus midodrine on systemic hemodynamics and renal hemodynamics and function in nonazotemic cirrhotic patients with cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:879–85., , .
Reversal of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome with the administration of midodrine and octreotide. Hepatology 1999;29:1690., , .
Octreotide in hepatorenal syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Hepatology 2003;100:879., , .
Renal function in cirrhosis and the effects of prostaglandin A. Am J Med 1974;56:695–703., .
The treatment of the hepatorenal syndrome with intra-renal administration of prostaglandin E1. Prostaglandins 1977;13:819–30., , .
Reversal of hepatorenal syndrome in four patients by peroral misoprostol (prostaglandin E1 analogue) and albumin administration. J Hepatol 1990;11:153–8., , .
Therapeutic trial of thromboxane synthesis inhibition in the hepatorenal syndrome. Gastroenterology 1984;87:1228–32., , .
Intrarenal thromboxane A2 generation reduces the furosemide-induced sodium and water diuresis in cirrhosis with ascites. Gastroenterology 1988;95:1081–7., , .
The prevention of renal impairment in patients undergoing orthotopic liver grafting by infusion of low dose dopamine. Anaesthesia 1987;42:15–19., , .
Hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis: pathogenesis and treatment. Gastroenterology 2002;122:1658–76., , .
Hepatorenal syndrome: new perspectives in pathogenesis and treatment. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1957–63., , , .
The hepatorenal syndrome in liver transplant recipients. Am Surg 1991;57:806–9., , .
Long-term oral refeeding of patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Br J Nutr 1995;74:557–67., , .
Nutritional assessment and adequacy of dietary intake in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Br J Nutr 1993;69:665–79., , .
Daily energy and substrate metabolism in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 1998;27:346–50., , .
Energy expenditure and substrate metabolism in ethanol-induced liver cirrhosis. Am J Physiol 1991;260(3 pt 1):E338–44., , .
Nutritional issues in cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Nutrition in chronic liver disease and liver transplantation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1999;2:373–80., .
Effect of a late evening meal on nitrogen balance in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. BMJ 1989;299:1202–3., , .
Energy expenditure and substrate metabolism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver: effects of the pattern of food intake. Gut 1995;36:110–16., , .
Daily pattern of energy metabolism in cirrhosis. Nutrition 1999;15:749–54., , .
Effect of total enteral nutrition on the short-term outcome of severely malnourished cirrhotics. A randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 1990;98:715–20., , .
Nutritional support in alcoholic cirrhotic patients improves host defenses. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:434–41., , .
Vegetable versus animal protein diet in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy. A randomized cross-over comparison. J Intern Med 1993;233:385–92., , .
Polyenylphosphatidylcholine prevents carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation while it attenuates liver fibrosis. J Hepatol 1997;27:554–61., , .
Polyenylphosphatidylcholine attenuates alcohol-induced fatty liver and hyperlipemia in rats. J Nutr 1997;127:1800–6., , .
Polyenylphosphatidylcholine attenuates non-alcoholic hepatic fibrosis and accelerates its regression. J Hepatol 1996;24:604–13., , .
Dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine decreases hepatic stellate cell activation. J Lab Clin Med 1999;133:342–8., , .
Liver cirrhosis: rationale and modalities for nutritional support – the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus and beyond. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1999;2:345–9., .
Feeding the child with chronic liver disease. Nutrition 1998;14:796–800..