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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: August 2019

7 - Variations Due to Leaf Abiotic and Biotic Factors


The term “stress” was defined by Jackson (1986) as any disturbance that adversely influences plant growth. Various types of stress can be caused by abiotic (water deficit, nutrient deficiency, salinity, heavy metal, herbicide, air pollution, etc.) and biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects, etc.) factors. They may induce changes in leaf anatomy, chemistry, and physiology, which will result in changes in leaf optical properties (e.g., Carter, 1993).

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