Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: October 2017

Select Bibliography

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Last Ottoman Generation and the Making of the Modern Middle East
  • Online ISBN: 9781139049221
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781139049221
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×

Syria

  • Asad Library

  • Markaz al-Watha’iq al-Tarikhiyya

  • Archives of the Syrian Arab Republic Ministry of Education

Turkey

  • Istanbul University Archival Collection

  • Archives of the Turkish Republic Military Museum

  • Archives of the Turkish Republic Prime Minister, Istanbul

  • Yıldız Saray Photo Archive, IRCICA

Lebanon

  • National Archives

  • American University of Beirut, Jafet Library

  • Periodical Collection

  • Special and Archival Collections

Switzerland

  • Archives of the League of Nations Permanent Mandate Commission, Geneva

Germany

  • Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin

  • Zentrum Moderner Orient Library

France

  • Archives Diplomatiques de Nantes, Nantes

  • Archives Ministère de la Défense, Armée du Levant, Vincennes

  • Bibliothèque nationale de France

United Kingdom

  • British National Archives, Kew

  • Imperial War Museum, London

United States

  • Library of Congress, Abdul-Hamid collection

  • Alif Bâ’, Damascus daily newspaper, various dates

  • L’Echo de Paris, Paris daily, various dates

  • al-Muqtabas, Damascus daily paper, various dates

  • Jamcia al-cArabiyya, Jerusalem daily, 1927–

  • L’Humanité, Paris daily, various dates

  • al-Fata al-’Arab, Damascus daily, various dates

  • The Times, London daily, various dates

  • Jarida al-Bilad, Baghdad daily, various dates

  • Al-Qabas, Damascus daily, various dates

  • Al-Ayyam, Damascus daily, various dates

  • Egyptian Gazette, Cairo weekly, various dates

  • Manchester Guardian, Manchester daily, various dates

  • Al-Mussawar, Cairo weekly, various dates

Abi Rashid, Hanna, Hawran al-damiyya (Cairo, 1926, reprint, Beirut: Maktabat al-Fikr al-‘Arabi, 1961)
Abi Rashid, Hanna, Jabal al-duruz (Cairo: 1925, reprint, Beirut: Maktabat al-Fikr al-‘Arabi, 1961)
cAli, Tahsin, Mudhakirrat Tahsin cAli 1880–1970 (Beirut: al-Mu’assasa al-cArabiyya lil-Diraset wa al-Nashr, 2003)
al-cAs, Muhammad Sacid, al-Tajarib al-harbiyya fi harb al-thawra al-suriyya (Beirut, 1990)
Andréa, Général Charles Joseph, La révolte druze et l’insurrection de Damas (Paris, 1937)
Arslan, Shakib, Sira Dhatiyya (Beirut: Dar al-Talic a, 1969)
al-Askari, Jafar, A Soldier’s Story: From Ottoman Rule to Independent Iraq: The Memoirs of Jafar Pasha Al-Askari (1885–1936), trans. Mustafa Tariq Al-Askari (London: Arabian Publishers, 2003)
de Caix, Robert, La Syrie (Paris: Sociéte de l’histoire nationale, Plon, 1931)
Carbillet, Capitaine Gabriel, Au Djébel Druse, choses vues et vécues (Paris: Éditions Argo, 1929)
Coblentz, Paul, Le silence de Sarrail (Paris: L. Querelle, 1930)
Djemal Pasha, Ahmad, Memories of a Turkish Statesman, 1913–1919 (London: Hutchinson, 1922)
Doty, Bennett J., The Legion of the Damned: The Adventures of Bennett J. Doty in the French Foreign Legion as Told by Himself (New York: Century Co., 1928)
Dowson, Sir Ernest, An Inquiry into Land Tenure and Related Questions (Letchworth, England: printed for the Iraqi government by Garden City Press, 1932)
al-Faris, Jurj, Man hum fi al-calam al-carabi (Damascus: matbac al-ahali, 1957)
al-Faris, Jurj, Man huwa fî suriyya 1949 (Damascus: matbac al-ahali, 1950)
Gibb, Sir Alexander and partners, The Economic Development of Syria, report commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works and Communications, Republic of Syria (London: Knapp, Drewett and Sons, 1947)
von der Goltz, Colmar, Das Volk in Waffen (Berlin: R. V. Decker, 1883)
al-Hasani, cAbd al-Razzaq, Tarikḫ al-wizarat al-cIraqiyya, vols. I–III (Sidon: Matbac al-cIrfan, 1953)
al-Hasani, cAbd al-Razzaq, al-Thawra al-cIraqiyya al-Kubra (Sidon: Matbac al-cIrfan, 1952)
al-Hashimi, Taha, Mudhakkirat Taha al-Hashimi (Beirut: Dar al-Ta’lica, 1967–78)
al-Husri, Satic, Mudhakkirati fi al-cIraq, 1921–1940, 2 vols. (Beirut, 1967–8)
al-Husri, Satic, Yawm al-Maysalun: Safaha min tarikh al-carab al-hadith (Beirut: Maktabat al-Kishāf, 1947)
League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission Minutes (League of Nations, Geneva: various dates)
Maarif Nazereti, Salnamesi (Istanbul: AH 1318 [1901])
Mekatibi Askeriyye, Sakirdanınım Umumi, Imtihanlarınım neticelerini (Istanbul: AH 1318 [1901])
Midhat, Ali Haydar, The Life of Midhat Pasha (London: J. Murray, 1903)
Mühlmann, Carl, Die deutsche Militär-Mission in der Türkei (Berlin: W. Rothschild, 1938)
Mühlmann, Carl, Deutschland und die Türkei 1913–1914: die Berufung der deutschen Militärmission nach der Türkei 1913, das deutsch-türkische Bündnis 1914 und der Eintritt der Türkei in den Weltkrieg (Berlin: W. Rothschild, 1929)
Poullea, Alice, À Damas sous les bombes: Journal d’une Française pendant la révolte Syrienne, 1924–1926 (Yvetot: Bretteville, 1926)
al-Qadi, Niqulaws, Arb’aun ‘aman fi Hawran wa Jabal al-Duruz (Beirut, 1927)
al-Qawuqji, Fawzi, Mudhakkirat Fawzi al-Qawuqji (reprint of both volumes of 1975 edition, edited by Khayriyya Qâsimiyya, Damascus: al-Tawzi, 1995)
al-Rayyis, Munir, al-Kitab al-dhahabi lil-thawrat al-wataniyya fî al-mashriq al-carabi: al-thawra al-suriyya al-kubra, vol. I (Beirut: Dar al-Tali‘ah lil-Tiba‘ah wa-al-Nashr, 1969)
al-Rayyis, Munir, al-Kitab al-dhahabi lil-thawrat al-wataniyya fî al-mashriq al-carabi: thawra Filasṭin cam 1936, vol. II (Beirut: Dar al-Tali‘ah lil-Tiba‘ah wa-al-Nashr, 1969)
al-Rayyis, Munir, al-Kitab al-dhahabi lil-thawrat al-wataniyya fî al-mashriq al-carabi: harb al-cIraq cam 1941, vol. III (Beirut: Dar al-Tali‘ah lil-Tiba‘ah wa-al-Nashr, 1969)
al-Sacid, Amin, al-Thawra al-carabiyya al-kubra (Beirut: Dar al-katib al ‘arabi, reprint, n.d.)
al-Sacid, Nuri, Mudhakkirat Nuri al-Sacid can al-harakat al-caskariyya lil-jaysh al-cArabi fi al-Hijaz wa-Suriyya, 1916–1918: al-Fariq al-rukn Nuri al-Sacid cala tullab Kulliyyat al-Arkan bi-Baghdad fi Mayis 1947 (Beirut: al-Dar al‘Arabiyya lil-Mawsu‘at, 1987)
al-Shahbandar, cAbd al-Rahman, al-Thawra al-Suruyya al-Kubra: Mudhakkirat al-duktur cAbd al-Rahman al-Shahbandar (Beirut: 1967, reprint, Damascus: manshuratwazara al-thaqafa, 1993)
al-Shahbandar, cAbd al-Rahman, Mudhakkirat wal-khutab (Beirut, 1967, reprint Damascus: manshurat wazara al-thaqafa, 1993)
Salname-i Nazaret-i Maarif-i Umumiyye (Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, AH1316 [1899])
Salname-i Nazaret-i Maarif-i Umumiyye (Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, AH1319 [1901])
al-Zirikli, Khayr ad-Dīn, al-Aclam: qamus tarajim li-ashar ar-rijal wa’n-nisa min carab wa’l-mustacribin al-mustasthriqin, 8 vols., reprint of c. 1950 (Beirut: dar al-calam al-malayin, 1990)
Abu Fakhr, Fandi, “Tarikh liwa’ Hawran al-ijtimacal-Suwayda’– Darca-al-Qunaytra – cAjlun, 1840–1918,” self-published PhD dissertation, Damascus University, 1999
Ajay, Nicholas, “Mount Lebanon and the Wilayah of Beirut, 1914–1918: the War Years,” unpublished PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, 1972
Anderson, Charles W., “From Petition to Confrontation: The Palestinian National Movement and the Rise of Mass Politics, 1929–1939,” unpublished PhD dissertation, New York University, 2013
Bailony, Reem, “Transnational Rebellion: The Syrian Revolt of 1925–1927,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 2015
Dalati, Aziz Amin, “The Ghouta of Damascus,” unpublished B.B.A. thesis, AUB, 1938
Griffiths, Merwin, “The Reorganization of the Ottoman Army under Abdül-Hamid II 1880–1907,” unpublished PhD dissertation, UCLA, 1966
Marr, Phebe, “Yasin al-Hashimi: The Rise and Fall of a Nationalist (A Study of the Nationalist Leadership in Iraq, 1920–1936),” unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1966
Méouchy, Nadine, “Les formes de conscience politique et communautaire au Liban et en Syrie a l’époque du mandat Français 1920–1939,” unpublished Doctorat en Histoire dissertation, Université de Paris, 1989
Mufarrij, Fuad K., “Syria and Lebanon under French Mandate,” unpublished MA thesis, AUB, 1935
Nashibi, Hisham A., “The Political Parties in Syria, 1918–1939,” unpublished MA thesis, AUB, 1952
al-Qaysi, Abdul-Wahhab Abbas, “The Impact of Modernization on Iraqi Society During the Ottoman Era: A Study of Intellectual Development in Iraq, 1869–1917,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1958
Rustum, Asad, “Syria Under Mehemet Ali,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 1923
Sanagan, Mark, “Lightning Through the Clouds: Islam, Community, and Anti-Colonial Rebellion in the Life and Death of Izz al-Dīn al-Qassām, 1883–1935,” unpublished PhD dissertation, McGill University, 2016
Tomeh, Ramez George, “Landownership and Political Power in Damascus: 1858–1958,” unpublished MA thesis, AUB, 1977
Steven, Wagner, “British Intelligence and Policy in the Palestine Mandate, 1919–1939,” unpublished DPhil dissertation, University of Oxford, 2014
Abu Husayn, Abdul-Rahim, Bayn al-markaz wa al-atraf: Hawran fi al-watha’iq al-cUthmaniyya (London: Druze Heritage Foundation, 2015)
Abu Husayn, Abdul-Rahim, cAbd al-cAziz Muhammad cAwad, al-Idara al-cuthmaniyya fi wilayat suriyya, 1864–1914 (Cairo: Dar al-macruf, 1969)
Agha Kassab, Sawsan and Tadmori, Omar, Beirut and the Sultan: 200 Photographs from the Albums of Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909) (Beirut: Beirut Municipality, 2002)
Akarli, Engin Deniz, “Abdülhamid II’s Attempt to Integrate Arabs into the Ottoman System,” in Kushner, David (ed.), Palestine in the Late Ottoman Period (Jerusalem and Leiden: yad Izhak Ben-Zvi/Brill, 1986)
Akarli, Engin Deniz, The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861–1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993)
Aksakal, Mustafa, The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
Antonius, George, The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement (London: H. Hamilton, 1938)
Batatu, Hanna, The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq (Princeton University Press, 1978)
Batatu, Hanna, Syria’s Peasantry, the Descendants of its Lesser Rural Notables, and their Politics (Princeton University Press, 1999)
Beinen, Joel and Lockman, Zachary, Nationalism, Communism, Islam, and the Egyptian Working Class, 1882–1954 (Princeton University Press, 1987)
al-Bi’ayni, Hasan Amin, Duruz suriyya wa lubnan fi cahd al-intidab al-fransi, 1920–1943 (Beirut: al-Markaz al- ‘Arabi li-al-Abhat wa-alTawtiq, 1993)
Bokova, Lenka, La confrontation franco-syrienne à l’époque du mandat, 1925–27 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1990)
Burke, Edmund III, “The Sociology of Islam: The French Tradition,” in Malcolm, Kerr (ed.), Islamic Studies: A Tradition and its Problems (Malibu, CA, 1980), pp. 7388
Burke, Edmund III, “A Comparative View of French Native Policy in Morocco and Syria, 1912–1925,” MES, 9 (May 1973), 177
Burke, Edmund III, “Understanding Arab Protest Movements,” Arab Studies Quarterly, 8:4 (1987), 333–45
Chatterjee, Partha, The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton University Press, 1993)
Commins, David Dean, Islamic Reform: Politics and Change in Late Ottoman Syria (Oxford University Press, 1992)
Dawud, Ahmad Yusuf, al-Mujahid Sa cid al-cAs (Damascus: Dar al-Mustaqbal, 1990)
Deringil, Salim, “The Invention of Tradition as Public Image in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1808 to 1908,” in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 35 (1993), 329
Deringil, Salim, The Well-Protected Domains: Ideology and the Legitimation of Power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876–1909 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1998)
Doumani, Beshara, Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal Nablus, 1700–1900 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)
Evered, Emine O., Empire and Education under the Ottomans: Politics, Reform and Resistance from the Tanzimat to the Young Turks (London: I.B. Tauris, 2012)
Faris, Basim (ed.), A Postwar Bibliography of the Near Eastern Mandates, 5 vols. (Beirut, 1932)
Fawwaz, Leila Tarazi, A Land of Aching Hearts: The Middle East in the Great War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)
Findley, Carter, Ottoman Civil Officialdom: A Social History (Princeton University Press, 1989)
Firro, Kais M., A History of the Druzes (Leiden: Brill, 1992)
Fortna, Benjamin, Imperial Classroom: Islam, the State, and Education in the Late Ottoman Empire (Oxford, 2002)
Frevert, Ute, A Nation in Barracks: Modern Germany, Military Conscription, and Civil Society, trans. Andrew Boreham (Oxford: Berg, 2004)
Gelvin, James L., Divided Loyalties: Nationalism and Mass Politics in Syria at the Close of Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)
Gelvin, James L., “The Social Origins of Popular Nationalism in Syria: Evidence for a New Framework,” IJMES, 26 (1994), 645–61
Handan, Nezir-Achmeşe, The Birth of Modern Turkey: The Ottoman Military and the March to World War I (London: I.B. Tauris, 2005)
Hanioğlu, Şükrü, Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography (Princeton University Press, 2013)
Hanna, cAbdallah, al- cAmmiyya wa al-intifadat al-falahiyya (1850–1918) fi jabal Hawran (Damascus: al-ahali, 1990)
Hanna, cAbdallah, al-Haraka al-cummaliyya fi suriyya wa lubnan: 1900–1945 (Damascus: dar dimashq, 1973)
Hanna, cAbdallah, al-Qadiyya al-ziraciyya wa al-harakat al-fallahiyya fi suriyya wa lubnan (1820–1920), vols. I–II (Beirut: dar al-Farabi, 1975 and 1978)
Hanssen, Jens, Fin de Siècle Beirut: The Making of an Ottoman Provincial Capital (Oxford University Press, 2005)
Himadeh, Sa’id (ed.), Economic Organization of Syria (Beirut: AUB Press, 1936)
Hobsbawm, Eric, The Age of Empire: 1875–1914 (New York: Vintage, 1987)
Hourani, Albert, “Ottoman Reform and the Politics of Notables,” in Polk, William and Chambers, Richard (eds.), Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East: The Nineteenth Century (Chicago University Press, 1968)
Hourani, Albert, Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1946)
Hughes, Matthew, Allenby and British Strategy in the Middle East, 1917–1919 (London: Frank Cass, 1999)
Hughes, Matthew, “A Very British Affair? The Repression of the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936–39 (Part One),” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 87:351 (Autumn 2009), 234–55
Hull, Isabel V., Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (New York: Cornell University Press, 2006)
al-Jundi, Adham, Târîkh al-Thawrât al-Suriyya fî cAhd al-Intidâb al-Fransî (Damascus: Matbacat al-Ittihad, 1960)
Kasmieh, Khairieh (al-Qasimiyya, Khayriyya). al-Hukuma al-’arabiyya fî damashq bayn 1918–1920 (Cairo, 1971)
Kawtharani, Wajih, Ittijahat al-ijtimaciyya al-siyasiyya fi Jabal Lubnan wa-al-Mashriq al-cArabi, 1860-1920 (Beirut: Ma‘had al-Inma’ al-‘Arabi, 1978)
Kawtharani, Wajih, Dawlah wa-al-khilafa fi al-khitab al-cArabi abbana al-thawrah al-Kamaliyya fi Turkiyya (Beirut: Dar al-Tali‘a, 1996)
Kayali, Hasan, Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908–1918 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997)
Keydar, Caglar and Tabak, Faruk (eds.), Landholding and Commercial Agriculture in the Middle East (New York: SUNY Press, 1991)
Khadduri, Majid, “‘Aziz ‘Ali al-Misri and the Arab Nationalist Movement,” in Hourani, Albert (ed.), Middle Eastern Affairs, no. 4 (St. Antony’s Papers, no. 17) (London, 1965)
Khalidi, Rashid, British Policy Towards Syria and Palestine, 1906–1914: A Study of the Antecedents of the Hussein – the McMahon Correspondence, the Sykes–Picot Agreement, and the Balfour Declaration (Oxford: Ithaca Press, 1980)
Khalidi, Rashid, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997)
Khalidi, Rashid, Anderson, Lisa, Muslih, Muhammad, and Simon, Reeva (eds.), The Origins of Arab Nationalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991)
Khalidi, Tarif (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut: SAUB Press, 1984)
Khoury, Philip S. Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920–1945 (Princeton University Press, 1987)
Khoury, Philip S.A Reinterpretation of the Origins and Aims of the Great Syrian Revolt, 1925–1927,” in Atiyeh, George N. and Oweis, Ibrahim M., Arab Civilization: Challenges and Responses: Studies in Honor of Constantine K. Zurayk (Albany: State University of New York, 1988)
Kitchen, James E., The British Imperial Army in the Middle East: Morale and Military Identity in the Sinai and Palestine Campaigns, 1916–18 (London: Bloomsbury, 2014)
Köroglu, Erol, Ottoman Propaganda and Turkish Identity: Literature in Turkey During World War I (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
Latron, André, La vie rurale en Syrie et au Liban (Beirut: Impr. Catholique, 1936)
Lewis, Norman, Nomads and Settlers in Syria and Jordan, 1800–1980 (Cambridge University Press, 1987)
Longrigg, Stephen H., Iraq, 1900 to 1950: A Political, Social, and Economic History (Oxford University Press, 1953)
Longrigg, Stephen H., Syria and Lebanon under French Mandate (Oxford University Press, 1958)
MacCallum, Elizabeth, The Nationalist Crusade in Syria (New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1928)
Makdisi, Ussama, Faith Misplaced: The Broken Promise of U.S.-Arab Relations, 1820–2001 (New York: PublicAffairs, 2010)
Matthews, Weldon, Confronting an Empire, Constructing a Nation: Arab Nationalists and Popular Politics in Mandate Palestine (London: I.B. Tauris, 2006)
Mazower, Mark, No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations (Princeton University Press, 2009)
Méouchy, Nadine and Peter, Sluglett (eds.), The British and French Mandates in Comparative Perspectives/Les Mandats Francais et Anglais dans une Perspective Comparative (Leiden: Brill, 2004)
Mundy, Martha and Smith, Richard Saumarez, Governing Property, Making the Modern State: Law, Administration and Production in Ottoman Syria (London: I.B. Tauris, 2007)
Nezir-Akmese, Handan, The Birth of Modern Turkey: The Ottoman Military and the March to WWI (London: I.B. Tauris, 2005)
Parsons, Laila, The Commander: Fawzi al-Qawuqji and the Fight for Arab Independence 1914–1948 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2016)
Parsons, Laila, “Soldiering for Arab Nationalism: Fawzi al-Qawuqji in Palestine,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 36:4 (Summer 2007), pp. 3349
Pederson, Susan, The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire (Oxford University Press, 2015)
Qarqut, Dhuqan, Tatawwur al-haraka al-wataniyya fi suriyya, 1920–1939 (Beirut: Dar al-Tali‘a, 1975)
Rafeq, Abdul-Karim, “Land Tenure Problems and their Social Impact in Syria around the Middle of the Nineteenth Century,” in Khalidi, Tarif (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut: AUB Press, 1984)
Rafeq, Abdul-Karim, The Province of Damascus, 1723–1783 (Beirut: Khayats, 1966)
Rafeq, Abdul-Karim, Sluglett, Peter and Weber, Stefan (eds.), Syria and Bilad al-Sham under Ottoman Rule: Essays in Honour of Abdul Karim Rafeq (Leiden: Brill, 2010)
Ramsaur, Ernest E., The Young Turks: Prelude to the Revolution of 1908 (Princeton University Press, 1957)
Reilly, James A, “Property, Status, and Class in Ottoman Damascus,” JAORS, 112:1–2 (1992), pp. 921
Reynolds, Michael A., Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1908–1918 (Cambridge University Press, 2011)
Roberts, Stephen H., History of French Colonial Policy, 1870–1925, vols. I–II (London: P.S. King & Son, 1929)
Rogan, Eugene, “Aşiret Mektebi Abdülhamid II’s School for Tribes (1892–1907),” IJMES, 28 (1996), 83107
Rogan, Eugene, The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East, 1914–1920 (London: Basic Books, 2015)
al-Safarjalanî, Muhi al-Din, al-Tarikh al-thawra al-suriyya (Damascus, 1961)
Salibi, Kamal, A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988)
Sara, Fayiz, Sacid al-cAs, 1889–1936: Hayatahu-Kifahahu (Damascus: manshurat wazara al-thaqafa, 1993)
Schäbler, Birgit, Aufstände im Drusenbergland: Ethnizität und Integration einer Ländlich en Gesellschaft Syriens vom Osmanischen Reich bis zur Staatlichen Unabhängigkeit, 1850–1949 (Gotha: Perthes, 1996)
Schayegh, Cyrus and Arsan, Andrew (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the History of the Middle East Mandates (London: Routledge, 2015)
Schilcher, Linda, Families in Politics: Damascene Factions and Estates of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1985)
Schilcher, Linda, “Railways in the Political Economy of Southern Syria 1890–1925,” in Philipp, Thomas and Schaebler, Birgit (eds.), The Syrian Land: Processes of Integration and Fragmentation in Bilâd al-Shâm from the 18th to the 20th Century (Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1998), pp. 97112
Schölch, Alexander, “The Emergence of Modern Palestine (1856–1882),” in Nashabe, Hisham (ed.), Studia Palaestina: Studies in Honor of Constantine K. Zurayk (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1988), pp. 6982
Seale, Patrick, The Struggle for Syria: A Study of Post War Arab Politics 1945–1958 (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1986)
Seikaly, Samir M., “Pacification of the Hawran (1910): The View From Within,” Essays on Ottoman Civilization: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the Comite international d’etudes pre-ottomanes et ottomanes (Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute, 1996)
Seikaly, Samir M., “Land Tenure in 17th-Century Palestine: The Evidence from the Fatâwâ al-Khairiyya,” in Khalidi, Tarif (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut: AUB Press, 1984)
Shambrook, Peter A., French Imperialism in Syria, 1927–1936 (Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1998)
Sluglett, Marion Farouk and Sluglett, Peter, “The Application of the 1858 Land Code in Greater Syria: Some Preliminary Observations,” in Khalidi, Tarif (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut, 1984)
Sluglett, Peter, Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007)
Somel, Selçuk Akşin, The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire, 1839–1908: Islamization, Autocracy and Discipline (Leiden: Brill, 2001)
Tamari, Salim, Year of the Locust: The Great War and the Erasure of Palestine’s Ottoman Past (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2008)
Tanenbaum, Jan Karl, General Maurice Sarrail: The French Army and Left Wing Politics (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1974)
Tejel, Jordi, Sluglett, Peter, Bocco, Riccardo, and Bozarslan, Hamit (eds.), Writing the Modern History of Iraq: Historiographical and Political Challenges (Singapore: World Scientific, 2012)
Thomas, Martin, Empires of Intelligence: Security Services and Colonial Disorder after 1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007)
Thompson, Elizabeth, Colonial Citizens: Republican Rights, Paternal Privilege, and Gender in French Syria and Lebanon (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000)
Thompson, Elizabeth, Justice Interrupted: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in the Middle East (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013)
Tibawi, Abdul-Latif, American Interests in Syria, 1800–1901: A Study of Educational, Literary and Religious Work (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966)
Tibawi, Abdul-Latif, A Modern History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1969)
Trumpener, Ulrich, Germany and the Ottoman Empire 1914–1918 (Princeton University Press, 1968)
Trumpener, Ulrich, “German Officers in the Ottoman Empire, 1880–1918: Some Comments on their Backgrounds, Functions, and Accomplishments,” in Wallach, Jehuda L. (ed.), Germany and the Middle East: 1835–1939 (Tel-Aviv: Nateev-Press, 1975), pp. 3044
cUbayd, Salama, al-Thawra al-suriyya al-kubra: 1925-1927 cala dawa’ watha’iq lam tunshar (Beirut: dar al-ghad, 1971)
Uyar, MesutOttoman Arab Officers between Nationalism and Loyalty,” War in History, 20:4 (2013), pp. 526–44
Uyar, Mesut and Erickson, Edward, A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk (Santa Barbara: Praeger Security International, 2009)
Warriner, Doreen, Land Reform and Development in the Middle East (Oxford University Press, 1962)
Weber, Stefan, Damascus: Ottoman Modernity and Urban Transformation, 1808–1918 (Aarhus University Press, 2009)
Weiss, Max, In the Shadow of Sectarianism: Law, Shi‘ism and the Making of Modern Lebanon (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010)
Weulersse, Jacques, Paysans de Syrie et du Proche-Orient (Paris: Gallimard, 1946)
White, Benjamin Thomas, The Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East: The Politics of Community in French Mandate Syria (Edinburgh University Press, 2011)
Wilson, Mary, King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan (Cambridge University Press, 1990)
Wright, Philip Qunicy, “The Bombardment of Damascus,” American Journal of International Law, 20:2 (1926), pp. 263–80
Zeine, N. Zeine, The Struggle for Arab Independence: Western Diplomacy and the Rise and Fall of Faisal’s Kingdom in Syria, 2nd edition (New York: Caravan, 1977)
Zürcher, Erik-Jan, “The Vocabulary of Muslim Nationalism,” International Journal of the Sociology of Science, 137 (1999)
Zürcher, Erik-Jan, “The Ottoman Conscription System in Theory and Practice, 1844–1918,” International Review of Social History, 43 (1998)
Zürcher, Erik-Jan, (ed.), Jihad and Islam in World War I: Studies on the Ottoman Jihad on the Centenary of Snouck Hurgronje’s “Holy War Made in Germany” (Leiden University Press, 2016)