Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: February 2014

10 - Murine rodents: late but highly successful invaders

from Part I - Ancient invaders



Prior to European settlement the Australian continental landmass (i.e. Australia plus the main island of New Guinea; Figure 10.1) was successfully invaded by only four groups of placental mammals: bats (Chapter 8), rodents, primates (our own species) and the dog (which almost certainly came with people; Chapter 19). Not surprisingly, bats were the earliest and in many respects, the most successful invaders (Hand 2006). Bats colonised Australia at least nine times, commencing sometime prior to the Early Eocene (Hand et al. 1994) when Australia was still connected to other Gondwanan landmasses. At the other end of the geological timescale, humans entered the region only during the late Pleistocene (c. 50 thousand years ago; kya) despite a much longer occupancy of islands to the immediate north (Morwood et al. 1999). Later still, the dog was transported to Australia around 4000 years ago (see Chapter 19). Rodents represent the middle ground in the history of placental invasion of Australia. They first entered the Australasian region during the late Miocene, after northward drift had brought the Australian continental plate into collisional contact with the Asian Plate (Lee et al. 1981). Despite the proximity of landmasses, the journey from Asia to Australasia still involved multiple water crossings, even during periods of low sea levels. Ultimately, only one of the many different kinds of rodents found in Asia proved fit for the challenge – the true rats and mice of the family Muridae – but members of this group succeeded on multiple occasions through natural dispersal and, more recently, with human assistance.

At the time of European settlement Australia supported around 66 species of native rats and mice, more species than in any family of marsupials or bats. Murine diversity is even more pronounced on the island of New Guinea and its major satellites to the north, with 114 species of native rodents already known and more being discovered (Helgen 2005a, b; Musser et al. 2008; Helgen and Helgen 2009; Musser and Lunde 2010). Native rodents thus comprised around 29% of the native terrestrial mammal fauna of Australia, and around 59% of that of the Melanesian islands. These figures do not rest comfortably with the common notion of Australasia as a continent of marsupials – but they do point to a fascinating history of invasion by what is clearly a highly successful evolutionary lineage.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Allison, A. (1997). Zoogeography of amphibians and reptiles of New Guinea and the Pacific Region. In Keast, A. and Miller, S. E. (eds), The Origin and Evolution of Pacific Island Biotas, New Guinea to Eastern Polynesia: Patterns and Processes. Amsterdam: SPB Academic Publishing, pp. 407–436.
Allison, A. (2007). The herpetofauna of Indonesia’s Papua Province, New Guinea. In Marshall, A. J. and Beehler, B. M. (eds), The Ecology of Papua. Singapore: Periplus Press, pp. 564–616.
Amori, G. and Cristaldi, M. (1999). Brown rat. In Mitchell-Jones, A. J., Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W. et al. (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals. London, UK: Academic Press. pp. 278–279.
Aplin, K. P. (2006). Ten million years of rodent evolution in Australasia: phylogenetic evidence and a speculative historical biogeography. In Merrick, J. R., Archer, M., Hickey, G. M. and Lee, M. S. Y. (eds), Evolution and Biogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Sydney, Australia: Auscipub Pty Ltd., pp. 707–744.
Aplin, K. P. and Helgen, K. M. (2010). Quaternary murid rodents of Timor part I: new material of Coryphomys buehleri Schaub, 1937, and description of a second species of the genus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 341: 1–80.
Aplin, K. P. and Kale, E. (2011). Non-volant mammals of the Muller Range, Papua New Guinean. In Rapid Biological Assessments of the Nakanai Mountains and the upper Strickland Basin: Surveying the Biodiversity of Papua New Guinea’s Sublime Karst Environments. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 60. Arlington, VA: Conservation International, pp. 210–221.
Aplin, K. P. and Lalsiamliana, J. (2010). The chronicle and impacts of Mautam 2007–2009 in Mizoram. In Singleton, G. R., Belmain, S., Brown, P. R. and Krebs, C. (eds), Rodent Outbreaks and Food Security. Los Banos, Philippines: IRRI, pp. 13–48.
Aplin, K. P. and Opiang, M. (2011). Mammals of the Nakanai Plateau, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Conservation International Rapid Assessment Program. In Rapid Biological Assessments of the Nakanai Mountains and the Upper Strickland Basin: Surveying the Biodiversity of Papua New Guinea’s Sublime Karst Environments. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 60. Arlington, VA: Conservation International, pp. 85–103.
Aplin, K. and Pasveer, J. (2005). Mammals and other vertebrates from late Quaternary archaeological sites on Pulau Kobroor, Aru Islands, eastern Indonesia. In Archaeology of the Aru Islands, Terra Australis 22. Canberra, ACT: Pandanus Press, pp. 41–62.
Aplin, K. P., Baynes, A., Chappell, J. and Pillans, B. (2001). Pliocene and Quaternary vertebrate faunas from a succession of karstic and related coastal deposits on Barrow Island, northwestern Australia. 2001 Biennial Conference of the Australian Quaternary Association, Port Fairy, February 2001 (abstract only).
Aplin, K. P., Brown, P. R., Singleton, G. R., Boupha, B. Douang and Khamphoukeo, K. (2007). Rodents in the rice environments of Laos. In Schiller, J. M., Chanphengxay, M. B., Linquist, B., and Rao, S. Appa (eds), Rice in Laos. Los Banos, Philippines/Canberra, ACT: IRRI and ACIAR, pp. 291–308.
Aplin, K. P., Chesser, T., and ten Have, J. (2003). Evolutionary biology of the genus Rattus: profile of an archetypal rodent pest. Rats, mice and people: rodent biology and management, ACIAR Technical Report 96. Canberra, ACT: ACIAR, pp. 487–498.
Aplin, K. P., Pasveer, J. M. and Boles, W. E. (1999). Late Quaternary vertebrates from the Bird’s Head Peninsula, Irian Jaya, including descriptions of two, previously unknown marsupials. Records of the Western Australian Museum S57 : 351–387.
Aplin, K. P., Suzuki, H., Chinen, A. A. et al. (2011). Multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of black rats, PLoS One 6: e26357.
Archer, M., Hand, S. J. and Godthelp, H. J. (1994). Riversleigh, the Story of Animals in Ancient Rainforests of Inland Australia, 2nd edn. Sydney, Australia: Reed Books.
Banks, P. R. and Hughes, N. K. (2012). A review of the evidence for potential impacts of black rats (Rattus rattus) on wildlife and humans in Australia, Wildlife Research 39: 78–88.
Bastos, A. D., Nair, D., Taylor, P. J. et al. (2011). Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in South Africa. BMC Genetics 12: 26.
Baverstock, P. R., Watts, C. H. S., Hogarth, J. T., Robinson, A. C. and Robinson, J. F. (1977). Chromosome evolution in Australian rodents. II. The Rattus Group. Chromosoma (Berlin) 61: 227–241.
Beck, R. M. D. (2008). A dated phylogeny of marsupials using a molecular supermatrix and multiple fossil constraints. Journal of Mammalogy 89: 175–189.
Beck, R. M. D. (2009). Was the Oligo-Miocene Australian metatherian Yalkaparidon a ‘mammalian woodpecker’?. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 97: 1–17.
Berry, R. J. (1970). The natural history of the house mouse. Field Studies (London) 3: 219–262.
Berryman, A. A. (1992). The origins and evolution of predator–prey theory. Ecology 73: 1530–1535.
Beuchat, C. A. (1990). Body size, medullary thickness, and urine concentrating ability in mammals. American Journal of Physiology 258: 298–308.
Bilney, R. J., Cooke, R. and White, J. G. (2010). Underestimated and severe: small mammal decline from the forests of south-eastern Australia since European settlement, as revealed by a top-order predator. Biological Conservation 143: 52–59.
Boursot, P., Auffray, J. C., Britton-Davidian, J. and Bonhomme, F. (1993). The evolution of house mice. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2: 119–152.
Breed, W. G. and Ford, F. (2007) Native Mice and Rats, Australian Natural History Series, Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO publications.
Bryant, L. M., Donnellan, S. C., Hurwood, D. A. and Fuller, S. J. (2011). Phylogenetic relationships and divergence date estimates among Australo-Papuan mosaic-tailed rats from the Uromys division (Rodentia: Muridae). Zoologica Scripta 40: 433–447.
Byrne, M., Steane, D. A., Joseph, L. et al. (2011). Decline of a biome: evolution, contraction, fragmentation, extinction and invasion of the Australian mesic zone biota. Journal of Biogeography 38: 1635–1656.
Byrne, M., Yeates, D. K., Joseph, L. et al. (2008). Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota. Molecular Ecology 17: 4398–4417.
Choquenot, D. and Ruscoe, W. A. (2000). Mouse population eruptions in New Zealand forests: the role of population density and seedfall. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 1058–1070.
Clout, M. N. and Russell, J. C. (2007). The invasion ecology of mammals: a global perspective. Wildlife Research 35: 180–184.
Cox, M. P. G., Dickman, C. R. and Cox, W. G. (2000). Use of habitat by the black rat (Rattus rattus) at North Head, New South Wales: an observational and experimental study. Austral Ecology 25: 375–385.
Crabb, P. L. (1977). Fossil mammals of the lower Pleistocene Moorna Sands, southwestern New South Wales with an analysis of the Australian pseudomyine murid molars. PhD Thesis, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.
Cramb, J. and Hocknull, S. (2010). New Quaternary records of Conilurus (Rodentia: Muridae) from eastern and northern Australia with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 2634: 41–56.
Dawson, L., Muirhead, J., and Wroe, S. (1999). The Big Sink local fauna: a lower Pliocene mammalian fauna from the Wellington Caves complex, Wellington, New South Wales. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 265–290.
Dickman, C. R. (1986). An experimental study of competition between two species of dasyurid marsupials. Ecological Monographs 56: 221–241.
Dickman, C. R. and Watts, C. H. S. (2008). Black rat. In Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds), The Mammals of Australia, 3rd edn. Chatswood, Australia: Reed New Holland, pp. 707–709.
Dwyer, P. D. (1978). Rats, pigs and men: disturbance and diversity in the New Guinea highlands. Australian Journal of Ecology 3: 213–232.
Dwyer, P. D. (1984). From garden to forest: small rodents and plant succession in Papua New Guinea. Australian Mammalogy 7: 29–36.
Flannery, T. F. (1988). Origins of the Australo-Pacific land mammal fauna. Australian Zoological Reviews 1: 15–24.
Flannery, T. F. (1995). The Mammals of New Guinea, 2nd edn. Sydney, NSW: Reed Books.
Fox, B. J. (1982). Fire and mammalian secondary succession in an Australian coastal heath. Ecology 63: 1332–1341.
Fox, B. J. and Fox, M. D. (1984). Small-mammal recolonization of open-forest following sand mining. Australian Journal of Ecology 9: 241–252.
Franklin, D. C., Woinarski, J. C. Z. and Noske, R. A. (2000). Geographic patterning of species richness among granivorous birds in Australia. Journal of Biogeography 27: 829–842.
Gabriel, S. I., Stevens, M. I., Mathias, M. L. and Searle, J. B. (2011). Of mice and ‘convicts’: origin of the Australian house mouse, Mus musculus. PLoS ONE 6: e28622.
Gibb, G. C. and Penny, D. (2010). Two aspects along the continuum of pigeon evolution: a South-Pacific radiation and the relationship of pigeons within Neoaves. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 698–706.
Godthelp, H. (1999). Diversity, relationships and origins of the Tertiary and Quaternary rodents of Australia. In Archer, M., Arena, R., Bassarova, M. et al. (eds), Evolutionary History and Diversity of Australian Mammals. Australian Mammalogy 21: 1–45.
Godthelp, H. (2001). The Australian rodent fauna, flotilla’s flotsam or just fleet footed? In Metcalfe, I., Smith, J. M. B., Morwood, M. and Davidson, I. (eds), Faunal and Floral Migrations and Evolution in S.E. Asia–Australasia. Lisse, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, pp. 319–322.
Gongora, J., Swan, A. B., Chong, A. Y. et al. (2012). Genetic structure and phylogeography of platypuses revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Zoology 286: 110–119.
Goodman, S. M. (1994). Rattus on Madagascar and the dilemma of protecting the endemic rodent fauna. Conservation Biology 9: 450–453.
Haering, R. and Fox, B. J. (1995). Habitat utilization patterns of sympatric populations of Pseudomys gracilicaudatus and Rattus lutreolus in coastal heathland: a multivariate analysis. Australian Journal of Ecology 20: 427–41.
Haig, D. W. and Medd, D. (1996). Latest Miocene to Early Pliocene bathymetric cycles related to tectonism, Puri Anticline, Papuan Basin, Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 43: 451–465.
Haines, H., MacFarlane, W. V., Setchell, C. and Howard, B. (1974). Water turnover and pulmocutaneous evaporation of Australian desert dasyurids and murids. American Journal of Physiology 227: 958–963.
Hairston, N. G., Smith, F. E. and Slobodkin, L. B. (1960). Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist 94: 421–425.
Hand, S. J. (1984). Australia’s oldest rodents: master mariners from Malaysia. In Archer, M. and Clayton, G. (eds), Vertebrate Zoogeography and Evolution in Australasia. Perth, Australia: Hesperian Press, pp. 905–912.
Hand, S. J. (2006). Bat beginnings and biogeography: the Australasian record. In Merrick, J. R., Archer, M., Hickey, G. M. and Lee, M. S. Y. (eds), Evolution and Biogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Sydney, Australia: Auscipub Pty Ltd., pp. 673–705
Hand, S. J., Novacek, M. J., Godthelp, H. and Archer, M. (1994). First Eocene bat from Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14: 375–381.
Heinsohn, G. E. (1966). Ecology and reproduction of the Tasmanian bandicoots (Perameles gunnii and Isoodon obesulus). University of California Publications in Zoology 80: 1–96.
Helgen, K. M. (2005a). A new species of murid rodent (genus Mayermys) from south-eastern New Guinea. Mammalian Biology 70: 61–67.
Helgen, K. M. (2005b). The amphibious murines of New Guinea (Rodentia, Muridae): the generic status of Baiyankamys and description of a new species of Hydromys. Zootaxa 913: 1–20.
Helgen, K. M. (2007). A taxonomic and geographic overview of the mammal fauna of Papua. In Marshall, A. J. and Beehler, B. M. (eds), The Ecology of Papua. Pt 1. The Ecology of Indonesia Series. Volume V1. Singapore: Periplus Press, pp. 689–749.
Helgen, K. M. and Helgen, L. E. (2009). Biodiversity and biogeography of the moss-mice of New Guinea: a taxonomic revision of Pseudohydromys (Muridae: Murinae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 331: 230–313.
Hill, K. C. and Gleadow, A. J. W. (1989). Uplift and thermal history of the Papuan Fold Belt, Papua New Guinea: apatite fission track analysis. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 36: 515–539.
Hoberg, E. P. and Brooks, D. R. (2008). A macroevolutionary mosaic: episodic host-switching, geographical colonization and diversification in complex host–parasite systems. Journal of Biogeography 35: 1533–1550.
Hoch, E. and Holm, P. M. (1986). New K/Ar age determinations of the Awe Fauna Gangue, Papua New Guinea: consequences for Papuaustralian late Cenozoic biostratigraphy. Modern Geology 10: 181–195.
Hocknull, S. A. (2005). Ecological succession during the late Cainozoic of central eastern Queensland; extinction of a diverse rainforest community. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 51: 39–122.
Hocknull, S. A., Zhao, J.-X., Feng, Y.-x. and Webb, G. E. (2007). Responses of Quaternary rainforest vertebrates to climate change in Australia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 264: 317–331.
Hodell, D. A., Elmstrom, K. M. and Kennett, J. P. (1986). Latest Miocene benthic d18O changes, global ice volume, sea level and the ‘Messinian salinity crisis’. Nature 320: 411–414.
Hope, G. S. and Aplin, K. P. (2007). Palaeontology of Papua. In Marshall, A. J. and Beehler, B. M. (eds), The Ecology of Papua. Pt 1. The Ecology of Indonesia Series. Volume V1. Singapore: Periplus Press, pp. 246–254
Jansa, S., Barker, K. and Heaney, L. R. (2006). The pattern and timing of diversification of Philippine endemic rodents: evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Systematic Biology 55: 73–88.
Johnson, C. (2006). Australia’s Mammal Extinctions: A 50 000 Year History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kitchener, D. J. (1982). Predictors of vertebrate species richness in nature reserves in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Australian Wildlife Research 9: 1–7.
Kitchener, D. J., Chapman, A., Muir, B. G. and Palmer, M. (1980). The conservation value for mammals of reserves in the western Australian wheatbelt. Biological Conservation 18: 179–207.
Korpimaki, E., Brown, P. R., Jacob, J. and Pech, R. P. (2004). The puzzles of population cycles and outbreaks of small mammals solved?BioScience 54: 1071–1079.
Krajewski, C., Wroe, S. and Westerman, M. (2000). Molecular evidence for the pattern and timing of cladogenesis in dasyurid marsupials. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 375–404.
Krebs, C. J. (1996). Population cycles revisited. Journal of Mammalogy 77: 8–24.
Lecompte, E., Aplin, K., Denys, C., et al. (2008). Phylogeny and biogeography of African Murinae based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, with a new tribal classification of the subfamily. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 199.
Lee, A. K., Baverstock, P. R. and Watts, C. H. S. (1981). Rodents: the late invaders. In Keast, A. (ed.), Ecological Biogeography of Australia, Vol. 3. The Hague: Dr W. Junk, pp. 1521–1553.
Letnic, M. and Dickman, C. R. (2005). The responses of small mammals to patches regenerating after fire and rainfall in the Simpson Desert, central Australia. Austral Ecology 30: 24–39.
Levin, B. R., Lipsitch, M. and Bonhoeffer, S. (1999). Population biology, evolution, and infectious disease: convergence and synthesis. Science 283: 806–809.
Lisiecki, L. E. and Raymo, M. E. (2007). Plio–Pleistocene climate evolution: trends and transitions in glacial cycle dynamics. Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 56–69.
Lunney, D. (2008). Swamp rat. In Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds), The Mammals of Australia, 3rd edn. Chatswood, Australia: Reed New Holland, pp. 690–692.
Luo, J. and Fox, B. J. (1995). Competitive effects of Rattus lutreolus on food resource use by Pseudomys gracilicaudatus. Australian Journal of Ecology 20: 481–489.
MacArthur, R. H. and Wilson, E. O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mackness, B. S., Whitehead, P. W. and McNamara, G. C. (2000). New potassium–argon basalt date in relation to the Pliocene Bluff Downs Local Fauna, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 47: 807–811.
Macphail, M. K. (1996). Neogene environments in Australia, 1. Re-evaluation of microfloras associated with important early Pliocene marsupial remains at Grange Burn, southwest Victoria. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 92: 307–328.
Maitz, W. E. and Dickman, C. R. (2001). Competition and habitat use in two species of native Australian Rattus: is competition intense, or important?Oecologia 128 : 526–538.
Mansergh, I. M. and Broome, L. S. 1994. The Mountain Pygmy-possum of the Australian Alps. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press.
Maron, J. L. and Vilà, M. (2001). When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. Oikos 95: 361–373.
Marshall, L. G. (1973). Fossil vertebrate faunas from the Lake Victoria region. National Museum of Victoria, Memoirs 34: 151–171.
Megirian, D., Prideaux, G. J., Murray, P. F., and Smit, N. (2010). An Australian land mammal age biochronological scheme. Paleobiology 36: 658–671.
Moro, D. and Bradshaw, S. D. (1999). Water and sodium requirements of field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) and short-tailed mice (Leggadina lakedownensis) on Thevenard Island, in the arid Pilbara region of Western Australia. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 169: 419–428.
Moro, D. and Morris, K. (2000). Movements and refugia of Lakeland Downs short-tailed mice, Leggadina lakedownensis, and house mice, Mus domesticus, on Thevenard Island, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 27: 11–20.
Morton, S. R. (1985). Granivory in arid regions: comparison of Australia with North and South America. Ecology 66: 1859–1866.
Morton, S. R. and Davies, P. H. (1983). Food of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata) and an examination of granivory in birds of the Australian arid zone. Australian Journal of Ecology 8: 235–243.
Morton, S. R., Smith, D. M. Stafford, Dickman, C. R. et al. (2011). A fresh framework for the ecology of arid Australia. Journal of Arid Environments, 75, 313–329.
Morwood, M. J., Aziz, F., O’Sullivan, P. et al. (1999). Archaeological and palaeontological research in central Flores, East Indonesia: results of fieldwork 1997–98. Antiquity 73: 273–286.
Moseby, K. E., Reada, J. L., Patona, D. C. et al. (2011). Predation determines the outcome of 10 reintroduction attempts in arid South Australia. Biological Conservation 144: 2863–2872.
Musser, A. M. (1998). Evolution, biogeography and palaeoecology of the Ornithorhynchidae. Australian Mammalogy 20: 147–162.
Musser, G. G. (1981). The Giant Rat of Flores and its relatives east of Borneo and Bali. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 169: 67–176.
Musser, G. G. and Carleton, M. D. (2005). Family Muridae. In Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd edn. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 501–755.
Musser, G. G. and Lunde, D. P. (2010). Systematic reviews of New Guinea Coccymys and ‘Melomys’ albidens (Muridae, Murinae) with descriptions of new taxa. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 329.
Musser, G. G., Helgen, K. M. and Lunde, D. P. (2008). Systematic review of New Guinea Leptomys (Muridae, Murinae) with descriptions of two new species. American Museum Novitates 3624: 1–60.
Newsome, A. E. and Corbett, L. K. (1975). Outbreaks of rodents in central Australia: origins, declines and evolutionary considerations. In Prakash, I. and Ghosh, P. K. (eds), Rodents in Desert Environments. Monographiae Biologie. The Hague: Dr W. Junk, pp. 117–153.
O’Connor, S., Barham, A., Aplin, K. et al.(2011). The power of paradigms: examining the evidential basis for early to mid-Holocene pigs and pottery in Melanesia. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 2: 1–25.
Orians, G. H. and Milewski, A. V. (2007). Ecology of Australia: the effects of nutrient-poor soils and intense fires. Biological Reviews 82: 393–423.
Page, R. W. and McDougal, I. (1972). Ages of mineralization of gold and porphyry copper deposits in the New Guinean highlands. Economic Geology 67: 1034–1048.
Pasveer, J. M. and Aplin, K. P. (1998). Late Pleistocene to Recent faunal succession and environmental change in lowland New Guinea: evidence from the Bird’s Head of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Perspectives on the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Conference. Leiden, The Netherlands: Rodopi Publishers, pp. 891–930.
Pearson, D. E., Potter, T. and Maron, J. L. (2012). Biotic resistance: exclusion of native rodent consumers releases populations of a weak invader. Journal of Ecology 100: 1383–1390.
Pedersen, A. B., Jones, K. E., Nunn, C. L. and Altizer, S. (2007). Infectious diseases and extinction risk in wild mammals. Conservation Biology 21: 1269–1279.
Pickering, J. and Norris, C. A. (1996). New evidence concerning the extinction of the endemic murid Rattus macleari from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Australian Mammalogy 19: 19–25.
Piper, K. J. (2007). Early Pleistocene mammals from the Nelson Bay Local Fauna, Portland, Victoria, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27: 492–503.
Plane, M. D. (1967). Stratigraphy and vertebrate fauna of the Otibanda Formation, New Guinea. Bulletin of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Australia 85: 1–64.
Quarles van Ufford, A. and Cloos, M. (2005). Cenozoic tectonics of New Guinea. AAPG Bulletin 89: 119–140.
Rajabi-Maham, H., Orth, A. and Bonhomme, F. (2008). Phylogeography and postglacial expansion of Mus musculus domesticus inferred from mitochondrial DNA coalescent from Iran to Europe. Molecular Ecology 17: 627–641.
Rowe, K. C., Aplin, K. P., Baverstock, P. R. and Moritz, C. (2011). Recent and rapid speciation with limited morphological disparity in the genus Rattus. Systematic Biology 60: 188–203.
Rowe, K. C., Reno, M. L., Richmond, D. M., Adkins, R. M. and Steppan, S. J. (2008). Pliocene colonization and adaptive radiations in Australia and New Guinea (Sahul): multilocus systematics of the old endemic rodents (Muroidea: Murinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47: 84–101.
Serena, M., ed. (1994). Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna. Chipping Norton, UK: Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Schmidt, B., Coulson, G. and Di Stefano, J. (2010). Habitat partitioning among sympatric grey kangaroos and swamp wallabies in box-ironbark remnants. In Coulson, G. and Eldridge, M. (eds), Macropods: the Biology of Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-Kangaroos. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, pp. 219–230.
Simmons, G., Young, P., McKee, J., Meers, J. and Mizuno, T. (2011). The epidemiology of koala retrovirus. Juiekigaku Zasshi 15: 1–9.
Singleton, G. R. (2008). House mouse. In Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds), The Mammals of Australia, 3rd edn. Chatswood, Australia: Reed New Holland, pp. 706–707.
Singleton, G. R. and Redhead, T. D. (1990). Structure and biology of house mouse populations that plague irregularly: an evolutionary perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 41: 285–300.
Singleton, G. R., Belmain, S., Brown, P. R., Aplin, K., and Htwe, N. M. (2010). Impacts of rodent outbreaks on food security in Asia. Wildlife Research 37: 355–359.
Singleton, G. R., Brown, P. R., Pech, R. P. et al. (2005). One hundred years of eruptions of house mice in Australia: a natural biological curio. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84: 617–627.
Spratt, D. M. (1990). The role of helminths in the biological control of mammals. International Journal for Parasitology 20: 543–550.
Stearns, S. C. (1977). The evolution of life-history traits: a critique of the theory and a review of the data. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8: 145–171.
Steppan, S. J, Adkins, R. M. and Anderson, J. (2004). Phylogeny and divergence-date estimates of rapid radiations in muroid rodents based on multiple nuclear genes. Systematic Biology 53: 533–553.
Steppan, S. J., Zawadski, C. and Heaney, L. R. (2003). Molecular phylogeny of the endemic Philippine rodent Apomys (Muridae) and the dynamics of diversification in an oceanic archipelago. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 80: 699–715.
Stokes, V. L., Banks, P. B., Pech, R. P. and Spratt, D. M. (2009). Competition in an invaded rodent community reveals black rats as a threat to native bush rats in littoral rainforest of south-eastern Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 1239–1247.
Sutherland, E. F. and Dickman, C. R. (1999). Mechanisms of recovery after fire by rodents in the Australian environment: a review. Wildlife Research 26: 405–419.
Swadling, P. (1996). Plumes from Paradise, Trade Cycles in Outer Southeast Asia and Their Impact on New Guinea and Nearby Islands Until 1920. Queensland, Australia: Papua New Guinea National Museum in association with Robert Brown and Associates Pty Ltd.
Tate, G. H. H. (1951). Results of the Archbold Expedition. No. 65. The rodents of Australia and New Guinea. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 72: 501–728.
Taylor, J. M. and Horner, B. E. (1973). Results of the Archbold Expeditions, No. 98. Systematics of Australian Rattus (Rodentia, Muridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 150: 1–130.
Taylor, J. M., Calaby, J. H. and Van Deusen, H. M. (1982). A revision of the genus Rattus (Rodentia, Muridae) in the New Guinea region. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 173: 177–336.
Tedford, R. H. (1994). Succession of Pliocene through medial Pleistocene mammal faunas of southeastern Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum 27: 79–93.
Tedford, R. H., Wells, R. T. and Barghoorn, S. F. (1992). Tirari Formation and contained faunas, Pliocene of the Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. The Beagle, Records of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences 9: 173–194.
Terashima, M., Furusawa, S., Hanzawa, N. et al. (2006). Phylogeographic origin of Hokkaido house mice (Mus musculus) as indicated by maternal paternal and biparental inheritance molecules. Heredity 96: 128–138.
Turnbull, W. D. and LundeliusJr., E. L. (1970). The Hamilton Fauna: a late Pliocene mammalian record from the Grange Burn, Victoria. Fieldiana Geology 19: 1–163.
Van der Meij, M. A. A., de Bakker, M. A. G. and Bout, R. G. (2005). Phylogenetic relationships of finches and allies based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34: 97–105
Viggers, K. L., Lindenmayer, D. B. and Spratt, D. M. (1993). The importance of disease in reintroduction programmes. Wildlife Research 20: 687–698.
Wakefield, N. A. (1960a). Recent mammal bones in the Buchan District. Part 1. Victorian Naturalist 77: 164–178.
Wakefield, N. A. (1960b). Recent mammal bones in the Buchan District. Part 2. Victorian Naturalist 77: 227–240.
Watts, C. H. S. and Aplin, K. P. (2008). Brown rat. In Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds), The Mammals of Australia, 3rd edn. Chatswood, Australia: Reed New Holland, pp. 706–707.
Watts, C. H. S. and Aslin, H. J. (1981). The Rodents of Australia. Sydney, Australia: Angus and Robertson.
Westerman, M., Kear, B. P., Aplin, K. P. et al. (2012). Phylogenetic relationships of living and recently extinct bandicoots based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62: 97–108.
White, J. P., Clark, G. and Bedford, S. (2000). Distribution present and past of Rattus praetor in the Pacific and its implications. Pacific Science 54: 105–117.
Whitelaw, M. J. (1991). Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil vertebrate localities in southeastern Australia. Geological Society of America, Bulletin 103: 1493–1503.
Withers, P. C., Lee, A. K. and Martin, R. W. (1979). Metabolism, respiration and evaporative water loss in the Australian hopping-mouse Notomys alexis (Rodentia: Muridae). Australian Journal of Zoology 27: 195–204.
Woodburne, M. O. and Clemens, W. A. (1986). Revision of the Ektopodontidae (Mammalia; Marsupialia; Phalangeroidea) of the Australian Neogene. University of California Publications in Geological Science 131.
Wyatt, K. B., Campos, P. F., Gilbert, M. T. P., et al. (2008). Historical mammal extinction of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease. PLoS One 3(11): e3602.
Yosida, T. H. (1980). Cytogenetics of the Black Rat: Karyotype Evolution and Species Differentiation. Toyko: University of Tokyo Press.