Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: January 2017

4 - Surface Engineering with Deposition Technologies

Alpas, A. T. and Inagaki, J. (2000), ‘Effect of microstructure on fracture mechanisms in galvannealed coatings’, ISIJ International 40 (2), 172181.
Andersson, G. S., Mayer, W. N. and Wehner, G. K. (1962), ‘Sputtering of dielectrics by high frequency fields’, Journal of Applied Physics 33, 29912997.
Ang, A. S. M. and Berndt, C. C. (2014), ‘A review of testing methods for thermal spray coatings’, International Materials Reviews 59 (4), 179223.
Archer, N. J. (1975),‘Tungsten carbide coatings on steel’, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on CVD, Electrochemical Society, USA, 556573.
Archer, N. J. (1981), ‘Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposited tungsten carbide wear resistant coatings formed at low temperature’, Thin Solid Films 80, 221225.
Archer, N. J. and Yee, K. K. (1978), ‘Chemical vapour deposited tungsten carbide wear resistant coatings formed at low temperature’, Wear 48, 237250.
Ashby, M. F. and Jones, D. R. H. (1985), Engineering Materials 2, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 165167.
Ashby, M. F. and Jones, D. R. H. (2006), Engineering Materials 2, 3rd edn, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Asmann, M., Heberlein, J. and Pfender, E. (1999), ‘A review of diamond CVD utilising halogenated precursors’, Diamond & Related Materials 8, 116.
Baker, R. G. (1985), ‘Bearings in the automobile – challenge for the materials engineer’, Metals and Materials 1 (1), 4552.
Bauer, C., Leiste, H., Stüber, M., Ulrich, S. and Holleck, H. (2003), ‘Constitution, microstructure, mechanical properties and performance of magnetron sputtered carbon films with additions of silicon’, Mat.-wiss. U. Werkstoff. 34 (10/11), 912918.
Baum, G. A. (1967), Dow Chemical Company report, RFP-686 UC-25, Golden, Colorado.
Bello, I. (and 10 others) (2012), ‘Materials with extreme properties: Their structuring and applications’, Vacuum 86 (6), 575585.
Bendavid, A. and Martin, P. J. (2014), ‘Review of thin film materials deposited by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc process at CSIRO’, Journal of the Australian Ceramics Society 50 (1), 86101.
Bendavid, A., Martin, P. J., Comte, C. E., Preston, W., Haq, A. J., Magdon Ismail, F. S. and Singh, R. K. (2007), ‘The mechanical and biocompatibility of DLC-Si films prepared by pulsed DC plasma activated chemical vapour deposition’, Diamond and Related Materials 16, 16161622.
Berghaus, B. (1939), British Patent, 508,278.
Berghaus, B. (1940a), British Patent, 520,591.
Berghaus, B. (1940b), British Patent, 520,592.
Bergman, C. (1986), ‘TiN deposition using a vacuum arc source’, in Ion plating and implantation, American Society for Metals, 115122, edited by Hochman, R. F..
Besmann, T. M., Stinton, D. P., Lowden, R. A. and Lee, W. Y. (1997), ‘Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and infiltration (CVI)’, in ‘Carbide, nitride and boride materials synthesis and processing, Chapman & Hall, London, 547577, edited by Weimer, A. W..
Bewilogua, K., Brand, J., Thomsen, H., Weber, M. and Wittorf, R. (2005), ‘Structure, properties and applications of diamond-like carbon coatings prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering’, Zeitschrift für Metallkunde 96 (9), 9981004.
Bewilogua, K., Wittorf, R., Thomsen, H. and Weber, M. (2004), ‘DLC based coatings prepared by reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering’, Thin Solid Films 447–448, 142147.
Blocher, J. M. (1974), ‘Structure property process relationships in chemical vapor deposition CVD’, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology 11 (4), 680686.
Bonettii, R. S., Wiprächtiger, H. and Mohn, E. (1990), ‘CVD of titanium carbonitride at moderate temperature: Properties and applications’, Metal Powder Report, 1990 45 (12), 837840.
Bonetti-Lang, M., Bonett, R. and Hintermann, H. E. (1981), ‘Carbon nitride coatings at moderate temperature from organic C/N compounds’, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on CVD, Electrochemical Society, USA, 606616.
Boston, M. E., Turner, R. N., Morton, P. H. and Bell, ., Lanagan, J. (1992), ‘Surface treatment of metals and alloys’, UK patent GB2245601 (B).
Bouché, K., Barbier, F. and Coulet, A. (1998), ‘Intermetallic compound layer growth between solid iron and molten aluminium’, Materials Science & Engineering A249, 167175.
Brinker, C. J., Frye, G. C. and Hurd, A. J. (1991), ‘Fundamentals of Sol-gel dip coating’, Thin Solid Films 201 (1), 97108.
Browning, J. A. (1989), US Patent 4,836,447.
Browning, J. A. (1992a), ‘Hypervelocity impact fusion – a technical note’, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 1 (4), 289292.
Browning, J. A. (1992b), US Patent 5,120,582.
Bryant, W. A. (1977), ‘Review: The fundamentals of chemical vapour deposition’, Journal of Materials Science 12, 12851306.
Bryant, W. A. and Grab, G. P. (1991), US Patent 4,984,940.
Bull, S. J. and Rickerby, D. S. (1990), ‘New developments in the modelling of the hardness and scratch adhesion of thin-films’, Surface & Coatings Technology 42 (2), 149164.
Burnett, P. J. and Rickerby, D. S. (1988), ‘The scratch adhesion test – An elastic-plastic indentation analysis’, Thin Solid Films 157 (2), 233254.
Butler, E. P. (1985), ‘Transformation toughened zirconia ceramics’, Materials Science and technology 1 (6), 417432.
Campbell, I. E., Powell, C. F, Nowicki, D. H. and Gonser, B. W. (1949), ‘The vapor phase deposition of refractory materials’, J. Electrochem. Soc. 96, 318333.
Canning (1982), The Canning Handbook, 23rd edn, W. Canning, Plc, Birmingham, UK.
Carter, V. E. (1977), Metallic coatings for corrosion control, Newnes-Butterworths, London.
Carter, V. E. (1982), ‘Atmospheric corrosion of non-ferrous metals’, ch. 2, in Corrosion Processes, Applied Sciences Publishers, London, 77113, edited by Parkins, R. N..
Chambers, D. L. and Carmichael, D. C. (1971), ‘Electron beam techniques for ion plating’, Research & Development Magazine 22 (5), 3235.
Chapin, J. S. (1974), ‘The planar magnetron’, Research Development 25 (1), 3741.
Chatterjee-Fischer, R. and Mayr, P. (1986), ‘Erzeugung und unterschung von Mitteltemperatur CVD-Schicten’, Harterei Technische Mitteilungen 41 (3), 113126.
Church, P. K. and Knutson, O. J. (1975a), US Patent 3,873,344.
Church, P. K. and Knutson, O. J. (1975b), US Patent 3,925,575.
Christie, I. R. and Cameron, B. P. (1994), ‘Gold electroplating within the electronics industry’, Gold Bulletin 27 (1), 1220.
Cullity, B. D. (1978), Elements of X-ray diffraction, 2nd edn, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, 101102, 447478.
Dahm, K. L. and Dearnley, P. A. (1996), ‘S-phase coatings produced by unbalanced magnetron sputtering’, Surface Engineering 12 (1), 6167.
Dearnley, P. A. (1999), ‘A review of metallic, ceramic and surface-treated metals used for bearing surfaces in human joint replacements’, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 213 (H), 107135.
Dearnley, P. A. (1980), ‘Wear mechanisms of coated cemented carbide cutting tools’, PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.
Dearnley, P. A. and Anderson, K. (1987), ‘A preliminary evaluation of the potential of laser beam heating for the production of high melting point oxide coatings’, Journal of Materials Science 22 (2), 679682.
Dearnley, P. A., OestGaard, M., Betts, A. J. and Wright, G. A. (1996), ‘Corrosion response of fusion coated austenitic stainless steel’, British Corrosion Journal 31 (3), 235238.
Dearnley, P. A. and Roberts, K. (1991a), ‘Titanium matrix composites via vacuum plasma spraying. Part 1: Optimising process parameters’, Powder Metallurgy 34 (1), 2332.
Dearnley, P. A. and Roberts, K. (1991b), ‘Titanium matrix composites via vacuum plasma spraying. Part 2: Plasma instability and mechanisms of co-spray deposition’, Powder Metallurgy 34 (2), 112118.
Dearnley, P. A., Roberts, K. A. and Clyne, T. W. (1989), ‘Some observations on the microstructure of boron carbide reinforced titanium composites produced by spray co-deposition’, 12th International Plansee Seminar ’89, Proceedings Volume 3, Paper C31, Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 523538, edited by Bildstein, H. and Ortner, H. M..
Dearnley, P. A. and Trent, E. M. (1982), ‘Wear mechanisms of coated carbide tools’, Metals Technology 9 (1982), 6075.
Dennis, J. K. and Such, T. E. (1993), Nickel and chromium plating, 3rd edn, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, 163190, 314323.
Elvins, J., Spittle, J. A. and Worsley, D. A. (2005), ‘Microstructural changes in zinc aluminium alloy galvanising as a function of processing parameters and their influence on corrosion’, Corrosion Science 47, 27402759.
Fancey, K. S. and Matthews, A. (1991), ‘Plasma assisted physical vapour deposition’, ch. 6, in Advanced Surface Coatings, Blackie, Glasgow, 127159, edited by Rickerby, D. S. and Matthews, A..
Gabe, D. R. (2000), ‘Emergence of chemical and electrochemical processes in surface engineering’, Surface Engineering 16 (5), 379385.
Garg, D., Dyer, P. N., Dimos, D. B., Sunder, S. M., Hintermann, H. E. and Maillet, M. (1988), ‘Low temperature CVD tungsten carbide coatings for wear/erosion resistance’, Ceramic Engineering Science Proceedings 9 (9–10), 12151222.
Garg, D, Wrecsics, E. I., Schaffer, E. L., Mueller, C. F., Dyer, P. N. and Fabregas, K. R. (1991), ‘Low temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for forming tungsten and tungsten carbide’, US Patent 5,006,371.
Gaudiello, J. G. (1996), ‘Autocatalytic gold plating process for electronic packaging applications’, IEEE Transactions on components packaging and manufacturing technology, Part A, Vol. 19, 4144.
Gill, W. D. and Kay, E. (1965), ‘Efficient low pressure sputtering in a large inverted magnetron suitable for film synthesis’, Review of Scientific Instruments 36, 277281.
Green, T. A. (2007), ‘Gold electrodeposition for microelectronic, opto-electronic and micro-system applications’, Gold Bulletin 40 (2), 105114.
Griffiths, W. J. and Cantow, F. G. (1995), Proceedings of T&N Technical Symposium, Würzburg-Indianapolis, USA, May 1995, Paper T&N 23; also see European Patent 0217126.
Grove, W. R. (1852), ‘On the electro-chemical polarity of gases’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 142, 87101.
Hara, A., Yamamoto, T. and Tobioko, M. (1977), Proceedings of the 9th Plansee Seminar, Vol. II, Paper 33, Reutte, Austria.
Hatschek, R. L. (1983), ‘Coatings revolution in HSS tools’, Special Report 752, American Machinist (March 1983), 129144.
Haubner, R. (2013), ‘The history of CVD coatings for tool applications at the University of Technology Vienna’, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials 41, 2234.
Hilton, M. R., Narasimhan, L. R. and Nakumara, S. (1986), ‘Composition, morphology and mechanical properties of plasma assisted chemical vapor deposited TiN films on M2 tool steel’, Thin Solid Films 139, 247260.
Hmiel, A. F. (1985), ‘Partial pressure control of reactively sputtered titanium nitride’, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A3 (3), 592595.
HMSO (1986), Wear resistant surfaces in engineering – A guide to their production properties and selection, Department of Trade and Industry, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London.
Hutchings, I. M. (1992), Tribology – Friction and wear of engineering materials, Edward Arnold, London, 250257.
Hüttebräucker, K.-F., Litzke, H., Rudolph, W., Schonenberg, R., Steck, K. and Tacke, G. (1994), ‘Die neue Feuerverzinkungsanlage der Krupp Hoesch Stahl AG in Bochum’, Stahl und Eisen 114, 193200.
Jang, J. H., Joo, B. D., van Tyne, C. J. and Moon, Y. H. (2010), ‘Characterization of the aluminium coating layer in the hot press forming of boron steel’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B, Journal of Engineering Manufacture 224, 8793.
Janssen, G. C. A. M., Tichelaar, F. D. and Visser, C. C. G. (2006), ‘Stress gradients in CrN coatings’, Journal of Applied Physics 100, 093512.
Jianliang, L., Sproul, W. D. and Moore, J. J. (2012), ‘Tribological behaviour of thick CrN coatings deposited by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering’, Surface and Coatings Technology 206, 24742483.
Jones, J. L. and Chidester, K. M. (1986), ‘Multilayered chromium oxide bonded, hardened and densified coatings and method of making same’, US Patent 4,615,913.
Jordon, H. (and 9 others) (2004), ‘Superior thermal barrier coatings using solution precursor plasma spray’, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 13 (1), 5765.
Joy, K., Berlin, I. and Nair, J. (2011), ‘Effects of annealing temperature on the structural and photoluminescence properties of nano-crystalline ZrO2 thin films processed by the sol-gel route’, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 72 (6), 673677.
Kafizas, A., Carmalt, C. J. and Parkin, I. P. (2013), ‘CVD and precursor chemistry of transition metal nitrides’, Coordination Chemistry Reviews 257, 20732119.
Kamminga, J.-D., de Keijser, Th. H., Delhez, R. and Mittemeijer, E. J. (2000), ‘On the origin of stress in magnetron sputtered TiN layers’, Journal of Applied Physics 88 (11), 63326345.
Karbasian, H. and Tekkaya, A. E. (2010), ‘A review on hot stamping’, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210, 21032118.
Kattner, U. R. and Burton, B. P. (1999), in ASM Handbook, Volume 3: Alloy Phase Diagrams, 3rd prntg, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 2.44.
Kay, E. (1963), ‘Magnetic field effects on an abnormal truncated glow discharge and their relation to sputtered thin film growth’, Journal of Applied Physics 34, 760766.
Kim, J.-G., Lee, K.-R. and Yang, S.-J. (2008), ‘Wear-corrosion performance of Si-DLC coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrate’, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 86A, 4147.
Kingery, W. D., Bowen, H. K. and Uhlmann, D. R. (1976), Introduction to Ceramics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 817830.
Kobayashi, S. and Yakou, T. (2002), ‘Control of intermetallic compound layers …’, Materials Science and EngineeringA338, 4453.
Koda, S., Morozumi, S. and Kan, A. (1962), ‘Composition and formation mechanism of the alloy layer in aluminum coated steel’, J. Jpn. Inst. Metals 26, 764769.
Kohr, K. A. and Loh, N. L. (1995), ‘Hot isostatic pressing of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating systems’, in Surface Modification Technologues VIII, Institute of Materials, Book No. 617, 688703.
Kondratiuk, J. and Kuhn, J. (2011), ‘Tribological investigation on friction and wear behaviour of coatings for hot steel sheet metal forming’, Wear 270, 839849.
Kübel, E. (1991), ‘New developments in chemically vapour deposited coatings from an industrial point of view’, Surface and Coatings Technology 49, 268274.
Kumagai, H. Y. (1984), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on CVD, Electrochemical Society, USA, 189203.
Langford, J. I. (1968), ‘The variance and other measures of line broadening in powder diffractometry. I: Practical considerations’, Journal of Applied Crystallography 1 (1), 4859.
Larsson, A. and Ruppi, S. (2002), ‘Microstructure and properties of Ti(C,N) coatings produced by moderate temperature chemical vapour deposition’, Thin Solid Films 402, 203210.
Lebaili, S., Durand-Charre, M. and Hamar-Thibault, S. (1988), ‘The metallurgical structure of as solidified Ni-Cr-B-Si-C hardfacing alloys’, Journal of Materials Science 23 (10), 303361.
Lee, W. W. and Oblas, D. (1970), ‘Argon concentration in tungsten films deposited by DC sputtering’, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology 7 (1), 129133.
Liew, M. J., Roy, S. and Scott, K. (2003), ‘Development of non-toxic elelctrolyte for soft gold electrodeposition’, Green Chemistry 40 (2), 105114.
Lindström, J. N. and Johannesson, R. T. (1975), ‘Nucleation of Al2O3 layers on cemented carbide tools’, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on CVD, Electrochemical Society, USA, 453468.
Mackowiak, J. and Short, N. R. (1979), ‘Metallurgy of galvanized coatings’, Int. Met. Rev 24, 119.
Marder, A R. (2000), ‘The metallurgy of zinc coated steel’, Progress in Materials Science 45, 191271.
Martin, P. J. and Bendavid, A. (2001), ‘Review of the filtered arc process and materials deposition’, Thin Solid Films 394, 115.
Matejka, D. and Benko, B. (1989), ‘Plasma spraying of metallic and ceramic materials’, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
Matthews, A. (1985), ‘Titanium nitride PVD coating technology’, Surface Engineering 1 (2), 93104.
Matthews, A. and Teer, D.G. (1980), ‘Evaluation of coating wear resistance for bulk metal forming’, Thin Solid Films 73 (2), 315321.
Matthews, A. and Teer, D. G. (1981), ‘Characteristics of a thermionically assisted triode ion plating system’, Thin Solid Films 80 (1–3), 4148.
Mattox, D. M. (1973), ‘Fundamentals of ion plating’, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10 (1), 4752.
Mattox, D. M. and Kominiak, G. J. (1972), ‘Structure modification by ion bombardment during deposition’, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9 (1), 528532.
McClanahan, E. D. and Laegreid, N. (1991), ‘Production of thin films by controlled deposition of sputtered material’, in Sputtering by Particle Bombardment III, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 339377, edited by Behrisch, R. and Wittmaack, K..
McPherson, R. (1981), ‘The relationship between the mechanism of formation, microstructure and properties of plasma sprayed coatings’, Thin Solid Films 83, 297310.
Movchan, B. A. and Demchishin, A. V. (1969), ‘Investigation of the structure and properties of thick vacuum deposited films’, Physics of Metals and Metallography (English translation) 28(4), 8390.
Muehlberger, D. E. (1986), ‘Applications of ion vapour deposited aluminium coatings’, in Ion plating and implantation, American Society for Metals, 7579, edited by Hochman, R. F..
Münster, A. and Ruppert, W. (1953), ‘Oberflächenschichten aus hochschmelzenden titan verbindungen’, Z. Electrochem. 57 (7), 564571.
Murray, J. L. (1999), in ASM Handbook, Volume 3: Alloy Phase Diagrams, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 3rd prntg, 2.56.
Nash, P. and Nash, A. (1991), in ASM Handbook, Volume 3: Alloy Phase Diagrams, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 3rd prntg, 2.318.
Nicoll, A. R., Gruner, H., Prince, R. and Wuest, G. (1985), ‘Thermal spray coatings for high temperature protection’, Surface Engineering 1 (1), 5971.
Okinaka, Y. (1974), ‘Electroless solutions’, ch. 11, in Gold plating technology, Electrochemical Publications Limited, Ayr, Scotland, edited by Reid, F. and Goldie, W..
Okinaka, Y. and Hoshino, M. (1998), ‘Some recent topics in gold plating for electronics applications’, Gold Bulletin 31 (1), 313.
Osaka, T., Kodera, A., Misato, T., Homma, T., Okinaka, Y. and Yoshioko, O. (1997), ‘Electrodeposition of soft gold from a thiosulfate-sulfite bath for electronics applications’, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 144 (10), 34623469.
Pawlowski, L. (1995), The Science & Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
Peng, X. L. and Clyne, T. W. (1998a), ‘Residual stress and debonding of DLC films on metallic substrates’, Diamond and Related Materials (Switzerland) 7 (7), 944950.
Peng, X. L. and Clyne, T. W. (1998b), ‘Mechanical stability of DLC films on metallic substrates … Part lI: Interfacial toughness, debonding and blistering’, Thin Solid Films 312, 219227.
Petrov, I., Hultman, L., Helmersson, U., Sundgren, J.-E. and Greene, J. E. (1989), ‘Microstructure modification of TiN by ion bombardment during reactive sputter deposition’, Thin Solid Films 169, 299301.
Pierson, H. O. (1992), Handbook of chemical vapour deposition CVD, Noyes Publishing, Park Ridge, New Jersey.
Powell, C. F. (1966), ‘Chemically deposited non-metals’, ch. 11, in Vapour deposition, John Wiley & Sons, New York., 343419, edited by Powell, C. F., Oxley, J. J. H. and Blocher, J. M..
Pratt, G. C. (1973), ‘Materials for plain bearings’, International Metallurgical Reviews 18 (2), 6268.
Redhead, P. A. (1999), ‘History of vacuum devices’, CERN Accelerator School Vacuum Technology Proceedings, Book Series: CERN Reports 99 (5), 281290.
Reineck, I., Sjostrand, M. E., Karner, J. and Pedrazzini, M. (1996), ‘HCDCA diamond coated cutting tools’, Diamond & Related Materials 5, 819824.
Richards, R. W., Jones, R. D. and Clements, P. D. (1994), ‘Metallurgy of continuous hot dip aluminizing’, International Materials Reviews 39 (5), 191212.
Richerson, D. W. (1992), Modern ceramic engineering, Marcel Dekker, New York, 166, 399401.
Rickerby, D. S. and Newberry, R. B. (1988), ‘Structure, properties and applications of TiN produced by sputter ion plating’, Vacuum 38 (3), 161166.
Rigney, D. V., Viguie, R., Wortman, D. J. and Skelly, D. W. (1997), ‘PVD thermal barrier coating applications and process development for aircraft engines’, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 6 (2), 167175.
Robertson, J. (2002), ‘Diamond-like amorphous carbon’, Materials Science and Engineering Reports R37, 129281.
Ruppi, S. (2004), US Patent 6,689,450.
Sablev, L. P. (1974), US Patent 3,734,179.
Santhanam, A. T., Quinto, D. T. and Grab, G. P. (1996), ‘Comparison of the steel milling performance of carbide inserts with MTCVD and PVD TiCN coatings’, International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials 14 (1–3), 3140.
Saunders, S. R. J. (1993), ‘Measurement methods in surface engineering’, Surface Engineering 9 (4), 293299.
Savvides, N. and Window, B. (1986), ‘Unbalanced magnetron ion assisted deposition and property modification of thin films’, J. Vac Sci Technol. A4 (1), 504508.
Schaffer, P. S. (1965), ‘Vapor-phase growth of alpha alumina single crystals’, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 48 (10), 508511.
Schneider, J. M., Sproul, W. D., Chia, R. W. J., Wong, M.-S., Matthews, A. (1997), ‘Very high rate reactive sputtering of alumina hard coatings’, Surface and Coatings Technology 96, 262266.
Schulz, U., Terry, S. G. and Levi, C. G. (2003), ‘Microstructure and texture of EB-PVD TBCs grown under different rotation modes’, Materials Science & Engineering A 360, 319329.
Scott, K. T. and Kingswell, R. (1991), ‘Thermal spraying’, ch. 9, in Advanced surface coatings, Blackie, Glasgow, 217242, edited by Rickerby, D. S. and Matthews, A..
Sendzimer, T. (1938), US Patent 2,110,893.
Sendzimer, T. (1964), US Patent 3,383,189.
Shih, H. C., Hsu, J. W., Sun, C. N. and Chung, S. C. (2002), ‘The lifetime assessment of hot dip 5% Al-Zn coatings in chloride environments’, Surface and Coatings Technology 150, 7075.
Skelly, D. W. (1998), US Patent 5,773,078.
Sloof, W. G., Kooi, B. J., de Keojser, Th. and Mittemeijer, E. J. (1996), ‘Diffraction analysis of nonuniform stresses in surface layers: Application to cracked TiN coatings chemically vapor depositedon Mo’, Journal of Materials Research 11 (6), 14401457.
Spalvins, T. (1978), ‘Coatings for wear and lubrication’, Thin Solid Films 53 (3), 285300.
Sproul, W. D. and Rothstein, R. (1985), ‘High rate reactively sputtered TiN coatings on high speed steel drills’, Thin Solid Films 126, 257263.
Sproul, W. D., Rudnik, P. and Gogol, C. A. (1989), ‘The effect of target power on the nitrogen partial pressure level and hardness of reactively sputtered titanium nitride coatings’, Thin Solid Films 171, 171181.
Sproul, W. D., Rudnik, P., Graham, M. E. and Rohde, S. L. (1990), ‘High rate reactive sputtering in an opposed cathode closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system’, Surface and Coatings Technology 43 /44, 270278.
Staines, A. M. (1990), ‘Trends in plasma assisted surface engineering processes’, Heat Treatment of Metals, Part 4, 8592.
Steffens, H. D., Babiak, Z. and Wewel, M. (1990), ‘Recent developments in arc spraying’, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 18 (10), 974979.
Stoney, G. G. (1909), ‘The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis’, Proceedings of the Royal Society London A 82, 172175.
Strondl, C., van der Kolk, G. J., Hurkmans, T., Fleischer, W., Trinh, T., Carvalho, N. M. and de Hosson, J. Th. M. (2001), ‘Properties and characterization of multilayers of carbides and diamond-like carbon’, Surface & Coatings Technology 142 –144, 707713.
Sulin, A., Olofsson, R., Ruppi, S. and Qvick, J. (2003), US Patent 6,632,514 B1.
Sun, Y. (1989), ‘Plasma nitriding and PVD ceramic coating of low alloy steel’, PhD thesis, University of Birmingham.
Takahashi, T., Sugiyama, K. and Suzuki, Y. (1971), Journal of Crystal Growth 10, 139143.
Tanner, D. A. and Robinson, J. S. (2014), ‘Reducing residual stress in 2014 aluminium alloy die forgings’, Materials & Design 29, 14891496.
Thornton, J. A. (1977), ‘High rate thick film growth’, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239260.
Thornton, J. A. and Hoffman, D. W. (1977), ‘Internal stress in titanium, nickel, molybdenum and nickel films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering,’ Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology 14 (1), 164168.
Thornton, J. A. and Hoffman, D. W. (1989), ‘Stress related effects in thin films’, Thin Solid Films 171, 1531.
Tsui, Y.C. and Clyne, T. W. (1996), ‘Adhesion of thermal barrier coating systems and incorporation an oxidation barrier layer’, in Thermal Spray: Practical Solutions for Engineering Problems, Proceedings of the 9th National Thermal Spray Conference, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 275284.
Uchima, Y., Hasaka, M. and Koga, H. (1989), ‘Effect of structure and mischmetal addition on the corrosion behaviour of Zn-5 mass% Al Alloy’, in GALVETECH ’89, Tokyo, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 545.
Vakerlis, G., Halverston, W. D., Garg, D. and Dyer, P. N. (1991), US Patent 5052339, 1 October.
Vandenbulcke, L. and Vuillard, G. (1976), ‘Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous boron on massive substrates’, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 123 (2), 278285.
VDI (1992), VDI-Richtlinien 3198, German Standard.
Voigt, K. and Westphal, H. (1981), Proceedings of the 10th Plansee Seminar, Vol. 2, 611624, Reutte, Austria (Risley Translation 4877).
Vossen, J. L. and Kern, W., Eds (1978), Thin Film Processes, Academic Press, Orlando, USA.
Vossen, J. L. and Kern, W., Eds (1991), Thin Film Processes II, Academic Press, Boston, USA.
Walker, P. F. (1980), ‘Furnace fused hardfacings’, in Heat Treatment 79, Metals Society, London, 2226.
Wan, C. T., Chambers, D. L. and Caermichael, D. C. (1974), ‘Effect of processing conditions on characteristics of coatings vacuum deposited by ion plating’, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Vac. Tech., Tokyo, 231237.
Weiss, H., Mennningen, M. and Sauer, H. (1996), ‘Applications of fracture mechanics to the adhesion of metal coatings on CFRP’, in Surface Modifications IX, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, USA, 595600, edited by Sudarshan, T. S..
Window, B. and Savvides, N. (1986), ‘Unbalanced DC magnetrons as sources of high ion fluxes’, J. Vac Sci Technol. A4 (2), 453456.
Wong, M. S., Chia, W. J., Yashar, P., Schneider, J. M., Sproul, W. D. and Barnett, S. A. (1996), ‘High rate reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering of ZrOx coatings’, Surface and Coatings Technology 86 –87, 381387.
Wong, P. and Robinson, M. (1970), ‘Chemical vapour deposition of polycrystalline Al2O3Journal of the American Ceramic Society 13 (11), 617621.
Wright, A. W. (1877), ‘On the production of transparent metallic films by the electrical discharge in exhausted tubes’, American Journal of Sciences and Arts 13 (73–78), 4955.
Yee, K. K. (1978), ‘Protective coatings for metals by chemical vapour deposition’, International Metals Reviews 226 (23), 1941.
Ziebell, A. (2011), ‘Method and device for producing a metal component’, World Patent, WO 2011/026712 A2.
Zywitzki, O. and Hoetzsch, G. (1996), ‘Influence of coating parameters on the structure and properties of Al2O3 layers reactively deposited by means of pulsed magnetron sputtering’, Surface and Coatings Technology 82 (1–2), 169175.