Abd al-Karim, Khalil. 1995. Al-Islam been al-Dawla al-Diniyya wa al-Dawla al-Madaniyya. Cairo: Sina.
Akhavi, Shahrough. 1980. Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Akinci, Uğur. 1999. “The Welfare Party’s Municipal Track Record: Evaluating Islamist Municipal Activism in Turkey.” Middle East Journal 53/1 (Winter): 75–94.
Al-Affendi, Abdelwahab. 1991. Turabi’s Revolution: Islam and Power in Sudan. London: Grey Seal.
Al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr. 2015. “Al-Furqan media.”
Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities. New York: Verso.
Ansari, Hamied N. 1984. “The Islamic Militants in Egyptian Politics.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 16/1 (March): 123–144.
Beinin, Joel and Stork, Joe. 1997a. “On the Modernity, Historical Specificity, and International Context of Political Islam.” In Beinin, and Stork, , Political Islam. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Beinin, Joel and Stork, Joe, eds. 1997b. Political Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Berejikian, Jeffrey. 1992. “Revolutionary Collective Action and the Agent-Structure Problem.” American Political Science Review 86/3 (September): 647–657.
Berkowitz, Leonard. 1968. “The Study of Urban Violence: Some Implications of Laboratory Studies of Frustration and Aggression.” In Masotti, Louis H. and Bowen, Don R., eds. Riots and Rebellion: Civil Violence in the Urban Community. New York: Sage.
Betz, Hans-Georg and Immerfall, Stefan, eds. 1998. New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. New York: Palgrave.
Burgat, François and Dowell, William. 1993. The Islamic Movement in North Africa. Austin: University of Texas Center for Middle Eastern Studies.
Burke, Edmund III. 1988. “Islam and Social Movements: Methodological Reflections.” In Burke and Lapidus, Islam, Politics, and Social Movements.
Burke, Edmund III and Lapidus, Ira M., eds. 1988. Islam, Politics, and Social Movements. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Clancy-Smith, Julia. 1988. “Saints, Mahdis, and Arms: Religion and Resistance in Nineteenth-Century North Africa.” In Burke, and Lapidus, , Islam, Politics, and Social Movements. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Clark, Janine. 2004. Islam, Charity, and Activism: Middle Class Networks and Social Welfare in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN.
Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke, and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2005. “The Collier-Hoeffler Model of Civil War Onset and the Case Study Project Research Design.” In Collier, Paul and Sambanis, Nicholas, eds. Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Connor, Walker. 1994. Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Darif, Mohammed. 1992. Al-Islam al-Siyasi fi al-Watan al-’Arabi. Rabat: al-Ma’arif al-Jadida.
Darif, Mohamed. 2000. Al-Din wa al-Siyasah fi al-Maghrib. Casablanca: al-Najah al-Jadida.
Davies, James C. 1962. “Toward a Theory of Revolution.” American Sociological Review 6/1 (February): 5–19.
Deeb, Mary Jane. 1996. “Islam and the State in Algeria and Morocco: A Dialectical Model.” In Ruedy, , Islamism and Secularism in North Africa. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Dekmejian, R. Hrair. 1980. “The Anatomy of Islamic Revival: Legitimacy Crisis, Ethnic Conflict, and the Search for Islamic Alternatives.” Middle East Journal 34:1.
Dekmejian, R. Hrair. 1995. Islam in Revolution: Fundamentalism in the Arab World, 2nd ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Dudley, Ryan and Miller, Ross A.. 1998. “Group Rebellion in the 1980s.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 42/1 (February): 77–96.
Eickelman, Dale and Piscatori, James. 1996. Muslim Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Esposito, John L. 1988. Islam and Politics, 4th ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Esposito, John L. and Voll, John O.. 1996. Islam and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Euben, Roxanne L. and Zaman, Muhammad Qasim, eds. 2009. Princeton Readings in Islamist Thought: Texts and Contexts from al-Banna to Bin Laden. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fahmy, Ninette S. 1998. “The Performance of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Egyptian Syndicates: An Alternative Formula for Reform?” Middle East Journal 52/4 (Autumn): 551–562.
Faksh, Mahmud A. 1997. The Future of Islam in the Middle East. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Feierabend, Ivo K. and Feierabend, Rosalind L.. 1966. “Aggressive Behaviors Within Polities, 1948–1962: A Cross-National Study.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 10/3 (September): 249–271.
Ferro, Marc. 2002. Le Choc de L’Islam. Paris: Odile Jacob.
Foran, John, ed. 1997. Theorizing Revolutions: New Approaches across the Disciplines. London: Routledge.
Goldstone, Jack A. 1993. Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Goldstone, Jack A. 1997. “Population Growth and Revolutionary Crisis.” In Foran, Theorizing Revolutions.
Gurr, Ted Robert. 1970. Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hafez, Mohammed M. 2003. Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Halliday, Fred. 1996. Islam and the Myth of Confrontation: Religion and Politics in the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris.
Hefner, Robert W. and Horvatich, Patricia, eds. 1997. Islam in an Era of Nation-States: Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim South-East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Hegghammer, Thomas. 2010. Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hiro, Dilip. 2002. War Without End: The Rise of Islamist Terrorism and Global Response. London: Routledge.
Hunter, Shireen T. 1998. The Future of Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations or Peaceful Coexistence? Westport, CT: Praeger.
Huntington, Samuel H. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ibrahim, SE. 1980. “Anatomy of Egypt’s Militant Islamist Groups: Methodological Note and Preliminary Findings.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 12/4: 423–453.
Jenkins, J. Craig. 1983. “Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 9: 527–53.
Johnson, Chalmers. 1982. Revolutionary Change. 2nd ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Juergensmeyer, Mark. 1993. The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 1999. “Wanton and Senseless? The Logic of Massacres in Algeria.” Rationality and Society 11/3: 243–85.
Keddie, Nikki R. 1988. “Iranian Revolutions in Comparative Perspective.” In Burke, and Lapidus, , Islam, Politics, and Social Movements. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Keddie, Nikki R. 1994. “The Revolt of Islam, 1700 to 1993: Comparative Considerations and Relations to Imperialism.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 36/3 (July): 463–87.
Kepel, Gilles. 1993. Muslim Extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and Pharaoh. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kepel, Gilles. 2002. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert P. 1986. “Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies.” British Journal of Political Science 16: 57–85.
Kitschelt, Herbert P. 1997. The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kuran, Timur. 1991. “Now out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” World Politics 44/1: 7–48.
Lapidus, Ira M. 1988. “Islamic Political Movements: Patterns of Historical Change.” In Burke, and Lapidus, , Islam, Politics, and Social Movements. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Lawrence, Bruce. 1989. Defenders of God. New York: Harper & Row.
Lewis, Bernard. 1964. The Middle East and the West. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Lewis, Bernard. 1990. “The Roots of Muslim Rage.” The Atlantic Monthly 266/3: 47–60.
Lewis, Bernard. 1991. The Political Language of Islam. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lohmann, Susan. 1994. “Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany 1989–91.” World Politics 47/1: 42–101.
Lubeck, Paul. 1988. “Islamic Political Movements in Northern Nigeria: The Problem of Class Analysis.” In Burke, and Lapidus, , Islam, Politics, and Social Movements. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
McAdam, Doug. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N., eds. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles. 2001. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John D. and Zald, Mayer N.. 1987. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” In Zald, Mayer N. and McCarthy, John D., eds. Social Movements in an Organizational Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Medani, Khalid. 1997. “Funding Fundamentalism: The Political Economy of an Islamist State.” In Beinin, and Stork, , Political Islam. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Moaddel, Mansoor. 2002a. Jordanian Exceptionalism: A Comparative Analysis of State–Religion Relationships in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Syria. New York: Palgrave.
Moaddel, Mansoor. 2002b. “The Study of Islamic Culture and Politics: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 28:359–86.
Moussalli, Ahmad S. 1999. Moderate and Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: The Quest for Modernity, Legitimacy, and the Islamic State. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Muller, Edward N. 1985. “Income Inequality, Regime Repressiveness, and Political Violence.” American Sociological Review 50: 47–61.
Munson, Henry Jr. 1986. “The Social Base of Islamic Militancy in Morocco.” Middle East Journal 40/2 (Spring): 267–284.
Munson, Ziad. 2002. “Islamic Mobilization: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.” The Sociological Quarterly 42/4 (Fall): 487–510.
Murphy, Caryle. 2002. Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: The Egyptian Experience. New York: Scribner.
Nasr, Salim. 1997. “Roots of the Shi’i Movement in Lebanon.” In Beinin, and Stork, , Political Islam. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Oberschall, Anthony. 1972. Social Conflict and Social Movements. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Owen, Roger. 1992. State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East. London: Routledge.
Pipes, Daniel. 1983. In the Path of God: Islam and Political Power. New York: Basic Books.
Piscatori, James, ed. 1991. Islamic Fundamentalisms and the Gulf Crisis. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Pope, Nicole and Pope, Hugh. 1997. Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey. New York: Overlook.
Popkin, Samuel L. 1979. The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rashid, Ahmed. 2000. Taliban. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Roberts, Hugh. 1988. “Radical Islamism and the Dilemma of Algerian Nationalism: The Embattled Arians of Algiers.” Third World Quarterly 10/2: 556–589.
Roberts, Hugh. 1996. “Doctrinaire Economics and Political Opportunism in the Strategy of Algerian Islamism.” In Ruedy, John, Islamism and Secularism in North Africa. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Robinson, Glenn E. 2004. “Hamas as a Social Movement.” In Wiktorowicz, Quintan, ed. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Roy, Olivier. 1994. The Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ruedy, John, ed. 1996. Islamism and Secularism in North Africa. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies.
Sara, Faiz. 1994. Dirasat fi al-Islam al-Siyasi. Damascus: Dar Mashraq-Maghrib.
Schelling, Thomas C. 1978. Micromotives and Macrobehavior. New York: W. W. Norton.
Shadid, Anthony. 2002. Legacy of the Prophet: Despots, Democrats, and the New Politics of Islam. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smelser, Neil J. 1962. Theory of Collective Behavior. New York: Free Press.
Snow, David A. and Benford, Robert D.. 1988. “Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization.” In Klandermans, Bert, Kriesi, Haspeter, and Tarrow, Sidney, eds. From Structure to Action: Comparing Movement Participation Across Cultures. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Snow, David A. and Benford, Robert D.. 1992. “Master Frames and Cycles of Protest.” In Morris, Aldon and Mueller, Carol McClurg, eds. Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Snow, David A., Burke Rochford, E. Jr., Wordon, Steven K., and Benford, Robert D.. 1986. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation.” American Sociological Review 51: 464–481.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tessler, Mark. 1997. “The Origins of Popular Support for Islamist Movements: A Political Economy Analysis.” In Entelis, John P., ed. Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Tibi, Bassam. 1990. Islam and the Cultural Accommodation of Social Change. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Tibi, Bassam. 1998. The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam and the New World Disorder. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Vergès, Meriem. 1997. “Genesis of a Mobilization: The Young Activists of Algeria’s Islamic Salvation Front.” In Beinin, and Stork, , Political Islam. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Voll, John Obert. 1994. Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World, 2nd ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Waardenburg, Jacques. 2002. Islam: Historical, Social, and Political Perspectives. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Walton, John. 1984. Reluctant Rebels. New York: Columbia University Press.
Weaver, Mary Anne. 2000. A Portrait of Egypt: A Journey through the World of Militant Islam. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux.
Weede, Erich. 1987. “Some New Evidence on Correlates of Political Violence: Income Inequality, Regime Repressiveness, and Economic Development.” European Sociological Review 3: 97–108.
White, Jenny B. 2002. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study of Vernacular Politics. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. 2002. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press.
Wickham-Crowley, Timothy P. 1992. Guerillas and Revolution in Latin America: A Comparative Study of Insurgents and Regimes since 1956. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wickham-Crowley, Timothy P. 1997. “Structural Theories of Revolutions.” In Foran, , Theorizing Revolutions. New York, NY: Routledge.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan. 2001. The Management of Islamic Activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and State Power in Jordan. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan. 2003. “Explaining Cycles of Islamist Violence: Preliminary Thoughts on Frames and Muslim Rebellion in the Middle East 1990–1999.” (working paper)
Wictorowicz, Quintan. 2004a. “Introduction: Islamic Activism and Social Movement Theory.” In Wiktorowicz, , Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan, ed. 2004b. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Indiana University Press.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan. 2005. “A Geneology of Radical Islam.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 28/2: 75–97.
Wright, Robin. 1985. Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam. New York: Touchstone.