Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: May 2011

Chapter 18 - Oocyte and zona imaging


Medical treatment of endometriosis is a necessary step in the management of the disease due to its high rate of recurrence and different clinical situations. Women with endometriosis present a peritoneal environment with increased angiogenic activity. Angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels released by pre-existing vessels. Several antiangiogenic agents have been successfully tested in experimental models of endometriosis inhibiting new vessel formation. These compounds target specifically the endothelial cells without penetration in the tissues. Several anticancer drugs with antiangiogenic potential have been found to have a detrimental effect on reproductive function in both animal models and patients. The studies in experimental oncological models demonstrated that dopamine agonists (DA) have an antiangiogenic effect promoting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-2 endocytosis in endothelial cells, preventing the VEGF-VEGFR-2 union and avoiding receptor phosphorylation and signal cascade.


1. PalL, SantoroN. Age related decline in fertility. Endocr Metab Clin North Am 2003;32:669–88.
2. InoueS. The role of microtubule assembly dynamics in mitotic force generation and function organization of living cells. J Struct Biol 1999;118:87–93.
3. SalmonED, TranP. High resolution video enhanced differential interference contrast light microscopy. Meth Cell Biol 2007;81:335–64.
4. MunneS, AlikaniM, CohenJ. Monospermic polyploidy and atypical embryo morphology. Hum Reprod 1994;9:506–10.
5. BalabanB, UrmanB, SertacA, et al. Oocyte morphology does not affect fertilization rate, embryo quality and implantation rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 1998;13:2431–3.
6. SerhalPF, RaniereDM, KinisA, et al. Oocyte morphology predicts outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 1997;12:1267b–70b.
7. KahramamS, YakinK, DonmezE, et al. Relationship between granular cytoplasm of oocytes and pregnancy outcome following intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 2000;15:2390–93.
8. Van WissenB, EisenbergC, DebeyP, et al. In vitro DNA fluorescence after in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. J Assist Reprod Genet 1992;9:564–71.
9. Hassan-AliH, Hisham-SalehA, El-GezeiryD, et al. Perivitelline space granularity:a sign of human menopausal gonadotropin overdose in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 1998;13:3425–30.
10. Eichenlaub-RitterU, SchmiadyH, KentenichH, et al. Recurrent failure in polar body formation and premature chromosome condensation in oocytes from a human patient: indicator of asynchrony in nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Hum Reprod 1995;10:2343–9.
11. XiaP. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: correlation of oocyte graded based on polar body, perivitelline space and cytoplasmic inclusions with fertilization rate and embryo quality. Hum Reprod 1997;12:1750–5.
12. EdnerT, MoserM, YamanC, et al. Elective transfer of embryos selected on the basis of first polar body morphology is associated with increased rates of implantation and pregnancy. Fertil Steril 1999;72:599–603.
13. EdnerT, YamanC, MoserM, et al. Prognostic value of the first polar body morphology on fertilization rate and embryo quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 2000;15:427–30.
14. WassermanPM, LitscherES. The multifunctional zona pellucida and mammalian fertilization. J Reprod Immunol 2009;83:45–9.
15. BertrandE, Van den BerghM, EnglertY. Does zona pellucida thickness influence the fertilization rate? Hum Reprod 1995;10:1189–93.
16. CohenJ, IngeKI, SuzmanK. Videocinematography of fresh and cryopreserved embryos: a retrospective analysis of embryonic morphology and implantation. Fertil Steril 1989;51:820–7.
17. GabrielsenA, LindenbergS, PetersonK. The impact of the zona pellucida thickness variation of human embryos on pregnancy outcome in relation to suboptimal embryo development. A prospective randomized controlled study. Hum Reprod 2001;16:2166–70.
18. RankinT, DeanJ. The molecular genetics of the zona pellucida: mouse maturation and infertility. Hum Reprod 1996;2:886–94.
19. TrounsonA, AderieszC, JonesGM, et al. Oocyte maturation. Hum Reprod 1998;13(Suppl 3):52–62.
20. BattagliaDG, GoodwinP, KleinA, et al. Influence of maternal age on meiotic spindle in oocytes from naturally cycling women. Hum Reprod 1996;11:2217–22.
21. LiuL, BlascoMA, KeefeDL. Requirement of functional telomeres for metaphase alignment and integrity of meiotic spindles. EMBO Rep 2002;3:230–4.
22. TomitaK, CooperJP. The telomere bouquet controls the meiotic spindle. Cell 2007;130:113–26.
23. KeefeDL, LiuL. Telomeres and reproductive aging. Reprod Fertil Dev 2009;21:10–14.
24. InoueS. Polarization optical studies of the mitotic spindle. I. The demonstration of spindle fibers in living cells. Chromosoma 1953;5:487–500.
25. OldenbourgR. Polarized light microscopy of spindles. In: ReiderCL, ed. Methods in Cell Biology, vol. 16. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999: 175–208.
26. WangWH, MengL, HackettR, et al. The spindle observation and its relationship with fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in living oocytes. Fertil Steril 2001;75:348–53.
27. KeefeD, TranP, PelligriniC, OldenbourgR. Polarized light microscopy and digital imaging processing identify a multilaminar structure of the hamster zona pellucida. Hum Reprod 1997;12:1250–2.
28. SilvaCP, SilvaV, KommineniK, et al. Effect of in vitro culture of mammalian embryos on the architecture of the zona pellucida. Biol Bull 1997;193:235–6.
29. LiuL, KeefeDL. Aging associated aberration in meiosis of oocytes in senescence accelerated mice. Hum Reprod 2002;10:2678–85.
30. OldenbourgR. Analysis of microtubule dynamics by polarized light. Method Mol Med 2007;137:111–23.
31. WangWH, KeefeDL. Prediction of chromosome misalignment among in vitro matured human oocytes by spindle imaging with the polscope. Fertil Steril 2002;78:1077–81.
32. WangWH, MengL, HacketRJ, et al. Limited recovery of meiotic spindles in living human oocytes after cooling-rewarming observed using polarized light microscopy. Hum Reprod 2001;16:2374–8.
33. SunXF, WangWH, KeefeDL. Overheating is detrimental to meiotic spindle with in vitro matured human oocytes. Zygote 2004;12:65–70.
34. Rama RajuGA, PrakashGJ, KrishnaKM, MudanK. Meiotic spindle and zona pellucida characteristics as predictors of embryonic development: a preliminary studying using polscope imaging. Reprod Biomed Online 2007;14:166–74.
35. ShenY, StallT, MehnertC, et al. High magnitude of light retardation by the zona pellucida is associated with conception cycles. Hum Reprod 2005;20:1596–606.
36. KilaniS, CookeS, KanA, ChapmanM. Are there non-invasive markers in human oocytes that predict pregnancy outcome? Reprod Biomed Online 2009;18:674–80.
37. RienziL, MartinezF, UbaldiF, et al. Polscope analysis of meiotic spindle changes in living MII human oocytes during the freezing and thawing procedures. Hum Reprod 2004;19:655–9.
38. ChenCK, WangCS, Tsai, et al. Evaluation of meiotic spindles after in thawed oocytes after vitrification using polarized light microscopy. Fertil Steril 2004;82:666–72.
39. CohenY, MalcovM, SchwartzT, et al. Spindle imaging: a new marker for optimal timing of ICSI? Hum Reprod 2004;19:649–54.
40. GardnerRL. The axis of polarity of the mouse blastocyst is specified before blastulation and independently of the zona pellucida. Hum Reprod 2007;22:798–806.
41. Zernicka-GoetzM. Cleavage pattern and emerging asymmetry of the mouse embryo. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2005;12:919–28.
42. SilvaCP, KommineniK, OldenbourgR, KeefeDL. The first polar body does not predict accurately the location of the metaphase II meiotic spindle in mammalian oocytes. Fertil Steril 1999;71:719–21.
43. CookeS, TylerJP, DriscollGL. Meiotic spindle location and identity and its effect on embryo cleavage plane and early development. Hum Reprod 2003;18:2397–405.
44. LinL, OldenbourgR, TrimarchiJR, KeefeDL. A reliable, non-invasive technique for spindle imaging and enucleation of mammalian oocytes. Nat Biotech 2000;18:223–5.