Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: February 2015

2 - Health is more than health care

from Part I - Effects of health disparities on child development and throughout the life course

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

Adler, N. E., and Stewart, J. (2010). Preface to the biology of disadvantage: socioeconomic status and health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186(1), 1–4.
Almond, D. V., Chay, K. Y., and Greenstone, M. (2001). Civil rights, the war on poverty, and black–white convergence in infant mortality in Mississippi. Berkeley: Center for Labor Economics, University of California.
Arnold, D. H., and Doctoroff, G. L. (2003). The early education of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 517–545.
Aron-Dine, A. (2007). New data show income concentration jumped again in 2005. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
Averett, S. L., Rees, D. I., and Argys, L. M. (2002). The impact of government policies and neighborhood characteristics on teenage sexual activity and contraceptive use. American Journal of Public Health, 92(11), 1773.
Barker, D. J. P. (2004). The developmental origins of adult disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23 (suppl. 6), 588S–595S.
Barker, D. J., Osmond, C., Forsén, T. J., Kajantie, E., and Eriksson, J. G. (2005). Trajectories of growth among children who have coronary events as adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(17), 1802–1809.
Bauer, A. M., and Boyce, W. T. (2004). Prophecies of childhood: how children’s social environments and biological propensities affect the health of populations. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11(3), 164–175.
Behrman, R. E., and Butler, A. S. (2007). Preterm birth: causes, consequences, and prevention. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Berkman, L. F. (2009). Social epidemiology: social determinants of health in the United States: are we losing ground?Annual Review of Public Health, 30, 27–41.
Berube, A., and Kneebone, E. (2006). Two steps back: city and suburban poverty trends. Living cities census series. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Bhattacharya, J., Currie, J., and Haider, S. (2004). Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults. Journal of Health Economics, 23(4), 839–862.
Bradley, R. H., and Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371–399.
Braveman, P., et al. for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2009). Issue Brief 5: Race and socioeconomic factors: Report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to the Commission to Build a Healthier America. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Braveman, P. A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Chideya, S., Marchi, K. S., Metzler, M., and Posner, S. (2005). Socioeconomic status in health research. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(22), 2879–2888.
Braveman, P. A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D. R., and Pamuk, E. (2010a). Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: what the patterns tell us. American Journal of Public Health, 100(1), 186–196.
Braveman, P., and Egerter, S. (2008). Overcoming obstacles to health. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson.
Braveman, P. and Egerter, S. (2013). Overcoming Obstacles to Health in 2013 and Beyond. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Braveman, P., Egerter, S. (2013). Overcoming Obstacles to Health in 2013 and Beyond. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Braveman, P., Marchi, K., Egerter, S., Kim, S., Metzler, M., Stancil, T., and Libet, M. (2010b). Poverty, near-poverty, and hardship around the time of pregnancy. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(1), 20–35.
Brownson, R. C., Boehmer, T. K., and Luke, D. A. (2005). Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors?Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 421–443.
Burström, B., and Fredlund, P. (2001). Self rated health: is it as good a predictor of subsequent mortality among adults in lower as well as in higher social classes?Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55(11), 836–840.
The Business Roundtable and Corporate Voices for Working Families (2003). Early Childhood Education: A Call to Action from the Business Community; available at www.businessroundtable.org/sites/default/files/20030505_early-childhood_education_a_call_to_action_from_the_business_community.pdf (accessed February 13, 2014).
Case, A., Fertig, A., and Paxson, C. (2005). The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. Journal of Health Economics, 24(2), 365–389.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1997). Update: blood lead levels – United States, 1991–1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 46(7), 141–146.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004). Cigarette smoking among adults – United States, 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(20), 427–431.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: communities putting prevention to work (CPPW); available at www.cdc.gov/CommunitiesPuttingPreventiontoWork/program/index.htm (accessed April 14, 2010).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Health, United States, 2011: Poverty. Available from www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/poverty.htm (accessed August 13, 2012).
Chandola, T., Britton, A., Brunner, E., Hemingway, H., Malik, M., Kumari, M., … and Marmot, M. (2008). Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms?European Heart Journal, 29(5), 640–648.
Chuang, Y. C., Cubbin, C., Ahn, D., and Winkleby, M. A. (2005). Effects of neighbourhood socioeconomic status and convenience store concentration on individual level smoking. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59(7), 568–573.
Cohen, S., Evans, G. W., Stokols, D., and Krantz, D. S. (1986). Behavior, health, and environmental stress. New York: Plenum Press.
Collins, F. S. (2004). What we do and don’t know about “race”, “ethnicity”, genetics and health at the dawn of the genome era. Nature Genetics, 36, S13–S15.
Committee for Economic Development (2006). The Economic Promise of Investing in High-Quality Preschool: Using Early Education to Improve Economic Growth and the Fiscal Sustainability of States and the Nation, June; available at http://ced.issuelab.org/research (accessed February 19, 2014).
Corporation for National and Community Service (2010). Social Innovation Fund. Retrieved from www.nationalservice.gov/programs/social-innovation-fund (accessed February 19, 2014).
Cubbin, C., and Winkleby, M. A. (2005). Protective and harmful effects of neighborhood-level deprivation on individual-level health knowledge, behavior changes, and risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(6), 559–568.
Currie, J. (2000). Early childhood intervention programs: what do we know?Los Angeles, CA: UCLA, NBER.
Currie, J., and Lin, W. (2007). Chipping away at health: more on the relationship between income and child health. Health Affairs, 26(2), 331–344.
Danaei, G., Ding, E. L., Mozaffarian, D., Taylor, B., Rehm, J., Murray, C. J., and Ezzati, M. (2009). The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLOS Medicine, 6(4), e1000058.
Datta, G. D., Colditz, G. A., Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S. V., Palmer, J. R., and Rosenberg, L. (2006). Individual-, neighborhood-, and state-level socioeconomic predictors of cervical carcinoma screening among US black women. Cancer, 106(3), 664–669.
De Walque, D. (2004). Education, information, and smoking decisions: evidence from smoking histories, 1940–2000. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 3362.
Deaton, A. (2002). Policy implications of the gradient of health and wealth. Health Affairs, 21(2), 13–30.
Democratic Policy Committee (2010). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: promoting prevention and improving public health. Available at http://dpc.senate.gov/healthreformbill/healthbill75.pdf (accessed April 14, 2010).
DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., and Smith, J. (2009). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2006. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2007. Current Population Reports, P60, 233.
Diez-Roux, A. V., Nieto, F. J., Caulfield, L., Tyroler, H. A., Watson, R. L., and Szklo, M. (1999). Neighbourhood differences in diet: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53(1), 55–63.
Dowd, J. B., and Zajacova, A. (2007). Does the predictive power of self-rated health for subsequent mortality risk vary by socioeconomic status in the US?International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(6), 1214–1221.
Duncan, G. J., Yeung, W. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., and Smith, J. R. (1998). How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children?American Sociological Review, 63(3), 406–423.
Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59(2), 77–92.
Evans, G. W., and Kim, P. (2007). Childhood poverty and health cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation. Psychological Science, 18(11), 953–957.
Fergus, S., and Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). Adolescent resilience: a framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 399–419.
Frieden, T. R. (2010). A framework for public health action: the health impact pyramid. Journal Information, 100(4), 590–5.
Galster, G., Cutsinger, J., and Booza, J. C. (2009). Where did they go? The decline of middle-income neighborhoods in metropolitan America. In Living Cities Census Series 2006. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Glouberman, S. (2001). Towards a new perspective on health policy. Canadian Policy Research Networks.
Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., and Beedle, A. S. (2007). Non-genomic transgenerational inheritance of disease risk. Bioessays, 29(2), 145–154.
Goodman, P. S. (2010). The new poor: despite signs of recovery, chronic joblessness rises. The New York Times, February 20, A1.
Guo, G., and Harris, K. M. (2000). The mechanisms mediating the effects of poverty on children’s intellectual development. Demography, 37(4), 431–447.
Haveman, R. H., and Smeeding, T. M. (2006). The role of higher education in social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2), 125–150.
Haveman, R., and Wolfe, B. (1995). The determinants of children’s attainments: a review of methods and findings. Journal of Economic Literature, 33(4), 1829–1878.
Heckman, J. J., and Masterov, D. V. (2007). The productivity argument for investing in young children. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 29(3), 446–493.
Hertzman, C. (2006). The biological embedding of early experience and its effects on health in adulthood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896(1), 85–95.
Hertzman, C., and Power, C. (2003). Health and human development: understandings from life-course research. Developmental Neuropsychology, 24(2–3), 719–744.
Hertzman, C., and Wiens, M. (1996). Child development and long-term outcomes: a population health perspective and summary of successful interventions. Social Science and Medicine, 43(7), 1083–1095.
Idler, E. L., and Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38(1), 21–37.
Idler, E. L., and Kasl, S. V. (1995). Self-ratings of health: do they also predict change in functional ability?Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 50(6), S344.
Institute of Medicine, Committee on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public’s Health, and Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (2000). Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research, ed. B. D. Smedley and S. L. Syme. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Irwin, A., and Scali, E. (2005). Action on the social determinants of health: learning from previous experiences: a background paper. World Health Organization, Secretariat of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.
Johnson, R. C., and Schoeni, R. F. (2007). The influence of early-life events on human capital, health status, and labor market outcomes over the life course. Institute for Research on Labor and Employment Working Paper Series. Berkeley, CA.
Kanjilal, S., Gregg, E. W., Cheng, Y. J., Zhang, P., Nelson, D. E., Mensah, G., and Beckles, G. L. (2006). Socioeconomic status and trends in disparities in 4 major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among US adults, 1971–2002. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(21), 2348.
Karoly, L. A., Kilburn, M. R., and Cannon, J. S. (2005). Early childhood interventions: proven results, future promise (vol. 341). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Kramer, M. S., Goulet, L., Lydon, J., Séguin, L., McNamara, H., Dassa, C., … and Koren, G. (2001). Socio-economic disparities in preterm birth: causal pathways and mechanisms. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 15(s2), 104–123.
Krieger, N. (2007). Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. Epidemiology, 18(6), 658–663.
Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., and Ebel, G. (1997). Can we monitor socioeconomic inequalities in health? A survey of US health departments’ data collection and reporting practices. Public Health Reports, 112(6), 481.
Krieger, N., and Fee, E. (1996). Measuring social inequalities in health in the United States: a historical review, 1900–1950. International Journal of Health Services, 26(3), 391–418.
Lantz, P. M., House, J. S., Lepkowski, J. M., Williams, D. R., Mero, R. P., and Chen, J. (1998). Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(21), 1703–1708.
Lee, R. E., and Cubbin, C. (2002). Neighborhood context and youth cardiovascular health behaviors. Journal Information, 92(3), 428–436.
Leventhal, T., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309.
Levin, H., Belfield, C., Muennig, P., and Rouse, C. (2007). The costs and benefits of an excellent education for all of America’s children. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Levine, R. S., Rust, G. S., Pisu, M., Agboto, V., Baltrus, P. A., Briggs, N. C., … and Hennekens, C. H. (2010). Increased black–white disparities in mortality after the introduction of lifesaving innovations: a possible consequence of US federal laws. American Journal of Public Health, 100(11), 2176.
Liu, H., and Hummer, R. A. (2008). Are educational differences in US self-rated health increasing? An examination by gender and race. Social Science & Medicine, 67(11), 1898–1906.
Lynch, J., and Smith, G. D. (2005). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 1–35.
Lynch, J. W., Kaplan, G. A., and Salonen, J. T. (1997). Why do poor people behave poorly? Variation in adult health behaviours and psychosocial characteristics by stages of the socioeconomic lifecourse. Social Science and Medicine, 44(6), 809–819.
Mackenbach, J. (2002). Reducing inequalities in health: a European perspective. London: Routledge.
Marmot, M. G., Bosma, H., Hemingway, H., Brunner, E., and Stansfeld, S. (1997). Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. The Lancet, 350(9073), 235–239.
Marmot, M., Friel, S., Bell, R., Houweling, T. A., and Taylor, S. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. The Lancet, 372(9650), 1661–1669.
Marmot, M. G., Rose, G., Shipley, M., and Hamilton, P. J. (1978). Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 32(4), 244–249.
Marmot, M. G., Shipley, M. J., Hemingway, H., Head, J., and Brunner, E. J. (2008). Biological and behavioural explanations of social inequalities in coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study. Diabetologia, 51(11), 1980–1988.
Marmot, M. G., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., White, I., … and Smith, G. D. (1991). Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. The Lancet, 337(8754), 1387–1393.
McEwen, B. S. (2000). The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance. Brain Research, 886(1), 172–189.
McEwen, B. S. (2006). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of the brain. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8(4), 367–381.
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840(1), 33–44.
McGee, D. L., Liao, Y., Cao, G., and Cooper, R. S. (1999). Self-reported health status and mortality in a multiethnic US cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 149(1), 41–46.
McGinnis, J. M., and Foege, W. H. (1993). Actual causes of death in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270(18), 2207–2212.
McNeill, L. H., Kreuter, M. W., and Subramanian, S. V. (2006). Social environment and physical activity: a review of concepts and evidence. Social Science & Medicine, 63(4), 1011–1022.
Mechanic, D. (2002). Disadvantage, inequality, and social policy. Health Affairs, 21(2), 48–59.
Minkler, M., Fuller-Thomson, E., and Guralnik, J. M. (2006). Gradient of disability across the socioeconomic spectrum in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 355(7), 695–703.
Mirowsky, J., and Ross, C. E. (2003). Education, social status, and health. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Murray, C. J., Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. Burden of Disease Unit, and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) (1998). US patterns of mortality by county and race: 1965–1994. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Burden of Disease Unit, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies.
National Association of City and County Health Officials (2010). Tackling Health Inequities through Public Health Practice: Theory to Action, ed. R. Hofrichter and R. Bhatia, 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press.
National Center for Health Statistics (2012). Health, United States, 2011: with special feature on socioeconomic status and health. Hyattsville, MD.
Nishida, C., Uauy, R., Kumanyika, S., and Shetty, P. (2004). The joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: process, product and policy implications. Public Health Nutrition, 7(1A; SPI), 245–250.
Nuru-Jeter, A., Dominguez, T. P., Hammond, W. P., Leu, J., Skaff, M., Egerter, S., … and Braveman, P. (2009). “It’s the skin you’re in”: African-American women talk about their experiences of racism. An exploratory study to develop measures of racism for birth outcome studies. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 13(1), 29–39.
O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T. F., and Warner, K. E. (eds.) (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: progress and possibilities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs (2012). OECD health data 2012 – frequently requested data. Available at www.oecd.org/document/16/0,3343,en_2649_34631_2085200_1_1_1_1,00.html.
Otten, M. W., Jr., et al. (1990). The effect of known risk factors on the excess mortality of black adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(6), 845–850.
Palloni, A. (2006). Reproducing inequalities: luck, wallets, and the enduring effects of childhood health. Demography, 43(4), 587–615.
Pamuk, E. (ed.) (1999). Health, United States, 1998: with socioeconomic status and health chartbook. Darby, PA: DIANE Publishing.
Pickett, K. E., and Pearl, M. (2001). Multilevel analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic context and health outcomes: a critical review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55(2), 111–122.
PNC Financial Services Group (2010). About PNC grow up great. Retrieved from www.pncgrowupgreat.com/about/index.html (accessed March 2, 2010).
Population Reference Bureau, Infant Mortality Rate (2011) (infant deaths per 1,000 live births) – limited to OECD countries. World Population Data Sheet 2011. Available from www.prb.org/DataFinder/Topic/Rankings.aspx?ind=5 (accessed August 13, 2012).
Population Reference Bureau, Life expectancy at birth (2011), by gender (limited to OECD countries). World Population Data Sheet 2011. Available from www.prb.org/DataFinder/Topic/Rankings.aspx?ind=6 (accessed August 13, 2012).
Power, C., Lake, J. K., and Cole, T. J. (1997). Measurement and long-term health risks of child and adolescent fatness. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 21(7), 507–526.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2009). Beyond health care: new directions to a healthier America. Washington, DC: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation(2013). Time to act: investing in the health of our children and communities. Washington, DC: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (2013). Country Health Rankings and Roadmaps, 2013; available at www.countyhealthrankings.org/apptt/home (accessed February 19, 2014).
Rolnick, A., and Grunewald, R. (2003). Early childhood development: economic development with a high public return. Fedgazette, March 2003; available at https://www.minneapolisfed.org/publications_papers/pub_display.cfm?id=3832 (accessed February 13, 2014)
Rose, G. (1993). Rose’s strategy of preventive medicine. Oxford University Press.
Rouse, C. E., and Barrow, L. (2006). US elementary and secondary schools: equalizing opportunity or replicating the status quo?The Future of Children, 16(2), 99–123.
Salomon, J. A., Nordhagen, S., Oza, S., and Murray, C. J. (2009). Are Americans feeling less healthy? The puzzle of trends in self-rated health. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(3), 343–351.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2005). The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. Science, 308(5722), 648–652.
Schiller, J., Lucas, J. W., Ward, B. W., and Peregoy, J. A. (2012). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey. Vital Health Statistics 10, 252, 1–207.
Schoeni, R. F., Dow, W. H., Miller, W. D., and Pamuk, E. R. (2011). The economic value of improving the health of disadvantaged Americans. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(1), S67–S72.
Seeman, T. E., McEwen, B. S., Rowe, J. W., and Singer, B. H. (2001). Allostatic load as a marker of cumulative biological risk. MacArthur studies of successful aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(8), 4770–4775.
Seeman, T. E., Singer, B. H., Rowe, J. W., Horwitz, R. I., and McEwen, B. S. (1997). Price of adaptation – allostatic load and its health consequences. MacArthur studies of successful aging. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157(19), 2259–2268.
Shonkoff, J. P., and Phillips, D. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: the science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Smedley, B. D., and Stith, A. Y. (2003). Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care (vol. 1). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Solon, G. (1992). Intergenerational income mobility in the United States. American Economic Review, 82, 393–408.
Steptoe, A., and Marmot, M. (2002). The role of psychobiological pathways in socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease risk. European Heart Journal, 23(1), 13–25.
Taylor, S. E., Repetti, R. L., and Seeman, T. (1997). Health psychology: what is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin?Annual Review of Psychology, 48(1), 411–447.
Thomson, W. M., Poulton, R., Milne, B. J., Caspi, A., Broughton, J. R., and Ayers, K. M. S. (2004). Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 32(5), 345–353.
Truffer, C. J., Keehan, S., Smith, S., Cylus, J., Sisko, A., Poisal, J. A., … and Clemens, M. K. (2010) Health spending projections through 2019: the recession’s impact continues. Health Affairs, 29(3), 522–529.
US Census Bureau (2004a). The American community – American Indians and Alaska Natives: 2004. American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/acs-07.pdf.
US Census Bureau (2004b). The American community – Asians: 2004. American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/acs-05.pdf.
US Census Bureau (2004c). The American community – Blacks: 2004. American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/acs-04.pdf.
US Census Bureau (2004d). The American Community – Hispanics: 2004. American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/acs-03.pdf.
US Census Bureau (2004e). The American Community – Pacific Islanders: 2004. American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/acs-06.pdf.
US Census Bureau (2007). Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division. Current Population Survey, 2005 to 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. Retrieved March 2, 2010 from www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/publications/pubs-cps.html.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2006). National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006. Retrieved from http://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr06/nhdr06.htm.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy people 2010 Midcourse Review (2006). Accessed at www.healthypeople.gov/2010/redirect.aspx?url=/2010/.
US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health (2000). Oral health in America: a report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved from www.nidcr.nih.gov/datastatistics/surgeongeneral/report/executivesummary.htm.
US Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Summary of the Prevention and Wellness Initiative. Available at www.hhs.gov/recovery/programs/cdc/chronicdisease.html (accessed April 14, 2010).
van de Mheen, H., Stronks, K., Looman, C. W., and Mackenbach, J. P. (1998). Role of childhood health in the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in early adult health. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 52(1), 15–19.
Variyam, J. N., Blaylock, J., Lin, B. H., Ralston, K., and Smallwood, D. (1999). Mother’s nutrition knowledge and children’s dietary intakes. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 81(2), 373–384.
Villard, L. C., Rydén, L., and Ståhle, A. (2007). Predictors of healthy behaviours in Swedish school children. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 14(3), 366–372.
Votruba-Drzal, E. (2004). Income changes and cognitive stimulation in young children’s home learning environments. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(2), 341–355.
Wadsworth, M. E. J. (1997). Health inequalities in the life course perspective. Social Science and Medicine, 44(6), 859–870.
Wagstaff, A., and Van Doorslaer, E. (2000). Income inequality and health: what does the literature tell us?. Annual Review of Public Health, 21(1), 543–567.
Weller, C. E. (2005). Middle-class progress: families work longer to pay for middle-class living than a quarter-century ago. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
Whitehead, M. (1992). The health divide. In Inequalities in Health: The Black Report and the Health Divide, 2nd edn. London: Penguin Books.
Whitehead, M., Judge, K., and Benzeval, M. (eds.) (1995). Tackling inequalities in health: an agenda for action. London: King’s Fund Centre.
Wilkinson, R. G., and Marmot, M. G. (eds.) (2003). Social determinants of health: the solid facts. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Williams, D. R. (2006). Race, socioeconomic status, and health: the added effects of racism and discrimination. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896(1), 173–188.
Williams, D. R., and Collins, C. (2001). Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Reports, 116(5), 404.
Williams, D. R., and Jackson, P. B. (2005). Social sources of racial disparities in health. Health Affairs, 24(2), 325–334.
Williams, D. R., and Mohammed, S. A. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1), 20–47.
Winkleby, M. A., Jatulis, D. E., Frank, E., and Fortmann, S. P. (1992). Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Public Health, 82(6), 816–820.
Woolf, S. and Aron, L. (2013). U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Woolf, S. H., Dekker, M. M., Byrne, F. R., and Miller, W. D. (2011). Citizen-centered health promotion: building collaborations to facilitate healthy living. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(1), S38–S47.
Woolf, S., Aron, L. (2013). U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: national Academies Press.
Yen, I. H., and Syme, S. L. (1999). The social environment and health: a discussion of the epidemiologic literature. Annual Review of Public Health, 20(1), 287–308.
Yeung, W. J., Linver, M. R., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (2002). How money matters for young children’s development: parental investment and family processes. Child Development, 73(6), 1861–1879.
Zimmerman, D. J. (1992). Regression toward mediocrity in economic stature. American Economic Review, 82, 409–429.