Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: January 2010

Chapter 10 - Principles of head injury intensive care management

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. Coles JP, Fryer TD, Smielewski P et al. Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2004; 24: 191–201.
2. Chesnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR et al. The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury. J Trauma 1993; 34: 216–22.
3. Tisdall MM, Smith M. Multimodal monitoring in traumatic brain injury: current status and future directions. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99: 61–7.
4. Timofeev I, Gupta A. Monitoring of head injured patients. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2005; 18: 477–83.
5. Steiner LA, Andrews PJ. Monitoring the injured brain: ICP and CBF. Br J Anaesth 2006; 97: 26–38.
6. Nortje J, Gupta AK. The role of tissue oxygen monitoring in patients with acute brain injury. Br J Anaesth 2006; 97: 95–106.
7. Tisdall MM, Smith M. Cerebral microdialysis: research technique or clinical tool. Br J Anaesth 2006; 97: 18–25.
8. Resnick DK, Marion DW, Carlier P. Outcome analysis of patients with severe head injuries and prolonged intracranial hypertension. J Trauma 1997; 42: 1108–11.
9. Stiefel MF, Udoetuk JD, Spiotta AM et al. Conventional neurocritical care and cerebral oxygenation after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2006; 105: 568–75.
10. Stiefel MF, Spiotta A, Gracias VH et al. Reduced mortality rate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury treated with brain tissue oxygen monitoring. J Neurosurg 2005; 103: 805–11.
11. Maas AI, Dearden M, Teasdale GM et al. EBIC-guidelines for management of severe head injury in adults. European Brain Injury Consortium. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1997; 139: 286–94.
12. Maas AI, Dearden M, Servadei F, Stocchetti N, Unterberg A. Current recommendations for neurotrauma. Curr Opin Crit Care 2000; 6: 281–92.
13. The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24: S1–S106.
14. Dutton RP, McCunn M. Traumatic brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2003; 9: 503–9.
15. Vincent JL, Berre J. Primer on medical management of severe brain injury.Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 1392–9.
16. Helmy A, Vizcaychipi M, Gupta AK. Traumatic brain injury: intensive care management. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99: 32–42.
17. Coles JP, Fryer TD, Coleman MR et al. Hyperventilation following head injury: effect on ischemic burden and cerebral oxidative metabolism. Crit Care Med 2007; 35: 568–78.
18. Roberts I, Schierhout G, Alderson P. Absence of evidence for the effectiveness of five interventions routinely used in the intensive care management of severe head injury: a systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 65: 729–33.
19. The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Blood pressure and Oxygenation. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24: S7–S13.
20. Chesnut RM. Avoidance of hypotension: conditio sine qua non of successful severe head-injury management. J Trauma 1997; 42: S4–S9.
21. Leach P, Childs C, Evans J, Johnston N, Protheroe R, King A. Transfer times for patients with extradural and subdural haematomas to neurosurgery in Greater Manchester. Br J Neurosurg 2007; 21: 11–15.
22. The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24: S37–S44.
23. Balestreri M, Czosnyka M, Hutchinson P et al. Impact of intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure on severe disability and mortality after head injury. Neurocrit Care 2006; 4: 8–13.
24. Rosner MJ, Rosner SD, Johnson AH. Cerebral perfusion pressure: management protocol and clinical results. J Neurosurg 1995; 83: 949–62.
25. Robertson CS, Valadka AB, Hannay HJ et al. Prevention of secondary ischemic insults after severe head injury. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 2086–95.
26. Huang SJ, Hong WC, Han YY et al. Clinical outcome of severe head injury in different protocol-driven therapies. J Clin Neurosci 2007; 14: 449–54.
27. Nordstrom CH. Physiological and biochemical principles underlying volume-targeted therapy – the “Lund concept”. Neurocrit Care 2005; 2: 83–95.
28. The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Cerebral perfusion pressure thresholds. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24: S59–64.
29. Vespa P. What is the optimal threshold for cerebral perfusion pressure following traumatic brain injury? Neurosurg Focus 2003; 15: E4.
30. Zygun DA, Kortbeek JB, Fick GH, Laupland KB, Doig CJ. Non-neurologic organ dysfunction in severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 654–60.
31. Lim HB, Smith M. Systemic complications after head injury: a clinical review. Anaesthesia 2007; 62: 474–82.
32. Zygun DA, Zuege DJ, Boiteau PJ et al. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care 2006; 5: 108–14.
33. Clayton TJ, Nelson RJ, Manara AR. Reduction in mortality from severe head injury following introduction of a protocol for intensive care management. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 761–7.
34. Elf K, Nilsson P, Enblad P. Outcome after traumatic brain injury improved by an organized secondary insult program and standardized neurointensive care. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 2129–34.
35. Patel HC, Menon DK, Tebbs S, Hawker R, Hutchinson PJ, Kirkpatrick PJ. Specialist neurocritical care and outcome from head injury. Intens Care Med 2002; 28: 547–53.
36. Suarez JI. Outcome in neurocritical care: advances in monitoring and treatment and effect of a specialized neurocritical care team.Crit Care Med 2006; 34: S232–8.
37. Smith M. Neurocritical care: has it come of age? Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 753–5.
38. Menon D. Neurocritical care: turf label, organizational construct, or clinical asset? Curr Opin Crit Care 2004; 10: 91–3.
39. Rincon F, Mayer SA. Neurocritical care: a distinct discipline? Curr Opin Crit Care 2007; 13: 115–21.
40. Suarez JI, Zaidat OO, Suri MF et al. Length of stay and mortality in neurocritically ill patients: impact of a specialized neurocritical care team. Crit Care Med 2004; 32: 2311–17.
41. Varelas PN, Conti MM, Spanaki MV et al. The impact of a neurointensivist-led team on a semiclosed neurosciences intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2004; 32: 2191–8.
42. Mirski MA, Chang CW, Cowan R. Impact of a neuroscience intensive care unit on neurosurgical patient outcomes and cost of care: evidence-based support for an intensivist-directed specialty ICU model of care. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2001; 13: 83–92.
43. Diringer MN, Edwards DF. Admission to a neurologic/neurosurgical intensive care unit is associated with reduced mortality rate after intracerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care Med 2001; 29: 635–40.
44. Qureshi AI, Bliwise DL, Bliwise NG, Akbar MS, Uzen G, Frankel MR. Rate of 24-hour blood pressure decline and mortality after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective analysis with a random effects regression model. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 480–5.
45. Wilkins IA, Menon DK, Matta BF. Management of comatose head-injured patients: are we getting any better? Anaesthesia 2001; 56: 350–2.
46. Jeevaratnam DR, Menon DK. Survey of intensive care of severely head injured patients in the United Kingdom. Br Med J 1996; 312: 944–7.
47. Bulger EM, Nathens AB, Rivara FP, Moore M, MacKenzie EJ, Jurkovich GJ. Management of severe head injury: institutional variations in care and effect on outcome. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 1870–6.
48. Sahjpaul R, Girotti M. Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury – results of a Canadian survey. Can J Neurol Sci. 2000; 27: 143–7.
49. Fakhry SM, Trask AL, Waller MA, Watts DD. Management of brain-injured patients by an evidence-based medicine protocol improves outcomes and decreases hospital charges. J Trauma 2004; 56: 492–9.
50. Palmer S, Bader MK, Qureshi A et al. The impact on outcomes in a community hospital setting of using the AANS traumatic brain injury guidelines. Americans Associations for Neurologic Surgeons. J Trauma 2001; 50: 657–64.
51. Murray LS, Teasdale GM, Murray GD, Miller DJ, Pickard JD, Shaw MD. Head injuries in four British neurosurgical centres. Br J Neurosurg 1999; 13: 564–9.
52. Cremer OL, van Dijk GW, van Wensen E et al. Effect of intracranial pressure monitoring and targeted intensive care on functional outcome after severe head injury. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 2207–13.