Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: December 2009

Chapter 23 - Alcoholism, nicotine dependence and drug abuse

from Section 5 - Psychological concerns

Summary

This chapter describes the role of human papilloma virus (HPV), fundamentals about the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, and the prevention of cervical cancer. The conventional Pap smear has been one of the most effective screening tests for cervical cancer prevention. Cervical cytological testing has been successful in preventing cervical cancer in women who present for screening with reductions of the cervical cancer rate by 70% in the last 100 years. Pap test screening should be initiated at the onset of sexual activity, within three years of onset of sexual activity, or at age 21. Prevention of diseases that come from infection with high risk HPV, such as precancerous cervical lesions, genital warts, vaginal and vulvar lesions, and cervical cancer is now possible by vaccination (Gardasil) against HPV types 6, 11, 15 and 18. With the use of the HPV vaccine, HPV infection is reduced and cervical cancer may be mostly prevented.

References

1. KoobG. F.Alcoholism: allostasis and beyond. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2003; 27, 232–243.
2. KesslerR. C., CrumR. M., WarnerL. A., et al. Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54, 313–321.
3. GrantB. F., DawsonD. A., StinsonF. S., et al. The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004; 74, 223–234.
4. FarrellM., HowesS., BebbingtonP., et al. Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Results of a national household survey. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 179, 432–437.
5. EnochM.-A., GoldmanD.Problem drinking and alcoholism: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician 2002; 65, 441–450.
6. FlemingM. F.Strategies to increase alcohol screening in health care settings. Alcohol Health Res World 1997; 21, 340–347.
7. KesslerR. C., McGonagleK. A., ZhaoS., et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51, 8–19.
8. GrahamK., WilsnackS. C.The relationship between alcohol problems and use of tranquilizing drugs: longitudinal patterns among American women. Addict Behav 2000; 25, 13–28.
9. PerkinsK. A.Sex differences in nicotine versus non-nicotine reinforcement as determinants of tobacco smoking. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 1996; 11, 199–212.
10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and tobacco. Alcohol Alert 1998; 39, 1–4.
11. EnochM.-A.Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcoholism: resilience vs. risk. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006; 1094, 193–201.
12. StewartS. H., KarpJ., PihlR. O., PetersonR. A.Anxiety sensitivity and self-reported reasons for drug use. J Subst Abuse 1997; 9, 223–240.
13. WinfieldI., GeorgeL. K., SwartzM., et al. Sexual assault and psychiatric disorders among a community sample of women. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147, 335–341.
14. WilsnackS. C., VogeltanzN. D., KlassenA. D., HarrisT. R.Childhood sexual abuse and women's substance abuse: national survey findings. J Stud Alcohol 1997; 58, 264–271.
15. WidomC. S., MarmorsteinN. R., WhiteH. R.Childhood victimization and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Psychol Addict Behav 2006; 20, 394–403.
16. VogeltanzN. D., WilsnackS. C., HarrisT. R.Prevalence and risk factors for childhood sexual abuse in women: national survey findings. Child Abuse Negl 1999; 23, 579–592.
17. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Capsules. Women and Drug Abuse 1994; 6, 2.
18. HeimC., NewportD. J., HeitS., et al. Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 284, 592–597.
19. WilsnackS. C., WilsnackR. W.Drinking and problem drinking in US women. Patterns and recent trends. Recent Dev Alcohol 1995; 12, 29–60.
20. GombergE. S.Risk factors for drinking over a woman's lifespan. Alcohol Health Res World 1994; 18, 220–227.
21. WilsnackS. C., WilsnackR. W., Hiller-SturmhofelS.How women drink: epidemiology of women's drinking and problem drinking. Alcohol Health Res World 1994; 18, 173–180.
22. HeathA. C., BucholzK. K., MaddenP. A. F., et al. Genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol dependence risk in a national twin sample: consistency of findings in women and men. Psychol Med 1997; 27, 1381–1396.
23. DucciF., EnochM.-A., VirkkunenM., et al. Increased anxiety and other similarities in temperament of alcoholics with and without antisocial personality disorder across three diverse populations. Alcohol, 2007; 41(1), 3–12.
24. MaddenP. A., BucholzK. K., DinwiddieS. H., et al. Nicotine withdrawal in women. Addiction 1997; 92, 889–902.
25. SchuckitM. A., SmithT. L., KalmijnJ., et al. Response to alcohol in daughters of alcoholics: a pilot study and a comparison with sons of alcoholics. Alcohol Alcohol 2000; 35, 242–248.
26. GoldmanD., OrosziG., DucciF.The genetics of addictions: uncovering the genes. Natl. Rev Genet 2005; 6, 521–532.
27. KendlerK. S., NealeM. C., HeathA. C., KesslerR. C., EavesL.A twin-family study of alcoholism in women. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151, 707–715.
28. PrescottC. A., AggenS. H., KendlerK. S.Sex differences in the source of genetic liability to alcohol abuse and dependence in a population-based sample of U.S. twins. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1999; 23, 1136–1144.
29. PrescottC. A., KendlerK. S.Genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol abuse and dependence in a population-based sample of men twins. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156, 34–40.
30. HettemaJ. M., CoreyL. A., KendlerK. S.A multivariate genetic analysis of the use of tobacco, alcohol and caffeine in a population-based sample of men and woman twins. Drug Alcohol Depend 1999; 57, 69–78.
31. GoldmanD., BergenA.General and specific inheritance of substance abuse and alcoholism. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55, 964–965.
32. KendlerK. S., WaltersE. E., NealeM. C.The structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for six major psychiatric disorders in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52, 374–383.
33. DucciF., EnochM.-A., HodgkinsonC., et al. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women. Mol Psychiatry 2008; 13, 334–347.
34. RosenbergL., PalmerJ. R., RaoR. S., Adams-CampbellL. L.Patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among African-American women. Ethn Dis 2002; 12, 548–554.
35. CaetanoR.Drinking and alcohol-related problems among minority women. Alcohol Health Res World 1994; 18, 233–241.
36. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much: A Clinician's Guide, 2005. http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/guide.
37. HolmanC. D., EnglishD. R., MilneE., WinterM. G.Meta-analysis of alcohol and all-cause mortality: a validation of NHMRC recommendations. Med J Aust 1996; 164, 141–145.
38. DayC. P.Who gets alcoholic liver disease: nature or nuture?J R Coll Physicians Lond 2000; 34, 557–562.
39. WuethrichB.Does alcohol damage woman brains more?Science 2001; 291, 2077–2079.
40. PfefferbaumA., RosenbloomM., DeshmukhA., SullivanE.Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158, 188–197.
41. DanaeiG., Vander HoornS., LopezA. D., MurrayC. J., EzzatiM., Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group (Cancers). Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. Lancet 2005; 366, 1784–1793.
42. ZhangS. M., LeeI. M., MansonJ. E., et al. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165, 667–676.
43. TjonnelandA., ChristensenJ., OlsenA., et al. Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Causes Control 2007; 18, 361–373.
44. HamajimaN., HiroseK., TajimaK., et al. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer – collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer 2002; 87, 1234–1245.
45. KeyJ., HodgsonS., OmarR. Z., et al. Meta-analysis of studies of alcohol and breast cancer with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17, 759–770.
46. ChenW. Y., ColditzG. A., RosnerB., et al. Use of postmenopausal hormones, alcohol, and risk for invasive breast cancer. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137, 798–804.
47. MoskalA., NoratT., FerrariP., RiboliE.Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of published cohort studies. Int J Cancer 2007; 120, 664–671.
48. ChoE., Smith-WarnerS. A., RitzJ., et al. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 8 cohort studies. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140, 603–613.
49. ThunM. J., PetoR., LopezA. D., et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. New Engl J Med 1997; 337, 1705–1714.
50. Paganini-HillA., KawasC. H., CorradaM. M.Type of alcohol consumed, changes in intake over time and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Age Ageing 2007; 36, 203–209.
51. BeckmanL. J.Treatment needs of women with alcohol problems. Alcohol Health Res World 1994; 18, 206–211.
52. DahlgrenL., WillanderA. Are special treatment facilities for woman alcoholics needed? A controlled 2-year follow-up study from a specialized woman unit (EWA) versus a mixed men/woman treatment facility. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1989; 13, 499–504.
53. GombergE. S.Women and alcohol: use and abuse. J Nerv Ment Dis 1993; 181, 211–219.
54. FlemingM., ManwellL. B.Brief intervention in primary care settings. Alcohol Res Health 1999; 23, 128–137.
55. De LeoV., la MarcaA., TalluriB., D'AntonaD., MorganteG.Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenal function before and after ovariectomy in premenopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol 1998; 138, 430–435.
56. SchneiderK. M., KvizF. J., IsolaM. L., FilsteadW. J.Evaluating multiple outcomes and gender differences in alcoholism treatment. Addict Behav 1995; 20, 1–21.
57. HumphreysK.Professional interventions that facilitate 12-step self-help group involvement. Alcohol Res Health 1999; 23, 93–98.
58. LongabaughR., MorgensternJ. Cognitive-behavioral coping-skills therapy for alcohol dependence. Alcohol Res Health 1999; 23, 78–85.
59. DiClementeC. C., BellinoL. E., NeavinsT. M.Motivation for change and alcoholism treatment. Alcohol Res Health 1999; 23, 86–92.
60. O'MalleyS. S., SinhaR., GriloC. M., et al. Naltrexone and cognitive behavioral coping skills therapy for the treatment of alcohol drinking and eating disorder features in alcohol-dependent women: a randomized controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31, 625–634.
61. SoykaM., RoesnerS.New pharmacological approaches for the treatment of alcoholism. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2006; 7, 2341–2353.
62. Hernandez-AvilaC. A., SongC., KuoL., et al. Targeted versus daily naltrexone: secondary analysis of effects on average daily drinking. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006; 30, 860–865.
63. MannK., LehertP., MorganM. Y.The efficacy of acamprosate in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent individuals: results of a meta-analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004; 28, 51–63.
64. MallinR.Smoking cessation: integration of behavioral and drug therapies. Am Fam Physician 2002; 65, 1107–1114.
65. KranzlerH. R., AminH., Modesto-LoweV., OnckenC.Pharmacologic treatments for drug and alcohol dependence. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1999; 22, 401–423.