Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: October 2019

13 - Temporal Field Variations

from Part III - Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Geomagnetic Field

Summary

The geomagnetic field supports a wide range of magnitudes, spatial scales and temporal variations. Outlined here are particular recent advances in temporal variability, stretching from geomagnetic field polarity reversals over millions of years, through secular field variations and ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves (1mHz – 5Hz), to very low frequency(VLF) emissions with frequencies in the kHz range. Long-term variations are discussed with respect to paleomagnetic, geological and archaeological records. Both external and internal fields contribute to temporal variations on decadal to daily time scales. More rapid oscillations at ULF wave frequencies associated with Sun-Earth connection contribute to weather in space. These involve the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere system, and may affect charged/neutral particle populations. Waves are generated external and internal to the magnetosphere and through integration of global magneto-hydrodynamic or local magneto-ionic modelling with satellite and ground observations, progress has been made in understanding the dynamics of waves and energy transfer within the coupled system. Equally important to space weather is the understanding of ULF and VLF waves on energetic charged particles in the Van Allen radiation belts during geomagnetic storms.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Ables, S. T. and Fraser, B. J. (2005). Observing the open-closed boundary using cusp-latitude magnetometers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L10104, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022824.
Albert, J. M. (2003). Evaluation of quasi-linear diffusion coefficients for EMIC waves in a multispecies plasma. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1249, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009792.
Alfvén, H. (1942). Existence of electromagnetic-hydromagnetic waves. Nature, 150, 405.
Alfvén, H., and Fälthammar, C. G. (1963). Cosmical Electrodynamics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Allan, W., and Knox, F. B. (1979a). A dipole field model for axisymmetric Alfvén waves with finite ionosphere conductivities. Planet. Space Sci., 27(1), 7985.
Allan, W., and Knox, F. B. (1979b). The effect of finite ionosphere conductivities on axisymmetric toroidal Alfvén wave resonances. Planet. Space Sci., 27(7), 939–50.
Allan, W., and Wright, A. N. (1997), Large-m waves generated by small-m field line resonances via the nonlinear Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. J. Geophys. Res., 102(A9), 19927–33, doi: 10.1029/97JA01489.
Arnoldy, R. L., Cahill, L. J. Jr, Engebretson, M. J., Lanzerotti, L. J. and Wolfe, A. (1988). Review of hydromagnetic wave studies in the Antarctic. Rev. Geophys., 26, 181201.
Backus, G., Parker, R. and Constable, C. (1996). Foundations of Geomagnetism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Backus, G. E. (1983). Application of mantle filter theory to the magnetic jerk of 1969. Geophys. J. Int., 74(3), 713–46.
Baddeley, L. J., Yeoman, T. K., Wright, D. M. et al. (2002). Morning sector drift-bounce resonance driven ULF waves observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter. Ann. Geophys., 20(9), 1487–98.
Baker, D. N., Kanekal, S. G., Hoxie, V. C., Henderson, M. G., Li, X., Spence, H. E., Elkington, S. R., Friedel, R. H. W., Goldstein, J., Hudson, M. K. and Reeves, G. D. (2013). A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth’s outer Van Allen belt. Science, 340(6129), 186–90.
Balasis, G., Daglis, I. A. and Mann, I. R., eds. (2016). Waves, Particles, and Storms in Geospace: A Complex Interplay. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Beharrell, M., Kavanagh, A. J. and Honary, F. (2010). On the origin of high m magnetospheric waves. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A02201, doi: 10.1029/2009JA014709.
Belakhovsky, V., Pilipenko, V., Murr, D., Fedorov, E. and Kozlovsky, A. (2016). Modulation of the ionosphere by Pc5 waves observed simultaneously by GPS/TEC and EISCAT. Earth Planets Space, 68, 102, doi: 10.1186/s40623-016–0480-7.
Boteler, D. H. (2011). Space weather effects on power systems, in Space Weather, ed. Song, P., Singer, H. J. and Siscoe, G. L., American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi: 10.1002/GM125p0347.
Bourdarie, S., Friedel, R. H. W., Fennell, J., Kanekal, S. and Cayton, T. E. (2005). Radiation belt representation of the energetic electron environment: Model and data synthesis using the Salammbô radiation belt transport code and Los Alamos geosynchronous and GPS energetic particle data. Space Weather, 3, S04S01, doi: 10.1029/2004SW000065.
Brautigam, D. H. and Albert, J. M. (2000). Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm. J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291309.
Brizard, A. J. and Chan, A. A. (2001). Relativistic bounce-averaged quasilinear diffusion equation for low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations. Phys. Plasmas, 8(11), 4762–71.
Campbell, W. H. (2009). Natural magnetic disturbance fields, not precursors, preceding the Loma Prieta earthquake. J. Geophys. Res., 114, A05307, doi: 10.1029/2008JA013932.
Carpenter, D. and Anderson, R. (1992). An ISEE/Whistler model of equatorial electron density in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 10971108.
Carrington, R. C. (1859). Description of a Singular Appearance seen in the Sun on September 1, 1859. Monthly Notices R. Astron. Soc., 20(1), 1315.
Chapman, S. and Bartels, J. (1962). Geomagnetism, vol. 1, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Chave, A. D., and Jones, A. G., eds. (2012). The Magnetotelluric Method: Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chen, L., and Hasegawa, A. (1974). A theory of long‐period magnetic pulsations: 1. Steady state excitation of field line resonance. J. Geophys. Res., 79(7), 1024–32.
Chen, L., and Hasegawa, A. (1991). Kinetic theory of geomagnetic pulsations: 1. Internal excitations by energetic particles. J. Geophys. Res., 96(A2), 1503–12, doi: 10.1029/90JA02346.
Chen, L., Thorne, R. M., Bortnik, J. and Zhang, X.-J. (2016). Nonresonant interactions of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with relativistic electrons. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 9913–25, doi: 10.1002/2016JA022813.
Chi, P. J., Russell, C. T., Foster, J. C., Moldwin, M. B., Engebretson, M. J. and Mann, I. R. (2005). Density enhancement in plasmasphere-ionosphere plasma during the 2003 Halloween Superstorm: Observations along the 330th magnetic meridian in North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03S07, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021722.
Chi, P. J., Russell, C. T. and Ohtani, S. (2009). Substorm onset timing via traveltime magnetoseismology. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(8).
Chisham, G., Mann, I. R. and Orr, D. (1997). A statistical study of giant pulsation latitudinal polarization and amplitude variation. J. Geophys. Res., 102(A5), 9619–29.
Claudepierre, S. G., et al. (2013). Van Allen Probes observation of localized drift resonance between poloidal mode ultra-low frequency waves and 60 keV electrons. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4491–7, doi: 10.1002/grl.50901.
Claudepierre, S. G., Hudson, M. K., Lotko, W., Lyon, J. G. and Denton, R. E. (2010). Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Field line resonances driven by dynamic pressure fluctuations. J. Geophys. Res., 115(A11), doi: 10.1029/2010JA015399.
Claudepierre, S. G., Wiltberger, M., Elkington, S. R., Lotko, W. and Hudson, M. K. (2009). Magnetospheric cavity modes driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(13), doi: 10.1029/2009GL039045.
Constable, C., and Korte, M. (2015). Centennial- to millennial-scale geomagnetic field variations, in Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5, pp. 309–41, Elsevier, New York.
Constable, C., Korte, M. and Panovska, S. (2016). Persistent high paleosecular variation activity in the Southern Hemisphere for at least 10000 years. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 453, 7886.
Constable, C. G., and Constable, S. C. (2004). Satellite magnetic field measurements: Applications in studying the deep earth, in The State of the Planet: Frontiers and Challenges in Geophysics, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Currie, J. L., and Waters, C. L. (2014). On the use of geomagnetic indices and ULF waves for earthquake precursor signatures. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9921003, doi: 10.1002/2013JA019530.
Dai, L., Takahashi, K., Lysak, R. L. et al. (2015). Storm time occurrence and spatial distribution of Pc4 poloidal ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere: A Van Allen Probes statistical study. J. Geophys. Res., 120(6), 4748–62.
Degeling, A. W., Rae, I. J., Watt, C. E. J., Shi, Q. Q., Rankin, R. and Zong, Q.-C. (2018). Control of ULF wave accessibility to the inner magnetosphere by the convection of plasma density. J. Geophys. Res., 123, doi: 10.1002/2017ja024874.
Demekhov, A. G. (2007). Recent progress in understanding Pc1 pearl formation. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 69, 1609–22.
Dent, Z. C., Mann, I. R., Menk, F. W., Goldstein, J., Wilford, C. R., Clilverd, M. A., and Ozeke, L. G. (2003). A coordinated ground-based and IMAGE satellite study of quiet-time plasmaspheric density profiles. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1600, doi: 10.1029/2003GL016946.
Dent, Z. C., Mann, I. R., Goldstein, J., Menk, F. W. and Ozeke, L. G. (2006). Plasmaspheric depletion, refilling, and plasmapause dynamics: A coordinated ground-based and IMAGE satellite study. J. Geophys. Res., 111, A03205, doi: 10.1029/2005JA011046.
Dimitrakoudis, S., Mann, I. R., Balasis, G., Papadimitriou, C., Anastasiadis, A. and Daglis, I. A. (2015). Accurately specifying storm-time ULF wave radial diffusion in the radiation belts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5711–18, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064707.
Dungey, J. W. (1954). Electrodynamics of the outer atmosphere. Pennsylvania State University lonos. Res. Lab. Sci. Rept. No. 69.
Dungey, J. W. (1961). Interplanetary magnetic field and the auroral zones. Phys. Rev. Lett., 6(2), 47.
Elkington, S. R., Hudson, M. K. and Chan, A. A. (2003). Resonant acceleration and diffusion of outer zone electrons in an asymmetric geomagnetic field. J. Geophys. Res., 108(A3).
Engebretson, M. J., Takahashi, K and Scholer, M, eds. (1994). Solar Wind Sources of Magnetospheric Ultra-Low Frequency Waves, AGU Monogr. 81, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi: 10.1029/GM081p00xi.
Engebretson, M. J., Lessard, M. R., Bortnik, J., Green, J. C., Thorne, R. B., Detrick, D. L., Weatherwax, A. T., Mannionen, J., Petit, N. J., Posch, J. L. and Rose, M. C. (2008). Pc1-Pc2 waves and energetic particle precipitation during and after magnetic storms: Superposed epoch analysis and case studies. J. Geophys. Res., 113, A01211, doi: 10.1029/2007JA012362.
Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965). Effects of time-dependent electric fields on geomagnetically trapped radiation. J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503–16, doi: 10.1029/JZ070i011p02503.
Fei, Y., Chan, A. A., Elkington, S. R. and Wiltberger, M. J. (2006). Radial diffusion and MHD particle simulations of relativistic electron transport by ULF waves in the September 1998 storm. J. Geophys. Res., 111, A12209, doi: 10.1029/2005JA011211.
Fenrich, F. R., and Samson, J. C. (1997). Growth and decay of field line resonances. J. Geophys. Res., 102(A9), 20031–9.
Fenrich, F. R., Samson, J. C., Sofko, G. and Greenwald, R. A. (1995). ULF high‐and low‐m field line resonances observed with the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network. J. Geophys. Res., 100(A11), 21535–47.
Finlay, C. C., Olsen, N., Kotsiaros, S., Gillet, N. and Tøffner-Clausen, L. (2016). Recent geomagnetic secular variation from Swarm and ground observatories as estimated in the CHAOS-6 geomagnetic field model. Earth Planets Space, 68(1), 1.
Fraser, B. J., Horwitz, J. L., Slavin, J. A., Dent, Z. C. and Mann, I. R. (2005). Heavy ion mass loading of the geomagnetic field near the plasmapause and ULF wave implications. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04102, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021315.
Fraser-Smith, A. C., Bernardi, A., McGill, P. R., Ladd, M. E., Helliwell, R. A. and Villard, O. G. (1990). Low-frequency magnetic field measurements near the epicenter of the Ms 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 1465–8, doi: 10.1029/GL017i009p01465.
Gee, J. S., and Kent, D. V. (2007). Source of oceanic magnetic anomalies and the geomagnetic polarity timescale, in Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5, pp. 419–60, Elsevier, New York.
Gjerloev, J. W. (2012). The SuperMAG data processing technique. J. Geophys. Res., 117, A09213, doi: 10.1029/2012JA017683.
Glassmeier, K. H., Vogt, J., Stadelmann, A. and Buchert, S. (2004). Concerning long-term geomagnetic variations and space climatology. Ann. Geophys., 22(10), 3669–77.
Goldstein, J., Sandel, B. R., Thomsen, M. F., Spasojević, M. and Reiff, P. H. (2004). Simultaneous remote sensing and in situ observations of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. J. Geophys. Res., 109, A03202, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010281.
Grebowsky, J. M. (1970). Model study of plasmapause motion. J. Geophys. Res., 75(22), 4329–33, doi: 10.1029/JA075i022p04329.
Grew, R. S., Menk, F. W., Clilverd, M. A. and Sandel, B. R. (2007). Mass and electron densities in the inner magnetosphere during a prolonged disturbed interval. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02108, doi: 10.1029/2006GL028254.
Gu, X., Shprits, Y. Y. and Ni, B. (2012). Parameterized lifetime of radiation belt electrons interacting with lower‐band and upper‐band oblique chorus waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L15102, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052519.
Halford, A. J., Fraser, B. J. and Morley, S. K. (2010). EMIC wave activity during geomagnetic storm and nonstorm periods: CRRES results. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12248, doi: 10.1029/2010JA015716.
Harrold, B. G., and Samson, J. C. (1992). Standing ULF modes of the magnetosphere: A theory. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(18), 1811–14.
Hartinger, M. D., Turner, D. L., Plaschke, F., Angelopoulos, V., and Singer, H. (2013). The role of transient ion foreshock phenomena in driving Pc5 ULF wave activity. J. Geophys. Res., 118(1), 299312.
Hayakawa, M. (2016). Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena. AIP Conf. Proc., 1709, 020002, doi: 10.1063/1.4941199.
Helliwell, R. A. (2006). Whistlers and Related Ionospheric Phenonemena. Dover, Mineola, NY.
Hendry, A. T., Rodger, C. J. and Clilverd, M. A. (2017). Evidence of sub-MeV EMIC-driven electron precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 1210–18, doi: 10.1002/2016GL071807.
Hendry, A. T., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., Engebretson, M. J., Mann, I. R., Lessard, M. R., Raita, T., and Milling, D. K. (2016). Confirmation of EMIC wave driven relativistic electron precipitation. J. Geophys. Res., 121, doi: 10.1002/2015JA022224
Horne, R. B., and Thorne, R. M. (1998). Potential waves for relativistic electron scattering and stochastic acceleration during magnetic storms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(15), 3011–14.
Horne, R. B., Glauert, S. A., Meredith, N. P., Koskinen, H., Vainio, R., Afanasiev, A., Ganushkina, N. Y., Amariutei, O. A., Boscher, D., Sicard, A. and Maget, V. (2013). Forecasting the Earth’s radiation belts and modelling solar energetic particle events: Recent results from SPACECAST. J. Space Weather Space Clim., 3, A20.
Hughes, W. J., Southwood, D. J., Mauk, B., McPherron, R. L. and Barfield, J. N. (1978). Alfvén waves generated by an inverted plasma energy distribution. Nature, 275(5675), 43–5.
Jackson, A., Jonkers, A. R. T. and Walker, M. R. (2000). Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 358, 957–90.
Jacobs, J. A., Kato, Y., Matsushita, S. and Troitskaya, V. A. (1964). Classification of geomagnetic micropulsations. J. Geophys. Res., 69(1), 180–81.
James, M. K., Yeoman, T. K., Mager, P. N. and Klimushkin, D. Y. (2013). The spatio-temporal characteristics of ULF waves driven by substorm injected particles. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1737–49, doi: 10.1002/jgra.50131.
James, M. K., Yeoman, T. K, Mager, P. N. and Klimushkin, D. Y. (2016). Multiradar observations of substorm-driven ULF waves. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 5213–32, doi: 10.1002/2015JA022102.
Jorgensen, A. M., Heilig, B., Vellante, M., Lichtenberger, J., Reda, J., Valach, F. and Mandic, I. (2017). Comparing the dynamic global core plasma model with ground-based plasma desnity observations. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 79978013, doi: 10.1002/2016JA023229.
Kabin, K., Rankin, R., Mann, I. R., Degeling, A. W. and Marchand, R. (2007). Polarization properties of standing shear Alfvén waves in non-axisymmetric background magnetic fields. Ann. Geophys., 25(3), 815–22.
Kale, Z. C., Mann, I. R., Waters, C. L., Vellante, M., Zhang, T. L. and Honary, F. (2009). Plasmaspheric dynamics resulting from the Hallowe’en 2003 geomagnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res., 114, A08204, doi: 10.1029/2009JA014194.
Kavosi, S. and Raeder, J. (2015). Ubiquity of Kelvin–Helmholtz waves at Earth’s magnetopause. Nat. Comm., 6, 7019.
Keiling, A., and Takahashi, K. (2011). Review of Pi2 models. Space Sci. Rev., 161(14), 63148.
Kelley, M. C. (2009). The Earth’s Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics, 2nd edn., Elsevier, New York.
Kepko, L., Spence, H. E. and Singer, H. J. (2002). ULF waves in the solar wind as direct drivers of magnetospheric pulsations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(8), doi: 10.1029/2001GL014405.
Kimura, I. (1974). Interrelation between VLF and ULF emissions. Space Sci. Rev., 16, 389411.
Kivelson, M. G., and Russell, C. T., eds. (1995). Introduction to Space Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kivelson, M. G., and Southwood, D. J. (1985). Resonant ULF waves: A new interpretation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 12(1), 4952.
Kivelson, M. G., and Southwood, D. J. (1986). Coupling of global magnetospheric MHD eigenmodes to field line resonances. J. Geophys. Res., 91(A4), 4345–51.
Kivelson, M. G., Cao, M., McPherron, R. L. and Walker, R. J. (1997). A possible signature of magnetic cavity mode oscillations in ISEE spacecraft observations. J. Geomagn. Geoelec., 49(9), 1079–98.
Kivelson, M. G., and Russell, C. T., eds. (1995). Introduction to Space Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Klimushkin, D. Y. (2000). The propagation of high-m Alfvén waves in the Earth’s magnetosphere and their interaction with high-energy particles. J. Geophys. Res., 105(A10), 23303–10, doi: 10.1029/1999JA000396.
Kono, M. (2015). Geomagnetism: An introduction and overview, in Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5, pp. 131, Elsevier, New York.
Le, G., and Russell, C. T. (1994). The morphology of ULF waves in the Earth’s foreshock, in Solar Wind Sources of Magnetospheric Ultra-Low-Frequency Waves, ed. Engebretson, M. J., Takahashi, K. and Scholer, M., American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi: 10.1029/GM081p0087.
Lee, D.-H., and Lysak, R. L. (1999). MHD waves in a three-dimensional dipolar magnetic field: A search for Pi2 pulsations. J. Geophys. Res., 104(A12), 28691–99, doi: 10.1029/1999JA900377.
Li, W., et al. (2016a). Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 5520–36.
Li, W., Thorne, R., Bortnik, J., Baker, D., Reeves, G., Kanekal, S., Spence, H. and Green, J. (2015a). Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 6906–15.
Li, Z., Hudson, M., Kress, B. and Paral, J. (2015b). Three‐dimensional test particle simulation of the 17–18 March 2013 CME shock‐driven storm. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5679–85.
Li, Z., Hudson, M., Paral, J., Wiltberger, M. and Turner, D. (2016b). Global ULF wave analysis of radial diffusion coefficients using a global MHD model for the 17 March 2015 storm. J. Geophys. Res., 121(7), 61966206.
Loto’aniu, T. M., Fraser, B. J. and Waters, C. L. (2005). Propagation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave energy in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 110, A07214, doi: 10.1029/2004JA010816.
Loto’aniu, T. M., Mann, I. R., Ozeke, L. G., Chan, A. A., Dent, Z. C. and Milling, D. K. (2006). Radial diffusion of relativistic electrons into the radiation belt slot region during the 2003 Halloween geomagnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res., 111, A04218, doi: 10.1029/2005JA011355.
Loto’Aniu, T. M., Singer, H. J., Waters, C. L., Angelopoulos, V., Mann, I. R., Elkington, S. R. and Bonnell, J. W. (2010) Relativistic electron loss due to ultralow frequency waves and enhanced outward radial diffusion. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12245, doi: 10.1029/2010JA015755.
Lowrie, W. (2007). Fundamentals of Geophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lysak, R. L. (1993). Generalized model of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator, in Auroral Plasma Dynamics, ed. Lysak, R. L., Geophys. Monogr. 80, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Mann, I. R., et al. (2018). Reply to ‘The dynamics of Van Allen belts revisited’. Nat. Phys., 14(2), 103, doi: 10.1038/nphys4351.
Mann, I. R., Murphy, K. R., Ozeke, L. G., Rae, I. J., Milling, D. K., Kale, A. A. and Honary, F. F. (2012). The role of ultralow frequency waves in radiation belt dynamics, in Dynamics of the Earth’s Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere, ed. Summers, D., Mann, I. R., Baker, D. N. and Schulz, M., American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi: 10.1029/2012GM001349.
Mann, I. R., Ozeke, L. G., Murphy, K. R., Claudepierre, S., Turner, D., Baker, D. N., Rae, I. J., Kale, A., Milling, D. K. and Boyd, A. (2016). Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt. Nat. Phys., 12(10), 978, doi: 10.1038/nphys3799.
Mann, I. R., and Wright, A. N. (1995). Finite lifetimes of ideal poloidal Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res., 100(A12), 23677–86.
Mann, I. R., and Wright, A. N. (1999). Diagnosing the excitation mechanisms of Pc5 magnetospheric flank waveguide modes and FLRs. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(16), 2609–12.
Mann, I. R., Balmain, K. G., Blake, J. B., Boteler, D., Bourdarie, S., Clemmons, J. H., Dent, Z. C., Degeling, A. W., Fedosejeves, R., Fennell, J. F. and Fraser, B. J. (2006). The outer radiation belt injection, transport, acceleration and loss satellite (ORBITALS): A Canadian small satellite mission for ILWS. Adv. Space Res., 38(8), 1838–60.
Mann, I. R., Chisham, G. and Bale, S. D. (1998). Multisatellite and ground‐based observations of a tailward propagating Pc5 magnetospheric waveguide mode. J. Geophys. Res., 103(A3), 4657–69.
Mann, I. R., Lee, E. A., Claudepierre, S. G., Fennell, J. F., Degeling, A., Rae, I. J., Baker, D. N., Reeves, G. D., Spence, H. E., Ozeke, L. G. and Rankin, R. (2013). Discovery of the action of a geophysical synchrotron in the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts. Nat. Comm., 4, 2795.
Mann, I. R., Milling, D. K., Rae, I. J, Ozeke, L. G., Kale, A. et al. (2008). The upgraded CARISMA magnetometer array in the THEMIS era. Space Sci. Rev., 141(1–4), 413–51.
Mann, I. R., O’Brien, T. P. and Milling, D. K. (2004). Correlations between ULF wave power, solar wind speed, and relativistic electron flux in the magnetosphere: Solar cycle dependence. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 66(2), 187–98.
Mann, I. R., Wright, A. N. and Cally, P. S. (1995). Coupling of magnetospheric cavity modes to field line resonances: A study of resonance widths. J. Geophys. Res., 100(A10), 19441–56.
Mann, I. R., Wright, A. N. and Hood, A. W. (1997). Multiple‐timescales analysis of ideal poloidal Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res., 102(A2), 2381–90.
Mann, I. R., Wright, A. N., Mills, K. J. and Nakariakov, V. M. (1999). Excitation of magnetospheric waveguide modes by magnetosheath flows. J. Geophys. Res., 104(A1), 333–53.
Marshall, R. A., Gorniak, H., der Walt, T. V., Waters, C. L., Sciffer, M. D., Miller, M., Dalzell, M., Daly, T., Pouferis, G., Hesse, G., and Wilkinson, P. (2013). Observations of geomagnetically induced currents in the Australian power network. Space Weather, 11, doi: 10.1029/2012SW000849.
Marshall, R. A. (1996). Geomagnetic pulsation service, IPS Radio and Space Services Internal Report, IPS TR-96-02, Aus. Govt. Dep. Admin. Services.
Masci, F. (2011). On the seismogenic increase of the ratio of the ULF geomagnetic field components. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 187, 1932, doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2011.05.001.
Mathie, R. A., and Mann, I. R. (2001). On the solar wind control of Pc5 ULF pulsation power at mid-latitudes: Implications for MeV electron acceleration in the outer radiation belt. J. Geophys. Res., 106(A12), 29783–96, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000002.
Mathie, R. A., Menk, F. W., Mann, I. R. and Orr, D. (1999a). Discrete field line resonances and the Alfvén continuum in the outer magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(6), 659–62.
Mathie, R. A., and Mann, I. R. (2000). A correlation between extended intervals of ULF wave power and storm‐time geosynchronous relativistic electron flux enhancements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(20), 3261–4.
Mathie, R. A., and Mann, I. R. (2000). Observations of Pc5 field line resonance azimuthal phase speeds: A diagnostic of their excitation mechanism. J. Geophys. Res., 105(A5), 10713–28.
Mathie, R. A., Mann, I. R., Menk, F. W. and Orr, D. (1999b). Pc5 ULF pulsations associated with waveguide modes observed with the IMAGE magnetometer array. J. Geophys. Res., 104(A4), 7025–36.
Mauk, B. H., Fox, N. J., Kanekal, S. G., Kessel, R. L., Sibeck, D. G. and Ukhorskiy, A. (2013). Science objectives and rationale for the radiation belt storm probes mission. Space Sci. Rev., 179(1–4), 327.
McPherron, R. L., Russell, C. T. and Coleman, P. J. (1972). Fluctuating magnetic fields in the magnetosphere. Space Sci. Rev., 13, 411–54.
McPherron, R. L. (2005). Magnetic pulsations: Their sources and relation to solar wind and geomagnetic activity. Surv. Geophys., 26, 545–92.
Menk, F. W., Orr, D., Clilverd, M. A., Smith, A. J., Waters, C. L., Milling, D. K. and Fraser, B. J. (1999). Monitoring spatial and temporal variations in the dayside plasmasphere using geomagnetic field line resonances. J. Geophys. Res., 104(A9), 19955–69, doi: 10.1029/1999JA900205.
Menk, F. W., Kale, Z. C., Sciffer, M., Robinson, P., Waters, C. L., Grew, R., Clilverd, M. and Mann, I. R. (2014). Remote sensing the plasmasphere, plasmapause, plumes and other features using ground-based magnetometers. J. Space Weather Space Clim., 4, A34.
Menk, F. W., and Waters, C. L. (2013). Magnetoseismology: Ground-Based Remote Sensing of Earth’s Magnetosphere. John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Menk, F. W., Fraser, B. J., Hansen, H. J., Newell, P. T., Meng, C.-I. and Morris, R. J. (1992). Identification of the magnetospheric cusp and cleft using Pc1-2 ULF pulsations. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 54(7/8), 1021–43.
Meredith, N. P., Thorne, R. M., Horne, R. B., Summers, D., Fraser, B. J. and Anderson, R. R. (2003). Statistical analysis of relativistic electron energies for cyclotron resonance with EMIC waves observed on CRRES. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1250, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009700.
Millan, R. M., and Thorne, R. M. (2007). Review of radiation belt relativistic electron losses. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 69, 362–77.
Mills, K. J., Wright, A. N. and Mann, I. R. (1999). Kelvin-Helmholtz driven modes of the magnetosphere. Phys. Plasmas, 6(10), 4070–87.
Min, K., Takahashi, K., Ukhorskiy, A. Y. et al. (2017). Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk‐midnight sector. J. Geophys. Res., 122(3), 3013–39.
Morley, S. K., Sullivan, J. P., Carver, M. R., Kippen, R. M., Friedel, R. H. W., Reeves, G. D. and Henderson, M. G. (2017). Energetic particle data from the Global Positioning System constellation. Space Weather, 15, 283–9, doi: 10.1002/2017SW001604.
Mourenas, D., Artemyev, A. V., Ma, Q., Agapitov, O. V. and Li, W. (2016). Fast dropouts of multi-MeV electrons due to combined effects of EMIC and whistler mode waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi: 10.1002/2016GL068921.
Murphy, K. R., Mann, I. R. and Sibeck, D. G. (2015). On the dependence of storm time ULF wave power on magnetopause location: Impacts for ULF wave radial diffusion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 9676–84, doi: 10.1002/2015GL066592.
Murphy, K. R., Mann, I. R. and Ozeke, L. G. (2014). A ULF wave driver of ring current energization. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(19), 65956602.
Neudegg, D. A., Fraser, B. J., Menk, F. W., Hansen, H. J., Burns, G. B., Morris, R. J. and Underwood, M. J. (1995). Sources and velocities of Pc1-2 ULF waves at high latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(21), 2965–8, doi: 10.1029/95GL02939.
Nickolaenko, A., and Hayakawa, M. (2014). Schumann Resonance for Tyros. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
Norouzi-Sedeh, L. (2013). Doppler clutter in HF radar systems produced by ULF waves, PhD thesis, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
Norouzi-Sedeh, L., Waters, C. L. and Menk, F. W. (2015). Survey of ULF wave signatures seen in the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar data. J. Geophys. Res., 120, doi: 10.1002/2014JA020652.
Obana, Y., Waters, C. L., Sciffer, M. D., Menk, F. W., Lysak, R. L., Shiokawa, K., Hurst, A. W. and Petersen, T. (2015). Resonance structure and mode transition of quarter-wave ULF pulsations around the dawn terminator. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 41944212, doi: 10.1002/2015JA021096.
Odera, T. J. (1986). Solar wind controlled pulsations: A review. Rev. Geophys., 24, 5574.
Olifer, L., Mann, I. R, Morley, S. K., Ozeke, L. G. and Choi, D. (2018). On the role of last closed drift shell dynamics in driving fast losses and Van Allen radiation belt extinction. J. Geophys. Res., 123, doi: 10.1029/2018JA025190.
Olsen, N. (2007). Natural sources for electromagnetic induction studies, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, ed. Gubbins, D. and Herrero-Bervera, E., pp. 696700, Springer, New York.
Olsen, N., Hulot, G. and Sabaka, T. J. (2010). Sources of the geomagnetic field and the modern data that enable their investigation, in Handbook of Geomathematics, ed. Freeden, W., Nashed, M. Z. and Sonar, T., Springer, Berlin.
Orlova, K., Shprits, Y. and Spasojevic, M. (2016). New global loss model of energetic and relativistic electrons based on Van Allen Probes measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 1308–14, doi: 10.1002/2015JA021878.
Orr, D., and Matthew, J. A. (1971). The variation of geomagnetic micropulsation periods with latitude and the plasmapause. Planet. Space Sci., 19(8), 897905.
Orr, D. (1973). Magnetic pulsations within the magnetosphere: A review. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 35, 150.
Ozeke, L. G., and Mann, I. R. (2008). Energization of radiation belt electrons by ring current ion driven ULF waves. J. Geophys. Res., 113, A02201, doi: 10.1029/2007JA012468.
Ozeke, L. G., Mann, I. R. and Rae, I. J. (2009). Mapping guided Alfvén wave magnetic field amplitudes observed on the ground to equatorial electric field amplitudes in space. J. Geophys. Res., 114, A01214, doi: 10.1029/2008JA013041.
Ozeke, L. G., Mann, I. R., Turner, D. L., Murphy, K. R., Degeling, A. W., Rae, I. J. and Milling, D. K. (2014b). Modeling cross L shell impacts of magnetopause shadowing and ULF wave radial diffusion in the Van Allen belts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 6556–62.
Ozeke, L. G., Mann, I. R., Murphy, K. R., Sibeck, D. G. and Baker, D. N. (2017). Ultra-relativistic radiation belt extinction and ULF wave radial diffusion: Modeling the September 2014 extended dropout event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 2624–33, doi: 10.1002/2017GL072811.
Ozeke, L. G., Mann, I. R., Murphy, K. R., Rae, I. J., Milling, D. K., Elkington, S. R., Chan, A. A. and Singer, H. J. (2012a). ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients. J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04222.
Ozeke, L. G., Mann, I. R., Murphy, K. R., Jonathan Rae, I. and Milling, D. K. (2014a). Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 15871605.
Ozeke, L. G., Mann, I. R., Murphy, K. R., Rae, I. J. and Chan, A. A. (2012b). ULF wave–driven radial diffusion simulations of the outer radiation belt, in Dynamics of the Earth’s Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere, ed. Summers, D., Mann, I. R., Baker, D. N. and Schulz, M., American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi: 10.1029/2012GM001332.
Ozeke, L. G., and Mann, I. R. (2001). Modeling the properties of high‐m Alfvén waves driven by the drift‐bounce resonance mechanism. J. Geophys. Res., 106(A8), 15583–97.
Ozeke, L. G., and Mann, I. R. (2005). High and low ionospheric conductivity standing guided Alfvén wave eigenfrequencies: A model for plasma density mapping. J. Geophys. Res., 110(A4), doi: 10.1029/2004JA010719.
Ozeke, L. G., Mann, I. R. and Mathews, J. T. (2005). The influence of asymmetric ionospheric Pedersen conductances on the field‐aligned phase variation of guided toroidal and guided poloidal Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res., 110(A8), doi: 10.1029/2005JA011167.
Pilipenko, V. A., Kozyreva, O. V., Engebretson, M. J. and Soloviev, A. A. (2017). ULF wave power index for space weather and geophysical applications: A review. Russ. J. Earth Sci., 17, doi: 10.2205/2017ES000597.
Plaschke, F., Glassmeier, K. H., Auster, H. U. et al. (2009). Standing Alfvén waves at the magnetopause. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(2), doi: 10.1029/2008GL036411.
Plaschke, F., and Glassmeier, K.-H. (2011). Properties of standing Kruskal-Schwarzschild-modes at the magnetopause. Ann. Geophys., 29, 17931807, doi: 10.5194/angeo-29-1793-2011.
Potapova, A. S., Polyushkina, T. N., Tsegmed, B., Oinats, A. V., Pashinin, A. Yu., Edemskiy, I. K., Mylnikova, A. A. and Ratovsky, K. G. (2017). Considering the potential of IAR emissions for ionospheric sounding. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 164, 229–34.
Pulkkinen, A., Bernabeu, E., Thomson, A., Viljanen, A., Pirjola, R., Boteler, D., Eichner, J., Cilliers, P. J., Welling, D., Savani, N. P., Weigel, R. S., Love, J. J., Balch, C., Ngwira, C. M., Crowley, G., Schultz, A., Kataoka, R., Anderson, B., Fugate, D., Simpson, J. J. and MacAlester, M. (2017). Geomagnetically induced currents: Science, engineering and applications readiness. Space Weather, doi: 10.1002/2016SW001501.
Radoski, H. R. (1967). Highly asymmetric MHD resonances: The guided poloidal mode. J. Geophys. Res., 72(15), 4026–7.
Rae, I. J., Mann, I. R., Murphy, K. R., Ozeke, L. G., Milling, D. K., Chan, A. A., Elkington, S. R. and Honary, F. (2012). Ground-based magnetometer determination of in situ Pc4–5 ULF electric field wave spectra as a function of solar wind speed. J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04221, doi: 10.1029/2011JA017335.
Rae, I. J., Donovan, E. F., Mann, I. R. et al. (2005). Evolution and characteristics of global Pc5 ULF waves during a high solar wind speed interval. J. Geophys. Res., 110(A12), doi: 10.1029/2005JA011007.
Reeves, G. D., Chen, Y., Cunningham, G. S., Friedel, R. W. H., Henderson, M. G., Jordanova, V. K., Koller, J., Morley, S. K., Thomsen, M. F. and Zaharia, S. (2012). Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model: DREAM. Space Weather, 10, S03006, doi: 10.1029/2011SW000729.
Reeves, G., McAdams, K., Friedel, R. and O’Brien, T. (2003). Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms. Geophys. Res.Lett., 30, doi: 10.1002/2015GL066376.
Reeves, G. D., Spence, H. E., Henderson, M. G., Morley, S. K., Friedel, R. H. W., Funsten, H. O., Baker, D. N., Kanekal, S. G., Blake, J. B., Fennell, J. F. and Claudepierre, S. G. (2013). Electron acceleration in the heart of the Van Allen radiation belts. Science, 341(6149), 991–4.
Rickard, G. J., and Wright, A. N. (1995). ULF pulsations in a magnetospheric waveguide: Comparison of real and simulated satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 100(A3), 3531–7.
Rickard, G. J., and Wright, A. N. (1994). Alfvén resonance excitation and fast wave propagation in magnetospheric waveguides. J. Geophys. Res., 99(A7), 13455–64.
Rostoker, G., Skone, S. and Baker, D. N. (1998). On the origin of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere associated with some geomagnetic storms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(19), 3701–4.
Ruohoniemi, J. M., Greenwald, R. A., Baker, K. B. and Samson, J. C. (1991). HF radar observations of Pc 5 field line resonances in the midnight/early morning MLT sector. J. Geophys. Res., 96(A9), 15697–710, doi: 10.1029/91JA00795.
Sabaka, T. J., Hulot, G. and Olsen, N. (2010). Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling, in Handbook of Geomathematics, pp. 503–38, Springer, Berlin.
Saito, T. (1969). Geomagnetic pulsations. Space Sci. Rev., 10, 319412.
Samson, J. C., Greenwald, R. A., Ruohoniemi, J. M., Hughes, T. J. and Wallis, D. D. (1991). Magnetometer and radar observations of magnetohydrodynamic cavity modes in the Earth’s magnetosphere. Can. J. Phys., 69, 929.
Samson, J. C., Harrold, B. G., Ruohoniemi, J. M., Greenwald, R. A. and Walker, A. D. M. (1992). Field line resonances associated with MHD waveguides in the magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 441–4, doi: 10.1029/92GL00116.
Samson, J. C. (1991). Geomagnetic pulsations and plasma waves in the Earth’s magnetosphere, in Geomagnetism, vol. 4, ed. Jacobs, J. A., chapter 4, Academic Press, London.
Samson, J. C., Jacobs, J. A. and Rostoker, G. (1971). Latitude‐dependent characteristics of long‐period geomagnetic micropulsations. J. Geophys. Res., 76(16), 3675–83.
Samson, J. C. (1983). Pure states, polarized waves, and principal components in the spectra of multiple, geophysical time series. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 72, 647–64.
Schulz, M., and Lanzerotti, L. J. (1974). Particle Diffusion in the Radiation Belts, Physics and Chemistry in Space 7, Springer, Berlin.
Sciffer, M. D., and Waters, C. L. (2011). Relationship between ULF wave mode mix, equatorial electric fields, and ground magnetometer data. J. Geophys. Res., 116, A06202, doi: 10.1029/2010JA016307.
Sciffer, M. D., Waters, C. L. and Menk, F. W. (2005). A numerical model to investigate the polarisation azimuth of ULF waves through an ionosphere with oblique magnetic fields. Ann. Geophys., 23, 3457–71.
Sciffer, M. D., Waters, C. L. and Menk, F. W. (2004). Propagation of ULF waves through the ionosphere: Inductive effect for oblique magnetic fields. Ann. Geophys., 22, 1155–69.
Serson, P. H. (1973). Instrumentation for induction studies on land. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 7, 313–22.
Shah, A. S., Waters, C. L., Sciffer, M. D. and Menk, F. W. (2016). Energization of outer radiation belt electrons during storm recovery phase. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 10845–60, doi: 10.1002/2016JA023245.
Shprits, Y. Y., Thorne, R. M., Friedel, R., Reeves, G. D., Fennell, J., Baker, D. N. and Kanekal, S. G. (2006). Outward radial diffusion driven by losses at magnetopause. J. Geophys. Res., 111, A11214, doi: 10.1029/2006JA011657.
Shprits, Y. Y., Subbotin, D., Drozdov, A., Usanova, M. E., Kellerman, A., Orlova, K., Baker, D. N., Turner, D. L. and Kim, K. C. (2013). Unusual stable trapping of the ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. Nat. Phys., 9(11), 699.
Shvets, A., and Hayakawa, M. (2011). Global lightning activity on the basis of inversions of natural ELF electromagnetic data observed at multiple stations around the world. Surv. Geophys., 32(6), 705–32.
Sibeck, D. G. (1990). A model for the transient magnetospheric response to sudden solar wind dynamic pressure variations. J. Geophys. Res., 95(A4), 3755–71.
Sibeck, D. G., Borodkova, N. L., Schwartz, S. J. et al. (1999). Comprehensive study of the magnetospheric response to a hot flow anomaly. J. Geophys. Res., 104(A3), 4577–93.
Silin, I., Mann, I. R., Sydora, R. D., Summers, D. and Mace, R. L. (2011). Warm plasma effects on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave MeV electron interactions in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 116, A05215, doi: 10.1029/2010JA016398.
Siscoe, G. L., and Chen, C. K. (1975). The paleomagnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 80(34), 4675–80.
Southwood, D. J. (1974). Some features of field line resonances in the magnetosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 22(3), 483–91.
Southwood, D. J. (1976). A general approach to low‐frequency instability in the ring current plasma. J. Geophys. Res., 81(19), 3340–48.
Southwood, D. J., and Hughes, W. J. (1983). Theory of hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere. Space Sci. Rev., 35(4), 301–66.
Southwood, D. J., Dungey, J. W. and Etherington, R. J. (1969). Bounce resonant interaction between pulsations and trapped particles. Planet. Space Sci., 17(3), 349–61.
Spence, H. E., Reeves, G. D., Baker, D. N., Blake, J. B., Bolton, M., Bourdarie, S., Chan, A. A., Claudepierre, S. G., Clemmons, J. H., Cravens, J. P. and Elkington, S. R. (2013). Science goals and overview of the radiation belt storm probes (RBSP) energetic particle, composition, and thermal plasma (ECT) suite on NASA’s Van Allen probes mission. Space Sci. Rev., 179(1–4), 311–36.
Stadelmann, A., Vogt, J., Glassmeier, K.-H., Kallenrode, M.-B. and Voigt, G.-H. (2010). Cosmic ray and solar energetic particle flux in paleomagnetospheres. Earth Planets Space, 62(3), 333–45.
Subbotin, D. A., Shprits, Y. Y. and Ni, B. (2011). Long-term radiation belt simulation with the VERB 3-D code: Comparison with CRRES observations. J. Geophys. Res., 116, A12210, doi: 10.1029/2011JA017019.
Summers, D., Ni, B. and Meredith, N. P. (2007). Timescales for radiation belt electron acceleration and loss due to resonant wave‐particle interactions: 2. Evaluation for VLF chorus, ELF hiss, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. J. Geophys. Res., 112(A4), doi: 10.1029/2006JA01180.
Surkov, V., and Hayakawa, M. (2014b). Ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR) in Ultra and Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, Tokyo.
Surkov, V., and Hayakawa, M. (2014a). Ultra and Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, Tokyo.
Takahashi, K., and Ukhorski, A. Y. (2007). Solar wind control of Pc5 pulsation power at geosynchronous orbit. J. Geophys. Res., 112, A11205, doi: 10.1029/2007JA012483.
Takahashi, K., Waters, C. L., Glassmeier, K.-H., Kletzing, C. A., Kurth, W. S. and Smith, C. W. (2015). Multifrequency compressional magnetic field oscillations and their relation to multiharmonic toroidal mode standing Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 10384–403, doi: 10.1002/2015JA021780.
Takahashi, K., et al. (2010). Multipoint observation of fast mode waves trapped in the dayside plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12247, doi: 10.1029/2010JA015956.
Takahashi, K., Hartinger, M. D., Angelopoulos, V., Glassmeier, K. H. and Singer, H. J. (2013). Multispacecraft observations of fundamental poloidal waves without ground magnetic signatures. J. Geophys. Res., 118(7), 4319–34.
Takahashi, K., Oimatsu, S., Nosé, M., Min, K., Claudepierre, S. G. et al. (2018). Van Allen Probes observations of second-harmonic poloidal standing Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res., 123, doi: 10.1002/2017JA024869.
Takahashi, K., Chi, P. J., Denton, R. E. and Lysak, R. L., eds. (2006). Magnetospheric ULF Waves: Synthesis and New Directions, AGU Monograph 169, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Takahashi, K., Denton, R. E. and Singer, H. J. (2010). Solar cycle variation of geosynchronous plasma mass density derived from the frequency of standing Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A07207, doi: 10.1029/2009JA015243.
Takahashi, K. (1990). Response of energetic particles to magnetospheric ultra-low-frequency waves. Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Digest, 11, 255–63.
Tamao, T. (1964). The structure of three-dimensional hydromagnetic waves in a uniform cold plasma. J. Geomagn. Geoelectr., 18, 89114.
Tamao, T. (1966). Transmission and coupling resonance of hydromagnetic disturbances in the non-uniform Earth’s magnetosphere. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. Ser. 5, 17, 43.
Tarduno, J. A., Cottrell, R. D., Davis, W. J., Nimmo, F. and Bono, R. K. (2015). A Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo recorded by single zircon crystals. Science, 349(6247), 521–4.
Tarduno, J. A., Cottrell, R. D., Watkeys, M. K., Hofmann, A., Doubrovine, P. V., Mamajek, E. E., Liu, D., Sibeck, D. G., Neukirch, L. P. and Usui, Y. (2010). Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. Science, 327(5970), 1238–40.
Tauxe, L. (2010). Essentials of Paleomagnetism. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Tu, W., Elkington, S. R., Li, X., Liu, W. and Bonnell, J. (2012). Quantifying radial diffusion coefficients of radiation belt electrons based on global MHD simulation and spacecraft measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 117, A10210, doi: 10.1029/2012JA017901.
Turner, D. L., Shprits, Y., Hartinger, M. and Angelopoulos, V. (2012). Explaining sudden losses of outer radiation belt electrons during geomagnetic storms. Nat. Phys., 8(3), 208.
Ukhorskiy, A. Y., Anderson, B. J., Brandt, P. C. and Tsyganenko, N. A. (2006). Storm time evolution of the outer radiation belt: Transport and losses. J. Geophys. Res., 111, A11S03, doi: 10.1029/2006JA011690.
Usanova, M. E., Drozdov, A., Orlova, K., Mann, I. R., Shprits, Y. et al. (2014). Effect of EMIC waves on relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron populations: Ground‐based and Van Allen Probes observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 1375–81.
Usanova, M. E., Mann, I. R., Rae, I. J., Kale, Z. C., Angelopoulos, V., Bonnell, J. W., Glassmeier, K.-H., Auster, H. U. and Singer, H. J. (2008). Multipoint observations of magnetospheric compression related EMIC Pc1 waves by THEMIS and CARISMA. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L17S25, doi: 10.1029/2008GL034458.
Vallee, M. A., Newitt, L., Dumont, R. and Keating, P. (2005). Correlation between aeromagntic data rejection and geomagnetic indices. Geophysics, 70, J33–8, doi: 10.1190/1.2057982.
Walker, A. D. M. (2000). Reflection and transmission at the boundary between two counterstreaming MHD plasmas – active boundaries or negative-energy waves? J. Plasma Phys., 63(3), 203–19.
Waters, C. L. and Cox, S. P. (2009). ULF wave effects on high frequency signal propagation through the ionosphere. Ann. Geophys., 27, 2779–88, doi: 10.5194/angeo-27-2779-2009.
Waters, C. L., Gjerloev, J. W., Dupont, M. and Barnes, R. J. (2015). Global maps of ground magnetometer data. J. Geophys. Res., 120, doi: 10.1002/2015JA021596.
Waters, C. L., Kabin, K., Rankin, R., Donovan, E. and Samson, J. C. (2007). Effects of the magnetic field model and wave polarisation on the estimation of proton number densities in the magnetosphere using field line resonances. Planet. Space Sci., 55, 809–19.
Waters, C. L., Lysak, R. L. and Sciffer, M. D. (2013). On the coupling of fast and shear Alfvén wave modes by the ionospheric Hall conductance. Earth Planets Space, 65, 385–96, doi: 10.5047/eps.2012.08.002.
Waters, C. L., Menk, F. W. and Fraser, B. J. (1991). The resonance structure of low latitude Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 2293–6, doi: 10.1029/91GL02550.
Waters, C. L., Takahashi, K., Lee, D. H. and Anderson, B. J. (2002). Detection of ultralow‐frequency cavity modes using spacecraft data. J. Geophys. Res., 107(A10).
Webb, D. F., and Allen, J. H. (2004). Spacecraft and ground anomalies related to the October–November 2003 solar activity. Space Weather, 2(3).
Wright, A. N., and Mann, I. R. (2006). Global MHD eigenmodes of the outer magnetosphere, in Magnetospheric ULF Waves: Synthesis and New Directions, ed. Takahashi, K., Chi, P. J., Denton, R. E. and Lysak, R. L., pp. 5172, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi: 10.1029/169GM06.
Wright, A. N. (1994). Dispersion and wave coupling in inhomogeneous MHD waveguides. J. Geophys. Res., 99(A1), 159–67.
Wright, D. M., and Yeoman, T. K. (1999). High resolution bistatic HF radar observations of ULF waves in artificially generated backscatter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(18), 2825–8.
Wright, D. M., Yeoman, T. K. and Jones, T. B. (1999). ULF wave occurrence statistics in a high-latitude HF Doppler sounder. Ann. Geophys., 17, 749–58.
Yeoman, T. K. and Wright, D. M. (2001). ULF waves with drift resonance and drift-bounce resonance energy sources as observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter. Ann. Geophys., 19, 159–70, doi: 10.5194/angeo-19-159-2001.
Yeoman, T. K., James, M. K., Klimushkin, D. Y. and Mager, P. N. (2016). Energetic particle‐driven ULF waves in the ionosphere, in Low-Frequency Waves in Space Plasmas, ed. A. Keiling, D.-H. Lee and V. Nakariakov, Geophys. Monogr. 216, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Yeoman, T. K., Wright, D. M., Robinson, T. R., Davies, J. A. and Rietveld, M. (1997). High spatial and temporal resolution observations of an impulse-driven field line resonance in radar backscatter artificially generated with the Tromsø heater. Ann. Geophys., 15(6), 634–44.
Yoshikawa, A., and Itonaga, M. (2000). The nature of reflection and mode conversion of MHD waves in the inductive ionosphere: Multistep mode conversion between divergent and rotational electric fields. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 10565–84.
Zhou, X.-Z., Wang, Z.-H., Zong, Q.-G., Rankin, R., Kivelson, M. G., Chen, X.-R., Blake, J. B., Wygant, J. R. and Kletzing, C. A. (2016). Charged particle behavior in the growth and damping stages of ultralow frequency waves: Theory and Van Allen Probes observations. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 3254–63, doi: 10.1002/2016JA022447.
Ziegler, L. B., Constable, C. G., Johnson, C. L. and Tauxe, L. (2011). PADM2 M: Penalized maximum likelihood model of the 0–2 Ma palaeomagnetic axial dipole moment. Geophys. J. Int., 184(3), 1069–89.