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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: February 2019

12 - Combustion

from Part II - Fundamentals
1.Lefebvre, A. H., Gas Turbine Combustion (Philadelphia, PA: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1983).
2.Strehlow, R., Combustion Fundamentals (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984).
3.Khartchenko, N. V., Advanced Energy Systems (Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1998).
4.Lieuwen, T. C., Yang, V. (Editors), Gas Turbine Emissions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
5.Lieuwen, T. C., Yang, V. (Editors), Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines (Reston, VA: AIAA, Inc., 2005).
6.Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators, ASME Performance Test Code PTC 4.4-2008, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York.
7.Lefebvre, A. H., The Role of Fuel Preparation in Low-Emission Combustion, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 117 (1995), 617654.
8.Røkke, P. E., Hustad, J. E., Røkke, N. A., Svendsgaard, O. B., “Technology Update on Gas Turbine Dual Fuel, Dry Low Emission Combustion Systems,” ASME Paper GT2003-38112, proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, June 16–19, 2003, Atlanta, GA.
9.Davis, L. B., Black, S. H., “Dry Low NOx Combustion Systems for GE Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines,” GER-3568G, 2000, available online at
10.Venkataraman, K. et al., “F-Class DLN Technology Advancements: DLN 2.6+,” ASME Paper GT2011-45373, ASME Turbo Expo 2011, June 6–10, 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
11.Smith, G. R., Kulkarni, P., Hoskin, R. F., “Transient Operation of Combined Cycle Power Plants and the Associated Air Emissions,” Powergen International 2012, Orlando, FL.
12.Ito, E. et al., Development of Key Technologies for an Ultra-High-Temperature Gas Turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, 48: 3 (2011).
13.Tanaka, Y. et al., Development of Low NOx Combustion System with EGR for 1700°C-Class Gas Turbine, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, 50: 1 (2013).
14.Smith, R. W. et al., “Fuel Moisturization for Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycles,” GT2005-69012, ASME Turbo Expo 2005, June 6–9, 2005, Reno, NV.
15.Standards for Performance of Combustion Turbines; Final Rule, Federal Register, 40 CFR 60, Part III Environmental Protection Agency, July 6, 2006, p. 38505.
16.European Union (large combustion plants) regulations (2012), Statutory Instruments, S.I. No. 566 of 2012.
17.Goldmeer, J., Vandervort, C., Sternberh, J., “New Capabilities and Developments in GE’s DLN 2.6 Combustion Systems,” POWERGEN International, December 5–7, 2017, Las Vegas, NV.
18.Welch, M., “Can Ethane and Propane Displace Diesel and Fuel Oils as Fuels for Power Generation?” POWERGEN International, December 5–7, 2017, Las Vegas, NV.
19.Brdar, R. D., Jones, R. M., “GE IGCC Technology and Experience with Advanced Gas Turbines,” GER-4207, 2000, available online at
20.Hall, J. M. et al., “Development and Field Validation of a Large-Frame Gas Turbine Power Train for Steel Mill Gases,” ASME Paper GT2011-45923, ASME Turbo Expo 2011, June 6–10, 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
21.Takano, H., Kitauchi, Y., Hiura, H., Design for the 145-MW Blast Furnace Gas Firing Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Plant, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 111 (1989), 218224.
22.Welch, M., Igoe, B., “An Introduction to Combustion, Fuels, Emissions, Fuel Contamination and Storage for Industrial Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper GT2015-42010, ASME Turbo Expo 2015, June 15–19, 2015, Montreal, QC, Canada.
23.Jones, R., Goldmeer, J., Monetti, B., “Addressing Gas Turbine Fuel Flexibility,” GER-4601, 2011, available online at
24.Meier, J. G., Hung, W. S. Y., Sood, V. M., Development and Application of Industrial Gas Turbines for Medium-Btu Gaseous Fuels, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 108 (1986), 182190.
25.Huth, M., Heilos, A., “Fuel Flexibility in Gas Turbine Systems: Impact on Burner Design and Performance,” 2013, chapter 14 in [11] in Chapter 2.
26.Tomlinson, L. O., Alff, R. K., “Economics of Heavy Fuels in Gas Turbines and Combined Cycles,” ASME Paper 81-GT-45, Gas Turbine & Products Show, March 9–12, 1981, Houston, TX.
27.Bunz, W. J. et al., Crude Oil Burning Experience in MS5001P Gas Turbines, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 106 (1984), 812818.
28.Bromley, A. F., Attention to Detail Critical for Maintaining High Availability When Firing Liquid Fuels, Combined Cycle Journal, Third Quarter (2006), 33–39.
29.Goldmeer, J. et al., “Evaluation of Arabian Super Light Crude Oil for Use in a F-Class DLN Combustion System,” ASME Turbo Expo 2014, June 16–20, 2014, Düsseldorf, Germany.
30.Bradley, T., Fadok, J., “Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Update,” ASME Paper GT2009-59105, ASME Turbo Expo 2009, June 8–12, 2009, Orlando, FL.
31.Stuttaford, P. et al., “FlameSheet™ Combustor Engine and Rig Validation for Operational and Fuel Flexibility with Low Emissions,” GT2016-56696, ASME Turbo Expo 2016, June 13–17, 2006, Seoul, South Korea.
32.Poyyapakkam, M. et al., “Hydrogen Combustion within a Gas Turbine Reheat Combustor,” GT2012-69165, ASME Turbo Expo 2012, June 11–15, 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark.
33.Shilling, N. Z., Jones, R. M., “The Impact of Fuel-Flexible Gas Turbine Control Systems on Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Performance,” ASME Paper GT2003-38791, ASME Turbo Expo 2003, June 16–19, 2003, Atlanta, GA.
34.Miller, H. E., “Development of the GE Quiet Combustor and Other Design Changes to Benefit Quality,” GER-3551, 1994, available online at
35.Wu, J. et al., “Advanced Gas Turbine Combustion System Development for High Hydrogen Fuels,” ASME Paper GT2007-28337, ASME Turbo Expo 2007, May 14–17, 2007, Montreal, QC, Canada.
36.Wimer, J. G., Keairns, D., Parsons, E. L., Ruether, J. A., Integration of Gas Turbines Adapted for Syngas Fuel with Cryogenic and Membrane-Based Air Separation Units: Issues to Consider for System Studies, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 128 (2006), 271280.
37.Gazzani, M. et al., Using Hydrogen as Gas Turbine Fuel: Premixed versus Diffusive Flame Combustors, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 136 (2014), 051504.
38.Chiesa, P., Lozza, G., Mazzocchi, L., Using Hydrogen as Gas Turbine Fuel, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 127 (2005), 7380.