Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: April 2013

Chapter 14 - Ecology and behavior of uacaris (genus Cacajao)

from Part III - Genus Reviews and Case Studies


Aguiar, H. (2007). Dieta do gavião-real Harpia harpyja (Aves: Accipitridae) em florestas de terra firme de Parintins, Amazonas, Brasil. Master’s thesis, INPA/UFAM, Manaus.
Almeida, T., de Almeida, R. & Barnett, A.A. (2008). Parrots of Jaú National Park: diet composition and competition with seed-predating primates. Abstracts of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation 2008 meeting (June 9–13, Paramaribo, Suriname), 14.
Amaral, J.V., Muniz, I.C.M., Avelar, A.A., et al. (2005). Primatas de Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustenivel Amana. In Programa e Livro de resumos, XI Congresso Brasiliero de Primatologia, ed. J.C. Bicca-Marques. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, p. 70.
Anderson, D.P., Nordheim, E.V., Boesch, C., et al. (2002). Factors influencing fission–fusion grouping in chimpanzees in the Tai National Park, Cote d’Ivoire. In: Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, ed. C. Boesch, G. Hohmann & L.F. Marchant. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–101.
Aquino, R. (1988). Preliminary survey on the population densities of Cacajao calvus ucayalii. Primate Conservation, 9, 24–26.
Aquino, R. (1995). Conservacion de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el Amazon Peruana. Neotropical Primates, 3, 40–42.
Aquino, R. (1998). Some observations on the ecology of Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon. Primate Conservation, 18, 21–24.
Aquino, R. (2005). Alimentación de mamíferos de caza en los aguajales de la Reserva Nacional de Pacaya-Samiria (Iquitos, Perú). Revista Peruana de Biología, 12, 417–425.
Aquino, R. & Encarnación, F. (1994). Primates of Peru. Primate Report, 40, 1–127.
Aquino, R. & Encarnación, F. (1999). Observaciones preliminares sorbe la dieta de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el Nor-Oriente Peruano. Neotropical Primates, 7, 1–5.
Asensio, N., Korstjens, A.H., Schaffner, C.M., et al. (2008). Intragroup aggression, fission–fusion dynamics and feeding competition in spider monkeys. Behaviour, 145, 983–1001.
Aureli, F., Schaffner, C.M., Boesch, C., et al. (2008). Fission–fusion dynamics: new research frameworks. Current Anthropology, 49, 627–646.
Ayres, J.M. (1986). The white uakaris and the Amazon flooded forests. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.
Ayres, J.M. (1989). Comparative feeding ecology of the uakari and bearded saki, Cacajao and Chiropotes. Journal of Human Evolution, 18, 697–716.
Ayres, J.M. (1993). As Matas de Várzea do Mamirauá. Tefé: Sociedade Civil Mamirauá.
Barnett, A.A. (2005). Cacajao melanocephalus. Mammalian Species, 739, 1–7.
Barnett, A.A. (2010a). Diet, habitat use and conservation ecology of the golden-backed uacari, Cacajao ouakary, in Jaú National Park, Amazonian Brazil. PhD thesis, Roehampton University, London.
Barnett A.A. (2010b). Preliminary analysis of potential predator recognition and distinction of imminent threat by golden-backed uacari, Cacajao ouakary (Primates), in Brazilian Amazonia. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Annual Conference, December 3, London.
Barnett, A.A. (Submitted). The genus Cacajao (Pitheciidae, Primates), a review of literature from 1812 to 2012: part 1 – taxonomy, etymology, anatomy, morphology, karyology and evolutionary history. Mammal Review.
Barnett, A.A. & Brandon-Jones, D. (1997). The ecology, biogeography and conservation of the uacaris, Cacajao (Pitheciinae). Folia Primatologica, 68, 223–235.
Barnett, A. & da Cunha, A.C. (1991). The golden-backed uacari on the upper Rio Negro, Brazil. Oryx, 25, 80–88.
Barnett, A.A. & Ross, C. (Submitted). The naked red head of Cacajao calvus: facts, fantasies and filaria. Quarterly Review of Biology.
Barnett, A.A., Bezerra, B., Ross, C., et al. (2008). Hard fruits and black waters: the conservation ecology of the Golden-backed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary, an extreme diet- and habitat-specialist. Presentation # 692, Abstracts, XXII Congress, International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, August 2–8, 2008, pp. 248–250.
Barnett, A.A., Bezerra B.M. & Spironello, W.R. (2007). Diet of the Golden-backed Uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary (Primates): seasonal strategies and manipulational subtleties. Abstracts of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation 2007 meeting (July 15–19, Morelia, Mexico). Washington, DC: Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, p. 7.
Barnett, A.A., de Castilho C.V., Shapley, R.L., et al. (2005). The golden-backed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary in Jaú National Park, Brazil: preliminary observations on wet and dry season diet and habitat selection. International Journal of Primatology, 26, 961–981.
Barnett, A.A., MacLarnon, A., Almeida, T., et al. (Submitted). Seasonal changes in diet and habitat use by the golden-backed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary (Spix, 1823), in Jaú National Park, Amazonian Brazil. American Journal of Primatology.
Barnett, A.A., Ronchi-Teles, B., Almeida, T., et al. (Submitted). Covert carnivory: insects, infested fruits and the golden-backed uacari, a seed-predating primate. International Journal of Primatology.
Barnett, A.A., Schiel, V., Deveny, A., et al. (2011). Predation on Cacajao ouakary and Cebus albifrons (Primates: Platyrrhini) by harpy eagles. Mammalia, 75, 169–172.
Barnett, A.A., Shaw, P., Spironello, W.R., et al. (2012). Sleeping site selection by golden-backed uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary (Pitheciidae), in Amazonian flooded forests. Primates, 53, 273–285.
Barnett, A.A., Veiga, L.M. & Spironello, W.R. (2007). Combining force with finesse: food selection and processing in Cacajao and Chiropotes. In Resumos XII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte, MG, ed. F.R. Melo, A. Hirsch, C.G. Costa, L.G. Dias, I.M.C. Mourthe, F.P. Tabacow & L.M. Scoss, p. 7.
Bartecki, U. & Heymann, E.W. (1987). Sightings of red uakaris, Cacajao calvus rubicundus, at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia. Primate Conservation, 8, 34–36.
Bennett, C.L., Leonard, S. & Carter, S. (2001). Abundance, diversity and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche river in Amazonian Peru. American Journal of Primatology, 54, 119–126.
Bezerra, B.M., Barnett, A., da Silva Junior, J., et al. (2008). Sounding out species: holes in our distributional knowledge of Amazonian primates, and the potential for call playback as a survey technique. In XXII International Primatological Society Congress, August 3–8, 2008, Primate Eye, 96 (Sp CD-ROM iss – IPS 2008), Abstract 695.
Bezerra, B.M., Barnett, A.A., Souto, A.S., et al. (2007). Preliminary recordings on the vocalisations of golden-backed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary), in Jaú National Park, Amazon, Brazil. In XII Brazilian Primatological Conference, Belo Horizonte, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, CD-ROM, ed. F.R. Melo, A. Hirsch, C.G. Costa, L.G. Dias, I.M.C. Mourthe, F.P. Tabacow & L.M. Scoss, p. 9.
Bezerra, B.M., Barnett, A.A., Souto, A., et al. (2010c). Ethogram and natural history of golden-backed uakaris (Cacajao melanocephalus). International Journal of Primatology, 32, 46–68.
Bezerra, B.M., Barnett, A., Souto, A.S., et al. (2011). Ethogram and natural history of the golden-backed uakari, Cacajao ouakary. International Journal of Primatology, 32, 46–68.
Bezerra, B.M., Souto, A.S. & Jones, G. (2010a). Vocal repertoire of golden-backed uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus): call structure and context. International Journal of Primatology, 31, 759–778.
Bezerra, B.M., Souto, A.S. & Jones, G. (2010b). Responses of golden-backed uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus, to call playback: implications for surveys in the flooded Igapó forest. Primates, 51, 327–336.
Bezerra, B.M., Souto, A.S., Radford, A.N., et al. (2011). Brevity is not always a virtue in primate communication. Biology Letters, 7, 23–25.
Bianchi, R.C. & Mendes, S.L. (2007). Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, Southeast Brazil. American Journal of Primatology, 69, 1173–1178.
Boinski, S. & Scott, P.E. (1988). Association of birds with monkeys in Costa Rica. Biotropica, 20, 136–143.
Bonvicino, C.R., Boubli, J.P., Otazu, I.B., et al. (2003). Morphologic, karyotypic, and molecular evidence of a new form of Chiropotes (Primates, Pitheciinae). American Journal of Primatology, 61, 123–133.
Boubli, J.P. (1997). Ecology of black uakari monkeys in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Boubli, J.P. (1999). Feeding ecology of black-headed uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 20, 719–749.
Boubli, J.P. (2002a). Lowland floristic assessment of Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Plant Ecology, 160, 149–167.
Boubli, J.P. (2002b). Western extension of the range of bearded sakis: a possible new taxon of Chiropotes sympatric with Cacajao in the Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Neotropical Primates, 10, 1–4.
Boubli, J.P. (2005). Floristics, primary productivity and primate diversity in Amazonia: contrasting a eutrophic varzea forest and an oligotrophic caatinga forest in Brazil. In Fruits and Frugivores: in Search of Strong Interactors, ed. J.L. Dew & J.P. Boubli. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 59–73.
Boubli, J.P. & de Lima, M.G. (2009). Modeling the geographical distribution and fundamental niches of Cacajao spp. and Chiropotes israelita in northwestern Amazonia via a maximum entropy algorithm. International Journal of Primatology, 30, 217–228.
Boubli, J.P. & Ditchfield, A.D. (2000). The time of divergence between the two species of uacari monkeys: Cacajao calvus and Cacajao melanocephalus. Folia Primatologia, 71, 387–391.
Boubli, J.P. & Tokuda, M. (2008). Socioecology of black uakari monkeys, Cacajao hosomi, in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil: the role of the peculiar spatial–temporal distribution of resources in the Neblina forests. Primate Report, 75, 3–10.
Boubli, J.P., da Silva, M.N.F., Amado, M.V., et al. (2008). A taxonomic reassessment of Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt (1811), with the description of two new species. International Journal of Primatology, 29, 723–741.
Bowler, M. (2003). The ecology and conservation of the red uakari monkey Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Yavari Valley of Peru. Primate Eye, 79, 3–4.
Bowler, M. (2007). The ecology and conservation of the red uakari monkey on the Yavarí River, Peru. PhD thesis, University of Kent, Canterbury.
Bowler, M. & Bodmer, R. (2009). Social behavior in fission–fusion groups of red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii). American Journal of Primatology, 71, 1–12.
Bowler, M. & Bodmer, R. (2010). Diet and food choice in Peruvian red uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii): selective or opportunistic seed predation? International Journal of Primatology, 32, 1109–1122.
Boyle, S.A., Spironello, W.R. & Smith, A.T. (2006). The effects of forest fragmentation on the bearded saki monkey (Chiropotes sagulatus) in the Brazilian Amazon. American Journal of Primatology, 68, 87.
Campos, F., Manson, J.H. & Perry, S. (2007). Urine washing and sniffing in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): testing functional hypotheses. International Journal of Primatology, 28, 55–72.
Chapman, C.A. & Chapman, L.J. (1991). The foraging itinerary of spider monkeys: when to eat leaves? Folia Primatologia, 56, 162–166.
Chesson, P. & Huntley, N. (1997). The roles of harsh and fluctuating conditions in the dynamic of ecological communities. American Naturalist, 150, 519–553.
Cheyney, D.L. & Seyfarth R.M. (1983). Nonrandom dispersal in free-ranging vervet monkeys: social and genetic consequences. American Naturalist, 122, 392–412.
Coles, R.C., Talebi, M.G. & Lee, P.C. (2008). Fission–fusion sociality in southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in the continuous Atlantic forest of Brazil. In XXII International Primatological Society Congress, August 3–8, Primate Eye, 96 (Sp CD-ROM iss – IPS 2008), Abstract 652.
da Cunha, A.C. & Barnett, A.A. (1989). Project Uakari: First Report – Preliminary Survey. Part One – Zoology. Rio de Janeiro: Pronatura.
da Cunha, A.C. & Barnett, A.A. (1990). Sightings of the golden-backed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary, on the Upper Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Primate Conservation, 11, 8–11.
Davis, N.C. 1931. The transmission of yellow fever further experiments with monkeys of the new world. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 11, 113–125.
Defler, T.R. (1979). On the ecology and behavior of Cebus albifrons in eastern Colombia: I. Ecology. Primates, 20, 475–490.
Defler, T.R. (1991). Preliminary observations of Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt, 1811 (Primates, Cebidae) in Colombia. Trianea, 4, 557–558.
Defler, T.R. (1999a). Fission–fusion in the black-headed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus) in eastern Colombia. Neotropical Primates, 7, 5–8.
Defler, T.R. (1999b). Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary densities on the lower Apaporis River, Colombian Amazon. Primate Report, 61, 31–36.
Defler, T.R. (2004). Primates of Colombia. Bogota: Conservacion Internacional.
Defler, T.R. & Defler, S.B. (1996). The diet of a group of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha) in southeastern Colombia. International Journal of Primatology, 17, 161–190.
de Souza, L.L., Queiroz, H.L. & Ayres, J.M. (2004). The mottled-face tamarin, Saguinus inustus, in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Neotropical Primates, 12, 121–122.
Di Fiore, A. & Campbell, C.J. (2007). The Atelines: variations in ecology, behavior, and social organization. In: Primates in Perspective, ed. C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, M. Panger & S.K. Bearder. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 155–185.
Duca, C., Guerra, T.J. & Marini, M.Â. (2006). Territory size of three Antbirds (Aves, Passeriformes) in an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasiliera da Zoolologia, 23, 692–698.
Eisenberg, J.F. (1977). Comparative ecology and reproduction of New World monkeys. In The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae, ed. D.G. Kleinman. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Fairbanks, L.A. (2009). Hormonal and neurochemical influences on aggression in group-living monkeys. In: Endocrinology of Social Relationships, ed. P.T. Ellison & P.B. Gray. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 159–195.
Fernandes, M.E.B. (1993). Tail-wagging as a tension relief mechanism in pithecines. Folia Primatologia, 61, 52–56.
Ferrari, S.F. (1990). A foraging association between two kite species (Ictinea plumbea and Leptodon cayanensis) and buffy-headed marmosets (Callithrix flaviceps) in southeastern Brazil. Condor, 93, 781–783.
Ferrari, S.F., Figueiredo, W.M.B., Guedes, P., et al. (Submitted). Reconsidering the nomenclature of the black-faced uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus group, sensu Hershkovitz, 1987) from the northern Amazon basin. American Journal of Primatology.
Ferrari, S.F., Guedes, P., Figueiredo, W.M.B., et al. (2009). A nomenclatura dos uacaris de cara-preta (grupo Cacajao melanocephalus, sensu Hershkovitz, 1987): observações preliminares. In Programa e Livro de resumos, XIV Congresso Brasiliero de Primatologia. Blumenau: Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia.
Ferrari, S.F., Pereira, W.L.A., Santos, R.R., et al. (2004). Fatal attack of a boa constrictor on a bearded saki (Chiropotes satanas utahicki). Folia Primatologica, 75, 111–113.
Ferreira, L.V. (1997). Effects of the duration of flooding on species richness and floristic composition in three hectares in the Jaú National Park in floodplain forests in central Amazonia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6, 1353–1363.
Ferreira, L.V. (1999). Effects of river level fluctuations on plant species richness, diversity, and distribution in a floodplain forest in Central Amazonia. Oecologia, 120, 582–587.
Ferreira, L.V. & Prance, G.T. (1998). Species richness and floristic composition in four hectares in the Jaú National Park in upland forests in Central Amazônia. Biological Conservation, 7, 1349–1364.
Figueiredo, W.M.B. (2006). Estimativas de tempos de divergência em platirrinos e filogenia molecular e filogeografia dos uacaris, parauacus e cuxius. Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brazil.
Fontaine, R. (1981). The Uakaris, genus Cacajao. In: Ecology and Behaviour of Neotropical Primates, ed. A.F. Coimbra-Filho & R.A. Mittermeier. Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasiliera da Ciencias, pp. 443–493.
Fontaine, R. & Hench, M. (1982). Breeding New World monkeys at Miami’s Monkey Jungle. International Zoo Yearbook, 22, 77–84.
Fukuda, F. (1989). Habitual fission–fusion and social organization of the Hakone troop T of Japanese macaques in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. International Journal of Primatology, 10, 419–439.
Garla, R.C., Setz, E.Z.F. & Gobbi, N. (2001). Jaguar (Panthera onca) food habits in Atlantic Coastal Forest, southeastern Brazil. Biotropica, 33, 691–696.
Goulding, M., Carvalho, M.L. & Ferreira, E.J.G. (1988). Rio Negro: Rich Life in Poor Water, Amazonian Diversity and Foodchain Ecology as Seen Through Fish Communities. The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing bv.
Haugaasen, T. & Peres, C.A. (2005). Primate assemblage structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. American Journal of Primatology, 67, 243–258.
Haugaasen, T. & Peres, C.A. (2009). Interspecific primate associations in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Primates, 50, 239–251.
Hayssen, V., van Tienhoven, A. & van Tienhoven, A. (1993). Asdell’s Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-specific Data. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.
Hershkovitz, P. (1985). A preliminary taxonomic review of the South American bearded saki monkeys genus Chiropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with the description of a new subspecies. Fieldiana, Zoology, 27, 1–46.
Hershkovitz, P. (1987). Uacaries, New World monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review with the description of a new subspecies. American Journal of Primatology, 12, 1–53.
Heymann, E.W. (1990). Further field notes on red uacaris, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, from the Quebrada Blanco, Amazonian Peru. Primate Conservation, 11, 7–8.
Heymann, E.W. & Aquino, R. (2010). Peruvian red uakaris, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, are not flooded-forest specialists. International Journal of Primatology, 31, 751–758.
Heymann, E.W. & Smith, A.C. (1999). When to feed on gums: temporal patterns of gummivory in wild tamarins, Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichinae). Zoo Biology, 18, 459–471.
Holt, R.D. & Kotler, B.P. (1987). Short-term apparent competition. American Naturalist, 130, 412–430.
Imos, F. (1994). Jaguar predation on muruiqui, Brachyteles arachnoids. Neotropical Primates, 2, 16.
Izar, P. & Nakai, E.S. (2006). Fission–fusion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. International Journal of Primatology, 27(Suppl. 1), Abstract 226.
Johns, A.G. & Skorupa, J.P. (1987). Responses of rain-forest primates to habitat disturbance: a review. International Journal of Primatology, 8, 157–191.
Kinzey, W. (1992). Dietary and dental adaptations in the Pitheciinae. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 88, 499–514.
Kinzey, W.G. (1997). Synopsis of New World primates: Chiropotes. In: New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, ed. W.G. Kinzey. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 258–263.
Law, R., Marrow, P. & Diekmann, U. (1997). Evolution under asymmetric competition. Evolutionary Ecology, 11, 485–501.
Lehman, S. & Robertson, K.L. (1994a). Preliminary survey of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus in Southern Venezuela. International Journal of Primatology, 15, 927–934.
Lehman, S.M. & Robertson, K.L. (1994b). Survey of Humboldt’s black head uakari (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in southern Amazonas, Venezuela. American Journal of Primatology, 33, 223.
Lehmann, J., Korstjens, A.H. & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2007). Fission–fusion social systems as a strategy for coping with ecological constraints: a primate case. Evolutionary Ecology, 21, 613–634.
Leonard, S. & Bennett, C. (1995). Behavioral ecology study of red uakari, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, in northeastern Peru. Neotropical Primates, 3, 84.
Leonard, S. & Bennett, C. (1996). Associative behavior of Cacajao calvus ucayalii with other primate species in Amazonia Peru. Primates, 37, 227–230.
Lönnberg, E. (1938). Remarks on some members of the genera Pithecia and Cacajao from Brazil. Arkiv für Zoologi, 30A, 1–25.
Lorenz, K. (1966). On Aggression. London: Methuen.
MacFarland, M.J. (1986). Ecological determinants of fission–fusion sociality in Ateles and Pan. In: Primate Ecology and Conservation, ed. J.G. Else & P.C. Lee. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 181–190.
Martins, S.S., Lima, E.M. & Silva, J.S. Jr. (2005). Predation of bearded saki (Chiropotes utahicki) by a harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja). Neotropical Primates, 13, 7–10.
Mittermeier, R.A. & Coimbra-Filho, A.F. (1977). Primate conservation in Brazilian Amazonia. In: Primate Conservation, ed. Prince Rainier III & G.H. Bourne. New York, NY: Academic Press, pp. 117–166.
Muller, M.N. & Wrangham, R. (2002). Sexual mimicry in hyaenas. Quarterly Review of Biology, 77, 3–16.
Munn, C.A. & Terbough, J.W. (1979). Multi-species territoriality in Neotropical foraging flocks. Condor, 81, 338–347.
Mysterud, A. (2000). Diet overlap among ruminants in Fennoscania. Oecologia, 124, 130–137.
Norconk, M.A. (2011). Sakis, Uakaris, and Titi monkeys: behavioral diversity in a radiation of primate seed predators. In: Primates in Perspective, 2nd edition, ed. C.J. Campbell, J. Fuentes, K. MacKinnon, M. Panger & S.K. Bearder. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 123–138.
Norconk, M.A. & Kinzey, W.G. (1994). Challenge of Neotropical frugivory: travel patterns of spider monkeys and bearded sakis. American Journal of Primatology, 34, 171–183.
Norconk, M.A., Wertis, C.K. & Kinzey, W.G. (1997). Seed predation by monkeys and macaws in eastern Venezuela: preliminary findings. Primates, 38, 177–184.
Olalla, A.M. (1955). Notas biologicas sobre los uacaries. Geografica, Sao Paulo, 5(5), 17–23.
Overdorff, D.J., Erhart, E.M. & Mutschler, T. (2003). Fission–fusion in Eulemur fulvus rufus in southeastern Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology, 60(Suppl. 1), 42–43.
Palacios, E. & Peres, C.A. (2005). Primate population densities in three nutrient-poor Amazonian terra firme forests of south-eastern Colombia. Folia Primatologica, 76, 135–145.
Parolin, P. (2000). Seed mass in Amazonian floodplain forests with contrasting nutrient supplies. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 417–428.
Parolin, P. (2001). Seed germination and early establishment in 12 tree species from nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor Central Amazonian floodplains. Aquatic Botany, 70, 89–103.
Parolin, P., Armbruester, N., Wittmann, F., et al. (2002). A review of tree phenology in Central Amazonian floodplains. Pesquisas Bôtanica, 52, 195–222.
Powell, R.A. & Zielinski, W.J. (1983). Competition and coexistence in mustelid communities. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 174, 223–227.
Prance, G.T. (1979). Notes on the vegetation types of Amazonia III: the terminology of Amazonian forest types subject to inundation. Brittonia, 31, 43–61.
Prugnolle, F. & de Meeus, T. (2002). Inferring sex-biased dispersal from population genetic tools: a review. Heredity, 88, 161–165.
Puertas, P. & Bodmer, R.E. (1993). Conservation of a high diversity primate assemblage. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 586–593.
Rettig, N. (1978). Breeding behavior of the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja). The Auk, 95, 629–643.
Rivera, J.H.V., Ayala, D. & Haas, C.A. (2003). Home-range size, habitat use, and reproduction of the Ivory-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus flavigaster) in dry forest of western Mexico. Journal of Field Ornithology, 74, 141–151.
Rodriguez-Girones, M.A. Sandsten, H. & Santamaria, L. (2003). Asymmetric competition and the evolution of propagule size. Journal of Ecology, 91, 554–562.
Rosenberger, A. (1992). Evolution of feeding niches in New World monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 88, 525–562.
Rosenberger, A. & Kinzey, W. (1976). Functional patterns of molar occlusion in platyrrhine primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 45, 281–297.
Ross, C. (2001). Park or ride? Evolution of infant carrying in primates. International Journal of Primatology, 22, 749–771.
Rylands, A. (1992). Relatório: Viagem ao Parque Nacional do Jaú. Unpublished report to Fundação Vitória Amazônica, Manaus.
Salovaara, K., Bodmer, R., Recharte, M., et al. (2003). Diversity and abundance of mammals. In Perú: Yavarí (Rapid Biological Inventories. 11), ed. N. Pitman, et al. Chicago, IL: Field Museum, pp. 156–164
Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. & Margules, C.R. (1991). Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conservation Biology, 5, 18–32.
Schoener, T.W. (1983). Field experiments on interspecific competition. American Naturalist, 122, 240–285.
Senar, J.C. (1999). Plumage coloration as a signal of social status. In: Proceedings of the 22nd. International Ornithological Congress, ed. N.J. & R.H. Slotow. Johannesburg: Birdlife-South Africa, pp. 1669–1686.
Silva, W., Almeida, T. & Barnett, A.A. (2008). Resource availability and seasonal use of contiguous forest types by the golden-backed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary: Primates). In Abstracts of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation 2008 meeting (June 9–13, Paramaribo, Suriname), p. 37.
Silva Junior, J.S. & Martins, E.S. (1999). On a new white bald uakari population in Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates, 7, 119–121.
Swanson Ward, N. & Chism, J. (2003). A report on a new geographic location of red uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) on the Quebrada Tahuaillo in northeastern Peru. Neotropical Primates, 11, 19–22.
ter Steege, H., Pitman, N., Phillips, O.L., et al. (2006). Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia. Nature, 443, 28.
Toborowsky, C. (2008). Preliminary evidence of fission–fusion sub-grouping behavior in white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) in Betampona Natural Reserve, Madagascar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Suppl 46, p. 208.
Torok, J. & Toth L. (1999). Asymmetric competition between two Tit species: a reciprocal removal experiment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 338–345.
van Roosmalen, M.G.M. & Garcia, O.M.C.G. (2000). Fruits of the Amazonian forest. Part II: Sapotaceae. Acta Amazonica, 30, 187–290.
van Schaik, C.P. (1999). The socioecology of fission–fusion sociality in orangutans. Primates, 40, 69–86.
Vasey, N. (2006). Impact of seasonality and reproduction on social structure, ranging patterns, and fission–fusion social organization in red ruffed lemurs. In: Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation, ed. L. Gould, & M.L. Sauther. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 275–304.
Veiga, L.M., Pinto, L.P. & Ferrari, S.F. (2006). Fission–fusion sociality in bearded sakis (Chiropotes albinasus and Chiropotes satanas) in Brazilian Amazonia. International Journal of Primatology, 27(Suppl. 1), abstract 224.
Walker, S.E. & Ayres, J.M. (1996). Positional behavior of the white uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 101, 161–172.
Wallace, R.B., Painter, R.L.E., Taber, A.B., et al. (1996). Notes on a distributional river boundary and southern range extension for two species of Amazonian primates. Neotropical Primates, 4, 149–151.
Wissinger, S.A. (1992). Niche overlap and the potential for competition and intraguild predation between size-structured populations. Ecology, 73, 1431–1444.
Wooley, M.J., Clark, D.L. & Stevens, J.J. (1978). Squirrel monkey dominance and social behavior as related to group size and group structure. Primates, 19, 169–177.
Zhang, S. & Wang, L. (2000). Following of brown capuchin monkeys by white hawks in French Guiana. Condor, 102, 198–201.