Skip to main content Accessibility help
The Evolution of Verse Structure in Old and Middle English Poetry
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    O’Neil, David 2017. A Syntactic Basis for the Distribution of Metrical Types in Beowulf. The Mediaeval Journal, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 29.

    Neidorf, Leonard 2018. An Old Norse Analogue to Wiglaf’s Lament (Beowulf Lines 3077–3086). Neophilologus, Vol. 102, Issue. 4, p. 515.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Evolution of Verse Structure in Old and Middle English Poetry
    • Online ISBN: 9781316562925
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In this fascinating study, Geoffrey Russom traces the evolution of the major English poetic traditions by reference to the evolution of the English language, and considers how verse forms are born, how they evolve, and why they die. Using a general theory of poetic form employing universal principles rooted in the human language faculty, Russom argues that certain kinds of poetry tend to arise spontaneously in languages with identifiable characteristics. Language changes may require modification of metrical rules and may eventually lead to extinction of a meter. Russom's theory is applied to explain the development of English meters from the earliest alliterative poems in Old and Middle English and the transition to iambic meter in the Modern English period. This thorough yet accessible study provides detailed analyses of form in key poems, including Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and a glossary of technical terms.

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Albright, Adam and Hayes, Bruce, “Rules vs. analogy in English past tenses: a computational/experimental study,” Cognition, 90 (2003), 119–61
Algeo, John and Butcher, Carmen Acevedo, The Origins and Development of the English Language, 7th edn. (Boston: Wadsworth, 2014)
Anderson, J. J. (ed.), Patience (Manchester University Press, 1969)
Antonsen, Elmer H., A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1975)
Bach, Emmon and Harms, Robert T., Universals in Linguistic Theory (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968)
Ball, Martin J. (ed.), The Celtic Languages (London: Routledge, 1993)
Bauer, Laurie, English Word-Formation (Cambridge University Press, 1983)
Beekes, Robert S. P., Comparative Indo-European Linguistics (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1995)
Behaghel, Otto, Heliand und Genesis, 8th edn., rev. Mitzka, Walther (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1965)
Benson, Larry D. (ed.), The Riverside Chaucer, 3rd edn. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987)
Bishop, Elizabeth, Poems (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011)
Bjork, Robert E. (ed.), Cynewulf: Basic Readings (New York: Garland, 1996)
Bliss, A. J., The Metre of “Beowulf,” rev. edn. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1967)
Blockley, Mary, Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: Where Clauses Begin (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001)
Boroff, Marie, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: A Stylistic and Metrical Study (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962)
Bredehoft, Thomas A., “The date of composition of Beowulf and the evidence of metrical evolution” in Neidorf, (ed.), Dating, pp. 97156
Bridges, Robert (ed.), Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins – now First Published (London: Humphry Milford, 1918)
Bugge, Sophus and Sievers, Eduard, “Vokalverkürzung im Altnordischen,” Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, 15 (1890), 391411
Cable, Thomas, The English Alliterative Tradition (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991)
Cable, Thomas, The Meter and Melody of “Beowulf,” Illinois Studies in Language and Literature 64 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974)
Cable, Thomas, “Middle English meter and its theoretical implications,” Yearbook of Langland Studies, 2 (1988), 4769
Cable, Thomas, “Progress in Middle English alliterative metrics,” Yearbook of Langland Studies, 23 (2009), 243–64
Calhoun, Sasha, “The centrality of metrical structure in signaling information structure: a probabilistic perspective,” Language, 86 (2010), 142
Campbell, A., Old English Grammar (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959)
Carney, James, “The dating of archaic Irish verse” in Tranter, Stephen N. and Tristram, Hildegard L. C. (eds.), Early Irish Literature – Media and Communication / Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit in der frühen irischen Literatur (Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1989), pp. 3955
Cassidy, Frederic G. and Ringler, Richard N. (eds.), Bright’s Old English Grammar and Reader, 3rd edn. (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971)
Chomsky, Noam. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965)
Chomsky, Noam and Halle, Morris, The Sound Pattern of English (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968)
Clark, George, “The Battle of Maldon: a heroic poem,” Speculum, 43 (1968), 5271
Collinge, N. E., The Laws of Indo-European (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1985)
Croft, William, Typology and Universals, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Culler, Jonathan, Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics and the Study of Literature (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975)
Curzan, Anne and Emmons, Kimberly (eds.), Studies in the History of the English Language II: Unfolding Conversations, Topics in English Linguistics 45 (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2004)
Dillon, Myles (ed.), Serglige Con Culainn, Mediaeval and Modern Irish Series 14 (Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies, 1953)
Dresher, Elan and Lahiri, Aditi, “The Germanic foot: metrical coherence in Old English,” Linguistic Inquiry, 22 (1991), 251–86
Dryer, Matthew, “Word order” in Shopen, Timothy (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description, 2nd edn., 3 vols. (Cambridge University Press, 2007), vol. 1, pp. 61131
Duffell, Martin J., A New History of English Metre, Legenda Studies in Linguistics 5 (London: Modern Humanities Research Association and Manley Publishing, 2008)
Duggan, Hoyt N., “Final -e and the rhythmic structure of the b-verse in Middle English alliterative poetry,” Modern Philology, 86 (1988), 119–45
Duggan, Hoyt N., “The shape of the b-verse in Middle English alliterative poetry,” Speculum, 61 (1986), 564–92
Fabb, Nigel and Halle, Morris, Meter in Poetry: A New Theory (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
Faulkes, Anthony (ed.), Snorri Sturluson, Edda: Prologue and ‘Gylfaginning’ (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2005)
Feynman, Richard, The Character of Physical Law (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1967)
Fulk, R. D., A History of Old English Meter (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992)
Fulk, R. D., Bjork, Robert E., and Niles, John D. (eds.), Klaeber’s “Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg,” 4th edn. (University of Toronto Press, 2008)
Gade, Kari Ellen, The Structure of Old Norse Dróttkvætt Poetry, Islandica 49 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995)
Gleitman, L. and Wanner, E., “The state of the state of the art” in Wanner, E. and Gleitman, L. (eds.), Language Acquisition: The State of the Art (Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 348
Greenberg, Joseph H., “Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements” in Greenberg, Joseph H. (ed.), Universals of Language (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966), pp. 73113
Griffith, Mark (ed.), Judith, corrected edn. (University of Exeter Press, 2001)
Halle, Morris and Keyser, Samuel Jay, English Stress: Its Form, Its Growth, and Its Role in Verse (New York: Harper & Row, 1971)
Hanson, Kristin and Kiparsky, Paul, “A parametric theory of poetic meter,” Language, 72 (1996), 287335
Harrison, G. B. (ed.), Shakespeare / The Complete Works (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1952)
Hartman, Megan, “The form and style of gnomic hypermetrics,” Studia Metrica et Poetica, 1 (2014), 6899
Hartman, Megan, “The limits of conservative composition in Old English poetry” in Neidorf, (ed.), Dating, pp. 7996
Hayes, B., “A grid-based theory of English meter,” Linguistic Inquiry, 14 (1983), 357–93
Hayes, B., Wilson, C., and Shisko, A., “Maxent Grammars for the metrics of Shakespeare and Milton,” Language, 88 (2012), 691731
Hogan, Patrick Colm, “Literary universals,” Poetics Today, 18 (1997), 223–49
Hsieh, Daniel, The Evolution of Jueju Verse (New York: Peter Lang, 1996)
Hutcheson, B. R., Old English Poetic Metre (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1995)
Inoue, Noriko, “To/for to + infinitive and the long medial dip in the a-verse” in Jefferson, and Putter, (eds.), Approaches, pp. 5975
Jackendoff, Ray, Consciousness and the Computational Mind (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987)
Jakobson, Roman, “Closing statements: linguistics and poetics” in Sebeok, T. (ed.), Style In Language (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1960), pp. 350–77
Jakobson, Roman, Language in Literature (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987)
Jakobson, Roman, “On the so-called vowel alliteration in Germanic verse,” Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, 16 (1963), 8592
Jefferson, Judith and Putter, Ad (eds.), Approaches to the Metres of Alliterative Verse (Leeds Texts and Monographs, 2009)
Kager, René, Optimality Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1999)
Keller, Hermann, Phrasing and Articulation: A Contribution to a Rhetoric of Music, trans. Gerdine, Leigh (New York: W. W. Norton, 1973)
Kennedy, Richard S. (ed.), Selected Poems / E. E. Cummings (London: W. W. Norton, 1994)
Kessler, Brett and Treiman, Rebecca, “Syllable structure and the distribution of phonemes in English syllables,” Journal of Memory and Language, 37 (1997), 295311
Keynes, Geoffrey, Poetry and Prose of William Blake, 4th edn. (London: Nonesuch Press, 1939)
Kiparsky, Paul, “Dvandvas, blocking, and the associative: the bumpy ride from phrase to word,” Language, 86 (2010), 302–31
Kiparsky, Paul, “Metrics and morphophonemics in the Kalevala” in Freeman, D. C. (ed.), Linguistics and Literary Style (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1968), pp. 165–81
Kiparsky, Paul, “Metrics and morphophonemics in the Rigveda” in Brame, M. (ed., Contributions to Generative Phonology (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1972), pp. 171200
Kiparsky, Paul, “Reduplication in stratal OT” in Uyechi, Linda and Wee, Lian Hee (eds.), Reality Exploration and Discovery: Pattern Interaction in Language and Life (Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information, 2010), pp. 125–42
Kiparsky, Paul, “The role of linguistics in a theory of poetry,” Daedalus, 102 (1973), 231–44
Kiparsky, Paul, “The rhythmic structure of English verse,” Linguistic Inquiry, 8 (1977), 189247
Kottler, Barnet and Markman, Alan M., A Concordance to Five Middle English Poems: Cleanness, St. Erkenwald, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Patience, Pearl (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1966)
Krapp, George Philip and Dobbie, Elliott Van Kirk (eds.), The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 6 vols. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931–53)
Krause, Wolfgang, Runen, 2nd edn. (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1993)
Kuhn, Hans, “Zur Wortstellung und -betonung im Altgermanischen,” Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, 57 (1933), 1109
Kuryłowicz, Jerzy, Die sprachlichen Grundlagen der altgermanischen Metrik (Innsbruck: Institut für vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft, 1970)
Kuryłowicz, Jerzy, Studies in Semitic Grammar and Metrics (London: Curzon, 1973)
Labov, William, Sociolinguistic Patterns (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972)
Lehmann, R. P. M., “Broken cadences in Beowulf,” English Studies, 56 (1975), 113
Lerdahl, Fred and Jackendoff, Ray, A Generative Theory of Tonal Music (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1983)
Lord, Albert B., The Singer of Tales, Harvard Studies in Comparative Literature 24 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960)
MacKenzie, Norman H. (ed.), The Poetical Works of Gerard Manley Hopkins (Oxford University Press, 1990)
Mazzarino, Antonio (ed.), M. Porci Catonis De Agri Cultura, ad Fidem Florentini Codicis Deperditi, 2nd edn. (Leipzig: Teubner, 1982)
McJimsey, Ruth Buchanan, Chaucer’s Irregular -E: A Demonstration among Monosyllabic Nouns of the Exceptions to Grammatical and Metrical Harmony (New York: King’s Crown Press, 1942)
Menner, Robert J. (ed.), Purity, A Middle English Poem, Yale Studies in English 61 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1920)
Meredith, William, Partial Accounts (New York: Knopf, 1988)
Miller, George A., “The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information,” Psychological Review, 63 (1956), 8197
Minkova, Donka, Alliteration and Sound Change in Early English (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Mitchell, Bruce, Old English Syntax, 2 vols. (Oxford University Press, 1985)
Momma, H., The Composition of Old English Poetry (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
Murphy, Gerard, Early Irish Metrics (Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1961)
Murphy, Gerard, (ed.), Early Irish Lyrics (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956)
Nagy, Gregory, “The Aeolic component of Homeric diction” in Jamison, Stephanie W., Melchert, H. Craig, and Vine, Brent (eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference (Bremen: Hempen, 2011), pp. 133–79
Nagy, Gregory, Comparative Studies in Greek and Indic Meter, Harvard Studies in Comparative Literature 33 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974)
Neckel, Gustav (ed.), Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern, 2 vols., 5th edn., rev. Kuhn, Hans (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1983)
Neidorf, Leonard, “Scribal errors of proper names in the Beowulf manuscript,” Anglo-Saxon England, 42 (2013), 249–69
Neidorf, Leonard, (ed.), The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment, Anglo-Saxon Studies 24 (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2014)
Poultney, James Wilson (ed.), The Bronze Tables of Iguvium (Baltimore: American Philological Association, 1959)
Prokosch, E., A Comparative Germanic Grammar (Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America, 1938)
Pulgram, Ernst, Latin-Romance Phonology: Prosodics and Metrics (Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1975)
Putter, Ad, Jefferson, Judith, and Stokes, Myra, Studies in the Metre of Alliterative Verse (Oxford: Society for the Study of Medieval Languages and Literature, 2007)
Putter, Ad and Stokes, Myra (eds.), The Works of the Gawain Poet: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, Cleanness, Patience (London: Penguin, 2014)
Ramat, Paolo, Einführung in das Germanische (Tübingen: de Gruyter, 1981)
Ratner, Leonard G., Music: The Listener’s Art, 2nd edn. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966)
Robinson, F. N. (ed.), The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, 2nd edn. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957)
Robinson, Orrin W., Old English and its Closest Relatives: A Survey of the Earliest Germanic Languages (Stanford University Press, 1992)
Rosenberg, Bruce A., The Art of the American Folk-Preacher (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970)
Russom, Geoffrey, “Aesthetic criteria in Old English heroic style” in Hill, John M. (ed.), On the Aesthetics of “Beowulf” and Other Old English Poems (University of Toronto Press, 2010), pp. 6480
Russom, Geoffrey, “A bard’s-eye view of the Germanic syllable,” Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 101 (2002), 305–28
Russom, Geoffrey, “Beowulf” and Old Germanic Metre (Cambridge University Press, 1998)
Russom, Geoffrey, “Constraints on resolution in Beowulf” in Toswell, M. J. (ed.), Prosody and Poetics in the Early Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of C. B. Hieatt (University of Toronto Press, 1995), pp. 147–63
Russom, Geoffrey, “The drink of death in Old English and Germanic literature” in Calder, Daniel G. and Christy, T. Craig (eds.), Germania: Comparative Studies in the Old Germanic Languages and Literatures (Wolfeboro, NH: Boydell & Brewer, 1988), pp. 175–89
Russom, Geoffrey, “Evolution of the a-verse in English alliterative meter” in Cain, Christopher M. and Russom, Geoffrey (eds.), Studies in the History of the English Language III / Managing Chaos: Strategies for Identifying Change in English, Topics in English Linguistics 53 (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2007), pp. 6387
Russom, Geoffrey, “The evolution of Middle English alliterative meter” in Curzan, and Emmons, (eds.), Unfolding Conversations, pp. 279304
Russom, Geoffrey, “Historicity and anachronism in Beowulf” in Konstan, David and Raaflaub, Kurt (eds.), Epic and History (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), pp. 243–61
Russom, Geoffrey, “Metrical complexity and verse placement in Beowulf” in Neidorf, Leonard, Pascual, Rafael J., and Shippey, Tom (eds.), Old English Philology: Studies in Honour of R. D. Fulk (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2016)
Russom, Geoffrey, Old English Meter and Linguistic Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1987)
Russom, Geoffrey, “On the distribution of verse types in Old English poetry” in Crawford, Sally and Hamerow, Helena, Form and Order in the Anglo-Saxon World, ad 600–1100, Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 16 (Oxford University School of Archaeology, 2009), pp. 108–18.
Russom, Geoffrey, “Purely metrical replacements for Kuhn’s laws” in McCully, C. B. and Anderson, J. J. (eds.), English Historical Metrics (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 3041
Russom, Geoffrey, “Some unnoticed constraints on the a-verse in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” in Jefferson, and Putter, (eds.), Approaches, pp. 4157
Russom, Geoffrey, “A syntactic key to a number of Pearl-group cruxes,” Journal of English Linguistics, 10 (1976), 2129
Russom, Geoffrey, “What explanatory metrics has to say about the history of English function words” in Denison, David, Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo, McCully, Chris, and Moore, Emma (eds.), Analysing Older English (Cambridge University Press, 2012), pp. 1527
Russom, Geoffrey, “Why there are three Eddic meters” in Kilpiö, Matti, Kahlas-Tarkka, Leena, Roberts, Jane, and Timofeeva, Olga (eds.), Anglo-Saxons and the North: Essays Reflecting the Theme of the 10th Meeting of the International Society of Anglo-Saxonists in Helsinki, August 2001 (Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2009), pp. 6988.
Russom, Geoffrey, “Word patterns and phrase patterns in universalist metrics” in Lotman, Mihhail and Lotman, Maria-Kristiina (eds.), Frontiers in Comparative Prosody (Bern: Peter Lang, 2011), pp. 337–71
Salmons, Joe, Accentual Change and Language Contact: Comparative Survey and a Case Study of Early Northern Europe (Stanford University Press, 1992)
Sauer, Hans, Nominalkomposita im Frühmittelenglischen (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1992)
Savage, Henry L. (ed.), St. Erkenwald, A Middle English Poem (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1926)
Scragg, D. G. (ed.), The Battle of Maldon (Manchester University Press, 1981)
Shopen, Timothy (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description, 2nd edn., 3 vols. (Cambridge University Press, 2007)
Sievers, Eduard, Altgermanische Metrik (Halle: Niemeyer, 1893)
Sievers, Eduard, “Zur Rhythmik des germanischen Alliterationsverses,” Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, 10 (1885), 209314, 451545
Solopova, Elizabeth, “Alliteration and prosody in Old and Middle English” in Jefferson, and Putter, (eds.), Approaches, pp. 2539
Stevens, Martin, “Laughter and game in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” Speculum, 47 (1972), 6578
Stewart, R. A. (ed.), Lebor Gabála Erenn: The Book of the Taking of Ireland, Part v (Dublin: Irish Texts Society, 1956)
Tarlinskaja, Marina, “Formulas in Russian and English verse” in Scherr, Barry P. and Worth, Dean S. (eds.), Russian Verse Theory: Proceedings of the 1987 Conference at UCLA (Columbus, OH: Slavica, 1989), pp. 2539
Ten Brink, Bernhard, The Language and Metre of Chaucer, 2nd. edn., rev. Kluge, Friedrich, trans. Smith, M. Bentinck (London: Macmillan, 1901)
Terasawa, Jun, Nominal Compounds in Old English: A Metrical Approach, Anglistica 27 (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1994)
Tolkien, J. R. R. and Gordon, E. V. (eds.), Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, 2nd edn., rev. Davis, Norman (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967)
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs and Pratt, Mary Louise, Linguistics for Students of Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980)
Travis, James, Early Celtic Versecraft: Origin, Development, Diffusion (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973)
Turville-Petre, E. O. G., Scaldic Poetry (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976)
Turville-Petre, Thorlac, The Alliterative Revival (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1977)
Watkins, Calvert, How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)
Watkins, Calvert, “Indo-European metrics and archaic Irish verse,” Celtica, 6 (1963), 194249
Watson, Wilfred G. E., Classical Hebrew Poetry: A Guide to its Techniques, corrected edn. (London: T&T Clark, 2005)
Yakovlev, Nicolay, “The development of alliterative metre from Old to Middle English,” unpublished PhD thesis, University of Oxford (2008)
Yakovlev, Nicolay, “On final -e in the b-verses of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” in Jefferson, and Putter, (eds.), Approaches, pp. 135–57
Youmans, Gilbert, “‘For all this werlde riche’: syntactic inversions as evidence for metrical principles in the alliterative Morte Arthure” in Jefferson, and Putter, (eds.), Approaches, pp. 115–33
Youmans, Gilbert, “Generative tests for generative meter,” Language, 59 (1983), 6792


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed